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Batteries, Supercapacitors, Alternative Storage for Portable Devices 2009-2019: IDTechEx

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Batteries, Supercapacitors, Alternative Storage for Portable Devices 2009-2019

Batteries, capacitors, supercapacitors, fuel cells, alternatives

Updated Q2 2010

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New technologies call for different forms of battery
Electronics and electrics are becoming ubiquitous, the devices appearing on and in higher and higher volume products including e-labels and e-packaging. This calls for different forms of battery, capacitor and other energy storage because priorities such as environmental credentials, thinness and compatibility with energy harvesting (eg solar cells) come to the fore alongside life and cost. This unique new report is directed towards those developing, marketing and using the new small electronic and electrical devices, particularly those that are self-sufficient. It will also interest those investing in new battery, capacitor and allied companies providing products for these markets and those regulating and supporting these burgeoning industries. To this end, the report is almost devoid of equations but it is replete with summary diagrams and tables, pros and cons, company profiles, new products and applications beyond the familiar ones. There is therefore much to interest those with a technical background as well. The report looks hard at what comes next, particularly over the next ten years.
Designed for a broad range of readers
We use relatively simple language so the report can be useful to as broad a range of readers as possible, enhanced by a glossary. After all, investors, government regulators, journalists and many other people have a great interest in the imminent huge deployment of small self-powered electronic and electrical devices. It will eventually reach hundreds of billions of products yearly, including electronically enhanced drug packs, magazines, disposable medical testers and much more besides. For the more technical, there are many new summary tables and diagrams comparing parameters required and achieved. The parameters, including costs, and the applications are compared and the work of many suppliers is evaluated. No other report on this subject is as broad ranging or up to date. The main emphasis is on what will needed and possible, not on rehearsing the story of traditional cylindrical, laptop and mobile phone batteries. Here we see the future.
Largest mobile energy storage market today
Energy storage for small devices, the subject of this report, forms by far the largest mobile energy storage market today, being much larger and faster growing than the market for heavy energy storage such as automotive and enjoying greater innovation for the future, including transparent and printed batteries. The report mainly concentrates on batteries and capacitors - including the rapid adoption of supercapacitors and hybrids of the two. It explains how they are constructed, how they work and the pros and cons. However, it also touches on the elusive small fuel cells and other options. Focussing on use in small devices, we forecast the market for both single use and rechargeable batteries by numbers and value from 2009-2019 and the market size for supercapacitors, tracking a return to rapid growth from 2010, after the global financial meltdown ends. The market drivers are given as they change over the years. We evaluate the limitations of current devices against what will be needed and what can be done. For example, as the traditional parameters of batteries and capacitors are painfully and slowly improved, some completely different improvements are proving exciting because they can open up completely new markets. These include transparent, edible, stretchable, woven, stitchable, implantable, biodegradable and wide area versions more suited to the world of ubiquitous electronics that is arriving. As wall decoration, windows, apparel, books, posters, consumer goods, pharmaceutical packaging , the sensing skin of an aircraft and the inside of a car and much more become electronic and local harvesting of power becomes commonplace, these are the products we need. We describe the remarkable new approaches including batteries assembled using viruses and carbon nanotubes, biomimetic and magnetic spin batteries and ones that can harvest energy in the human body. Then there are batteries and supercapabatteries only one tenth of a millimeter thick. Which are the most exciting developers and what will be available when? It is all here.
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Table of Contents
1.1.Construction of a battery cell
1.1.Five ways in which a capacitor acts as the electrical equivalent of the spring
1.1.Small electrical and electronic devices
1.2.What is a battery?
1.2.Advantages and disadvantages of some options for supplying electricity to small devices
1.2.MEMS compared with a dust mite less than one millimetre long
1.2.1.Battery definition
1.2.2.Battery history
1.2.3.Analogy to a container of liquid
1.2.4.Construction of a battery
1.2.5.Many shapes of battery
1.2.6.Single use vs rechargeable batteries
1.2.7.Challenges with batteries in small devices
1.3.Power in use vs duty cycle for portable and mobile devices showing zones of use of single use vs rechargeable batteries
1.3.Some limitations of batteries in small electronic devices and some solutions
1.3.What is a capacitor?
1.3.1.Capacitor definition
1.3.2.Capacitor history
1.3.3.Analogy to a spring
1.3.4.Capacitor construction
1.4.Principle of the creation and maintenance of an aluminium electrolytic capacitor
1.4.Limitations of energy storage devices
1.4.1.The electronic device and its immediate support
1.4.3.Improvement in performance taking place
1.5.Construction of wound electrolytic capacitor
1.6.Comparison of construction diagrams of three basic types of capacitor
1.7.Types of ancillary electrical equipment being improved to serve small devices
1.8.Rapid progress in the capabilities of small electronic devices and their photovoltaic energy harvesting contrasted with more modest progress in improving the batteries they employ
2.1.Technology successes and failures
2.1.Volumetric energy density vs gravimetric energy density for rechargeable batteries
2.2.Laminar lithium ion battery
2.2.Lithium polymer vs lithium ion
2.3.New shapes - laminar and flexible batteries
2.3.Typical active RFID tag showing the problematic coin cells
2.3.1.Laminar lithium batteries
2.3.2.Ultrathin battery from Front Edge Technology
2.4.Transparent battery - NEC and Waseda University
2.4.Construction of a lithium rechargeable laminar battery
2.5.Reel to reel construction of rechargeable laminar lithium batteries
2.5.New methods of charging
2.6.Technology Challenges
2.6.Ultra thin lithium rechargeable battery
2.7.Construction of a thin-film battery
2.7.Threat to lithium prices?
2.8.New applications for new laminar rechargeable batteries
2.8.NanoEnergy® powering a blue LED
2.9.Examples of transparent flexible technology
2.10.Flexible battery that charges in one minute
2.11.Battery assisted passive RFID label with rechargeable thin film lithium battery recording time-temperature profile of food, blood etc in transit
2.12.Bolivian salt flats
2.13.Electric Smart car
3.1.Tadiran Batteries twenty year batteries
3.1.Tadiran in EZ pass
3.1.Tadiran cylindrical battery ratings
3.2.Printed and thin film battery product and specification comparison
3.2.Tadiran's new high voltage/high rate AA-sized lithium battery
3.2.Laminar printed manganese dioxide batteries
3.2.1.Printed battery construction
3.2.2.Printed battery production facilities
3.2.3.Applications of printed batteries
3.2.4.Printed battery specifications
3.3.Printed battery materials comparison
3.3.Other emerging needs for laminar batteries - apparel and medical
3.3.Internal structure of Power Paper Battery
3.3.1.Electronic apparel
3.3.2.Wireless body area network
3.4.The half cell and overall chemical reactions that occur in a Zn/MnO2 battery
3.4.Power Paper printed manganese dioxide zinc battery that gathers moisture from the air
3.4.Nanotube flexible battery
3.5.Biobatteries do their own harvesting
3.5.Screen printing of Blue Spark Technology flexible, sealed, manganese dioxide zinc batteries
3.6.Power Paper production line for printed batteries
3.6.Battery that incorporates energy harvesting - FlexEl
3.7.Microbatteries built with viruses
3.7.Power Paper skin patch that delivers cosmetic through the skin by means of a printed battery and electrodes
3.8.Skin patches electronically communicating to skin patches powered by laminar batteries, coin cells being unacceptable
3.8.Biomimetic energy storage system
3.9.Magnetic spin battery
3.9.Audio Paper TM
3.10.Electronic apparel - sports bra with diagnostic electronics and animated t-shirt displaying music
3.11.Wireless body area network
3.12.Disposable digital plaster
3.13.Sensium system
3.14.Flexible battery made of nanotube ink
3.15.Microbattery built with viruses
3.16.Biomimetic energy storage
4.1.E-labels with capacitor and no battery.
4.1.Comparison of the three types of capacitor when storing one kilojoule of energy.
4.2.Examples of energy density figures for batteries, supercapacitors and other energy sources
4.2.Example of capacitor storage application - e-labels
4.2.Examples of small aluminum electrolytic capacitors
4.3.Simplest common modeling circuit for an electrolytic capacitor
4.3.Many shapes of capacitor
4.4.Capacitors for small devices
4.5.Technology of capacitors
4.5.1.Technology of non-polar capacitors
4.5.2.Technology of the electrolytic capacitor
4.5.3.Development path
4.6.Aluminum electrolytic capacitors
4.6.2.High capacitance but at a price
4.6.3.Non-polar electrolytic
4.6.4.Safety issues
4.6.6.The dielectric is fragile
4.7.Tantalum electrolytic capacitors
5.1.Where supercapacitors fit in
5.1.Where supercapacitors fit in
5.2.Energy density vs power density for storage devices
5.2.Advantages and disadvantages
5.3.How it all began
5.3.Small carbon aerogel supercapacitors
5.4.Bikudo supercapacitor
5.5.Uses in small devices.
5.5.Laminar supercapacitor one millimetre thick
5.6.Mobile phone modified to give much brighter flash thanks to supercapacitor outlined in red
5.6.Relevance to energy harvesting
5.6.1.Perpetuum harvester
5.6.2.Human power to recharge portable electronics
5.6.3.Use in nanoelectronics
5.7.Can supercapacitors replace capacitors?
5.7.Perpetuum energy harvester with its supercapacitors
5.8.Citizen Eco-DriveTM solar powered wristwatch with rechargeable battery
5.8.Can supercapacitors replace batteries?
5.9.Electric vehicle demonstrations and adoption
5.9.Symmetric supercapacitor construction
5.10.Symmetric compared to asymmetric supercapacitor construction
5.10.How an ELDC supercapacitor works
5.10.1.Basic geometry
5.10.2.Properties of EDL
5.10.4.Discharging and cycling
5.10.5.Energy density
5.10.6.Achieving higher voltages
5.11.Improvements coming along
5.11.Single sheets of graphene
5.11.1.Better electrodes
5.11.2.Better electrolytes
5.11.3.Better carbon technologies
5.11.4.Carbon nanotubes
5.11.5.Carbon aerogel
5.11.6.Solid activated carbon
5.11.7.Carbon derived carbon
5.11.9.Polyacenes or polypyrrole
5.12.Supercapacitor performance without EDL - EEstor
5.12.Graphene supercapacitor cross section
5.13.Supercabatteries or bacitors
6.1.Fuel cells
6.1.MIT Biomimetic fuel cell
6.1.Challenges faced in developing satisfactory fuel cells for vehicles
6.2.Types of fuel cell and characteristics
6.2.Freeplay wind up radio in Africa
6.2.New forms of miniature fuel cells
6.2.1.Microbial fuel cells
6.2.2.Lightweight hydrogen generating fuel cell
6.2.3.Biomimetic approach with MIT fuel cell
6.3.Mechanical storage
7.1.Blue Spark laminar battery
7.1.Blue Spark Technologies USA
7.2.Cap-XX Australia
7.2.Celxpert notebook battery pack
7.3.Interchangeable notebook battery pack
7.3.Celxpert Energy Corp. Taiwan Head Quarter
7.4.Cymbet USA
7.4.The Cymbet EnerChip™
7.5.Duracell NiOx batteries
7.5.Duracell USA
7.6.Enfucell Finland
7.6.Enfucell SoftBattery™
7.7.Thin-film solid-state batteries by Excellatron
7.7.Excellatron USA
7.8.Freeplay Foundation UK
7.8.Solar-powered Lifeline radio
7.9.The world's thinnest self standing rechargeable battery claims FET
7.9.Front Edge Technology USA
7.10.Frontier Carbon Corporation Japan
7.10.Light in Africa
7.11.Harvard University USA
7.12.Hitachi Maxell
7.12.Comparison of an electrostatic capacitor, an electrolytic capacitor and an EDLC
7.13.Comparison of an EDLC with an asymmetric supercapacitor sometimes painfully called a bacitor or supercabattery
7.13.Holst Centre Netherlands
7.14.Infinite Power Solutions USA
7.14.Researchers from Planar Energy -Devices, Inc., insert a sample into the vacuum chamber of the company's thin-film deposition system
7.15.Planar Energy Devices has advanced the solid-state lithium battery from NREL's crude prototype (below) to a miniaturized, integrated device (bottom)
7.15.Institute of Bioengineering and Nanotechnology Singapore
7.16.Lebônê Solutions South Africa
7.16.Flexible battery that charges in one minute
7.17.Nippon Chemi-Con ELDCs - supercapacitors
7.17.Massachusetts Institute of Technology USA
7.18.Matsushita Battery Industrial Company Ltd.
7.18.New Planar Energy Devices high capacity laminar battery
7.19.Power Paper's battery technology
7.19.Maxwell Technologies Inc., USA
7.20.Nanotecture, UK
7.20.Prelonic printed batteries
7.21.Prelonic Display Modules
7.21.National Renewable Energy Laboratory USA
7.22.NEC Japan
7.22.Renata Batteries
7.23.Flexion ™
7.23.Nippon Chemi-Con Japan
7.24.Oak Ridge National Laboratory USA
7.24.Surveillance bat
7.25.Sensor head on COM-BAT
7.25.Planar Energy Devices USA
7.26.Power Paper Israel
7.26.Waseda founder
7.27.Prelonic Technologies
7.28.Renata Batteries
7.29.ReVolt Technologies Ltd
7.30.Sandia National Laboratory USA
7.31.Solicore USA
7.32.Tadiran Batteries
7.33.Technical University of Berlin Germany
7.34.Sony Japan
7.35.University of California Los Angeles USA
7.36.University of Michigan USA
7.37.University of Sheffield UK
7.38.University of Wollongong Australia
7.39.Waseda University
8.1.Pie charts of single use batteries, rechargeable batteries and supercapacitors value sales in 2009
8.1.Market for batteries, supercapacitors, other
8.1.Global market for all batteries for use in portable devices $ billion
8.2.Global market for supercapacitors for use in portable devices $ billion
8.2.Total global battery market
8.2.Pie charts of single use batteries, rechargeable batteries and supercapacitors value sales in 2019
8.3.Split of small device battery market in 2019 by total value
8.3.Global battery market by use
8.3.Total and small device battery market 2009 and 2019 $billions
8.3.1.Batteries for RFID
8.3.2.Batteries for gift cards
8.3.3.Batteries for car keys
8.3.4.Printed and thin film batteries 2009-2019
8.4.Split of small device battery market in 2009 by shape, giving number, unit value, total value
8.8.Market forecast for printed and potentially printed batteries in US $ billions 2009-2019

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