Electric vehicles Report

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Electric Motors for Hybrid and Pure Electric Vehicles 2015-2025: Land, Water, Air

Synchronous, asynchronous, in-wheel, outboard etc. Forecasts, technologies and players


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The electric vehicle business will approach a massive $500 billion in 2025 with the traction motors being over $25 billion. Their design, location and integration is changing rapidly. Traction motors propelling land, water and air vehicles along can consist of one inboard motor or - an increasing trend - more than one near the wheels, in the wheels, in the transmission or ganged to get extra power. Integrating is increasing with a growing number of motor manufacturers making motors with integral controls and sometimes integral gearing. Alternatively they may sell motors to the vehicle manufacturers or to those integrating them into transmission. These complex trends are explained with pie charts, tables, graphs and text and future winning suppliers are identified alongside market forecasts. There are sections on newly important versions such as in-wheel, quadcopter and outboard motor for boats.
 
Today, with the interest in new traction motor design there is a surge in R&D activities in this area, much of it directed at specific needs such as electric aircraft needing superlative reliability and power to weight ratio. Hybrid vehicles may have the electric motor near the conventional engine or its exhaust and this may mean they need to tolerate temperatures never encountered in pure electric vehicles. Motors for highly price-sensitive markets such as electric bikes, scooters, e-rickshaws and micro EVs (car-like vehicles not homologated as cars so made more primitively) should avoid the price hikes of neodymium and other rare earths in the magnets. In-wheel and near-wheel motors in any vehicle need to be very compact. Sometimes they must be disc-shaped to fit in.
 
However, fairly common requirements can be high energy efficiency and cost-effectiveness, high torque (3-4 times nominal value) for acceleration and hill climbing and peak power twice the rated value at high speeds. Wide operating torque range is a common and onerous requirement. Overall energy saving over the drive cycle is typically critical. Usually winding and magnet temperature must be kept below 120C and then there are issues of demagnetisation and mechanical strength.
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Table of Contents
1.EXECUTIVE SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS
1.1.Scope of report
1.1.Some common differences between the requirements of traction motors for pure electric vs hybrid electric traction vehicles
1.1.Percentage of traction motor suppliers offering synchronous , asynchronous or both versions in late 2014
1.2.Higen view of choices of traction motors for electric vehicles and their relative attributes.
1.2.Examples of traditional limitations and market trends by type of basic design of traction motor
1.2.Overview of markets and needs
1.3.Many specific needs
1.3.Most likely winners and losers in the next decade
1.3.In-wheel motors needed for envisioned sky taxis and personal VTOL aircraft. Slides at 7th International Electric Aircraft Symposium.
1.4.Availability of hub and in-wheel motors by number of manufacturers
1.4.Tipping points for sales of certain EVs during the coming decade.
1.4.Common requirements
1.5.Trends
1.5.Number of hybrid and pure electric vehicles produced yearly worldwide 2014-2025 in thousands by category each has at least one electric traction motor
1.5.Approximate numbers of traction motor manufacturers making open market versions for rail alone, rail and EV and only for their own use in EVs with examples
1.5.1.General
1.5.2.Trend in motor types needed
1.5.3.Trend in motors offered: synchronous, asynchronous, brushed
1.6.Different requirements from pure electric vs hybrid EVs
1.6.Number of extra electric traction motors on vehicles where there is more than one (in thousands) 2014-2025
1.6.Geographic distribution of EV traction motor suppliers
1.7.Price of electric motor-generator sets including controls/inverters and traction motors alone when they also act as generators in $K per vehicle 2014-2025
1.7.Price of electric motor-generator sets including controls/inverters and traction motors alone when they also act as generators in $K per vehicle 2014-2025
1.7.Regenerative braking considerations
1.8.Reducing limitations: trend by type
1.8.Electric motor-generator sets including controls/inverters and traction motors alone when they also act as generators market value $ billion paid by vehicle manufacturer 2014-2025
1.8.Electric motor-generator sets including controls/inverters and traction motors alone when they also act as generators market value $ billion paid by vehicle manufacturer 2014-2025
1.9.Two examples of costing of hybrid cars
1.9.Summary of preferences of traction motor technology for vehicles
1.9.In-wheel motor adoption criteria
1.9.1.In-wheel motors needed for envisioned sky taxis and personal VTOL aircraft
1.10.Value chain becomes more complex
1.10.Conventional car with 48 V electric torque assist as a new powertrain option shown yellow in powertrain options
1.10.Multiple drive concepts
1.11.Vehicles that have recently been redesigned from one traction motor to two. Top IFEVS pure electric microcar. Middle: 2015 Tesla Model S pure electric car. Bottom: the world's best-selling pure electric bus the BYD K9 now with two
1.11.Positioning of motor manufacturers
1.12.Location of motor manufacturers
1.12.Motor market value $ billion paid by vehicle manufacturer 2015
1.13.Motor market value $ billion paid by vehicle manufacturer 2025
1.13.Timelines of newly successful EVs
1.14.Traction motor forecasts of numbers
1.14.48V mild hybrid powertrain in context
1.15.48V mild hybrid powertrain potential elements
1.15.Global value market for vehicle traction motors
1.16.Rapid increase in number of motors per vehicle
1.16.Evolution from stop-start to multifunctional rotating machines
1.17.Motor technology by type of vehicle
1.18.Switched reluctance motors a disruptive traction motor technology?
1.18.1.Conventional car with 48 V electric torque assist
1.19.Three ways that traction motor makers race to escape rare earths
1.19.1.Example: Ricardo switched reluctance March 2015
1.20.Motor market value in 2015 and 2025
1.21.Percentage of vehicle cost
1.22.Shape of motors
1.23.Industry consolidation
1.24.Effect of 2015 oil price collapse on electric vehicles
1.25.Chasing higher motor efficiency
1.26.48V mild hybrids
2.INTRODUCTION
2.1.Definitions
2.1.Advantages vs disadvantages of brushed vehicle traction motors for today's vehicles
2.1.Large format multirotor
2.2.Turnigy multirotor motor
2.2.Needs
2.2.1.Traction motors are different
2.2.2.Where different types of traction motor are popular
2.3.Electric vehicle motors rise to two per vehicle - multiplier of market size
2.3.Brushless outrunner motor in toy electric bike
2.4.Small multirotor
2.4.Multirotor drone motors and controls
2.5.Nanoflie
2.6.Coreless motor parts
3.DESIGN ISSUES
3.1.Challenges
3.1.Comparison of adoption of in-wheel motors by size of vehicle, with examples, benefits sought and challenges.
3.1.Ryno single wheel motorcycle
3.2.Toyota i-Road tilting 3 wheel motorcycle
3.2.Important aspects overall
3.3.Basic design of traction motor
3.3.Oerlikon Graziano- Vocis Driveline four-speed electric drive system
3.4.Kobra pure electric concept motorcycle designed for MotoCzsyz showing doubled up motors
3.4.Design choices beyond basic operation principle
3.5.Intermediate solutions
3.5.IFEVS-POLIMODEL - Oerlikon Graziano: to address and advanced powertrain with an automatic gearbox
3.6.IFEVS-POLIMODEL - SOLBIAN: to address smart photovoltaic
3.6.Tough challenges: no simple optimisation
3.7.Efficiency multiplier effect
3.7.IFEVS-POLIMODEL - SOLBIAN: to address smart photovoltaic and technology transversality
3.8.Mitsubishi motors two motor car system
3.8.Ways of using more than one motor
3.8.1.Double motors for efficiency
3.8.2.Coupling motors for extra power and series parallel hybrids
3.8.3.Two motors for four wheel drive
3.8.4.Tesla adds two motor model
3.9.In-wheel and near-wheel multiple motors
3.9.Aisin AW "AWFHT15", front wheel drive hybrid transmission with integral traction motor and generator that provides extra traction power when needed
3.9.1.Two types of in-wheel motor
3.10.Vertical integration
3.10.Aisin AW transmission with integrated traction motor and dynamo for Lexus GS450h, Toyota Crown Majesta
3.11.Volkswagen approach to increased integration of its EV traction motors
3.11.Trend to integration
3.12.Move to high voltage
3.12.Traction battery pack nominal energy storage vs battery pack voltage for mild hybrids in red, plug in hybrids in blue and pure electric cars in green
3.13.Typical e-powertrain components
3.13.Motor controls
3.13.1.Overview
3.13.2.Cost and integration issues
3.14.Award winning 2-in-1 motor for electric cars
3.14.Scientists from Nanyang Technological University (NTU) and German Aerospace Centre (DLR) have invented a 2-in-1 electric motor which increases the range of electric vehicles.
4.ANALYSIS OF 167 TRACTION MOTOR MANUFACTURERS
4.1.Traction motor manufacturers compared
4.1.167 vehicle traction motor manufacturers by name, country, asynchronous/synchronous, targeted vehicle types, claims and images
4.1.Joanneum experimental snowmobile (Austria)
4.2.Streetscooter car and delivery truck (Germany)
4.2.Lessons from eCarTec Munich
4.3.Tesla Model S - crowd puller (USA)
4.4.Hyundai 1X 35 Pre-production Fuel Cell car (Korea)
4.5.Mercedes B Class, referred to as the Tesla Mercedes because that company, a Daimler investment, assisted in its creation. (Germany)
4.6.Romet car (Poland)
4.7.TukTuk taxi (Netherlands)
4.8.Nissan Taxi (Japan)
4.9.Green Go iCaro car (China)
4.10.Mercedes SLS AMG car (Germany)
4.11.Oprema concept (Slovenia)
5.MOTOR CONTROLLERS / INVERTERS
5.1.Introduction
5.1.Typical e-powertrain components
5.2.On-going Development of Hitachi automotive inverters
5.2.Wide band gap semiconductors
5.3.Essentials from the Power Electronics report
5.3.Toyota Prius 2010 electronic control unit showing bed of IGBT chips
5.4.The new MAN hybrid bus from Germany showing the power inverter and the use of a supercapacitor (ultracapacitor) instead of a battery, putting different demands on the power electronics
5.4.Optimisation using new devices and integration
5.5.Concern in Europe
5.5.Example of modern vehicle inverters from Phoenix international, a John Deere Company as exhibited ant eCarTec Germany October 2012. The large unit bottom left is used in the MAN hybrid electric city bus which uses supercapacitors
6.OTHER RECENT NEWS
6.1.Yamaha uses Zytek's new electric powertrain for city concept vehicle
APPENDIX 1: LESSONS FROM BATTERY/EV EVENT MICHIGAN
APPENDIX 2: IDTECHEX RESEARCH REPORTS AND CONSULTANCY
TABLES
FIGURES
 

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