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Electric Vehicle Charging Infrastructure

Updated December 2011


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This report covers the full picture of how electric vehicles by land, water and air will be externally charged. They are hugely increasing in number - we give the forecasts by type - and most will have a plug in feature to save money and the planet. Charger market value will increase more than fivefold over the decade but car charging grows much faster and other vehicle charging peaks, for reasons we explain. In this new report with its comprehensive scope, we examine slow, fast and fastest charging stations, including contactless charging and battery swapping with a blunt appraisal of the pros and cons. Each option is illustrated by many supplier profiles.
 
Energy harvesting to power up the charging station is analysed - solar is not the only option here. The standards situation is holding things up to a lesser or greater extent across the world and the content, timelines and issues involved are examined. Forecasts of charging station numbers, unit value and total value are given, detailed by charging speed and territory.
 
Analysis is the essence of this report with many figures and tables comparing the pros and cons and giving detailed new forecasts for 2011-2021. Uniquely comprehensive in scope, it appraises work from New Zealand to Canada and Japan. The charging issues and equipment employed with electric land, water and air vehicles are considered, both hybrid and pure electric, and the solutions now and in future. The recent opinions of many interested parties are quoted. The impact of alternatives is considered such as gas turbine and fuel cell charging of on-road vehicle batteries, with no roadside charging, and the declining percentage of hybrids that do not plug in.
 
The surprisingly large number of companies providing or about to provide solar powered roadside charging and inductive contactless charging, both resonant and conventional, is appraised. The very different standards situations are examined for North America, Europe and East Asia, for both charging stations and their interfaces, and the battle for the global standards.
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Table of Contents
1.EXECUTIVE SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS
1.1.Ten year forecasts
1.1.Global market for electric vehicle chargers US$ billion ex factory 2011 and 2021 rounded
1.1.Value of the global traction battery charging station hardware market 2011-2021 percent of total for East Asia, Europe and North America for 2011 and 2021
1.2.Nissan backed charging stations being installed in the USA by region
1.2.Approximate global car charging station market in 2011 and 2021 in $ billion rounded
1.2.Pricing information
1.3.Forecasts of Level 1, 2 & 3
1.3.Value of the global traction battery charging station hardware market 2011-2021 giving percent of total for East Asia, Europe and North America for 2011 and 2021
1.3.Number of car charging stations sold worldwide in thousands 2011-2021, residential, outdoor and destination, rounded
1.4.Numbers thousands of the three levels of charging station worldwide 2011-2021
1.4.Number of car charging stations sold worldwide in thousands 2011-2021, residential, other and total, rounded
1.4.Examples of expenditure in China
1.5.Market beyond cars
1.5.Numbers thousands of the three levels of car charging station hardware worldwide 2011-2021
1.5.Average unit price of the three levels of charging station hardware vehicle 2011-2021 in $ thousands
1.6.BYD Auto charging station for pure electric taxis in China
1.6.Examples of orders and commitments for non-residential car charging stations for on-road vehicles
1.6.Vehicle projections by type
1.7.Market drivers for charging stations
1.7.Average unit price ex factory of the three levels of car charging station hardware 2011-2021 in $ thousands, excluding energy storage
1.7.Slow charging station in China
1.8.Fast charger for lead acid traction batteries in electric bicycles in China
1.8.Typical hardware price of charging stations indoor and outdoor in $ thousands
1.9.Global market value of the three levels of car charging station 2011-2021 in $ millions
1.9.Global market value of the three levels of car charging station 2011-2021 in $ millions
1.10.Market for electric vehicles, both hybrid and pure electric, sold in the world 2011-2021 in thousands of units
1.10.Market for electric vehicles, both hybrid and pure electric, sold in the world 2011-2021 in thousands of units rounded
1.11.The charging infrastructure situation by category is as follows
1.11.Total number of plug-in cars in thousands 2011-2021
1.12.Sales of Light Electric Vehicles (LEVs) (two wheelers and allied eg electric quad bikes and on road three wheel micro cars) by region by percentage of units
1.13.Split between Level 2 and Level 3 chargers with rounded percentage
1.14.Number of hybrid and pure electric cars plugged in and the total number in thousands 2011-2021
2.INTRODUCTION
2.1.Electric vehicle business by value
2.1.Solar train concept and underwater docking chargers already in use, both involving lithium-ion traction batteries
2.2.Forklift Truck Battery Charger, charging up to 900 ampere-hour of batteries in about eight hours
2.2.The car manufacturers' dilemma
2.2.1.Charging off-road land vehicles is usually easy
2.2.2.On road vehicles are troublesome
2.2.3.Many organisations interested
2.3.Potential setbacks and uncertainty
2.3.PosiCharge charging station for fast charging of lead acid batteries in forklifts
2.4.Examples of on board solar power charging land electric vehicle batteries
2.4.Some certainties
2.5.How many charging points are needed?
2.5.Examples of on board solar power charging water borne electric vehicle batteries
2.6.Examples of on board solar power charging airborne electric vehicle batteries
2.6.Will there be enough charging points?
2.6.1.Flexibility
2.6.2.Part of a coordinated effort
2.7.Can the grid cope?
2.7.The Ubricity system
2.8.Metering in the vehicle or cable
3.STANDARDS
3.1.Global standards setting in this field
3.1.SAE six levels of charging
3.1.Level 3 vehicle-side connector
3.1.1.Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE)
3.1.2.International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC)
3.1.3.International Organisation for Standardisation (ISO)
3.1.4.Japan
3.1.5.Level 1,2,3
3.2.China
3.2.Mennekes plug
3.3.VDE-AR-E 2623-2-2 electric vehicle charging socket
3.3.Europe
3.4.Technical differences between countries
3.4.CHAdeMO plug: NEXCO EV Quick
3.5.TEPCO CHAdeMO Level 3 "Quick" fast charging plug
3.5.International strategies
3.5.1.Japan
3.5.2.Korea
3.5.3.North America
3.6.Yazaki's SAE J1772 compliant electric vehicle connector
4.BATTERY SWAPPING
4.1.Fastest form of recharging
4.1.The good and the bad of battery swapping
4.1.Japanese taxi
4.2.Battery swapping trials - China, Denmark, Israel, Japan, South Korea
4.3.Battery swapping alternatives
5.ENERGY HARVESTING AND WIRELESS CHARGING
5.1.Energy harvesting
5.1.The good and the bad of inductive contactless charging of electric vehicles
5.1.Solar powered charging stations
5.1.1.Solar powered charging stations
5.1.2.Alpha Energy USA
5.1.3.Beautiful Earth USA
5.1.4.E-Move Denmark
5.1.5.Envision Solar International USA
5.1.6.EVFuture India
5.1.7.Pininfarina Italy
5.1.8.RRC Germany
5.1.9.Sanyo Japan
5.1.10.Solar Bullet train
5.1.11.Solar Unity Company USA
5.1.12.SunPods USA
5.1.13.Toyota Japan
5.1.14.ULVAC
5.2.Electricity from the road
5.2.Charging station at Rio de Janeiro
5.2.1.James Dyson Award UK
5.2.2.Innowattech Israel
5.3.Wireless charging
5.3.PC-Aero pure electric manned plane from Germany with solar charger
5.3.1.Conductix-Wampfler Italy
5.3.2.Energy Dynamics Laboratory USA
5.3.3.Evatran USA
5.3.4.HaloIPT New Zealand
5.3.5.Korea Advanced Institute of Technology
5.3.6.Nissan Japan
5.3.7.Presidio Graduate School USA
5.3.8.Siemens-BMW
5.3.9.Singapore A*STAR
5.3.10.Volvo and Flanders Drive Sweden, Belgium
5.3.11.WiTricity and Partners USA
5.4.Solar recharging at Manheim New Jersey National Auto Dealers Exchange
5.5.Beautiful Earth Group's Brooklyn container-based charging station
5.6.E-Move solar charging station
5.7.EVFuture solar powered roadside charge 2008 model
5.8.EVFuture solar station detail
5.9.Wireless e-bike charger
5.10.Bicycle parking lot in Sakurashinmachi, Setagaya, with Sanyo's Smart Energy System "Solar Parking Lot"
5.11."Solar Parking Lot" based on Sanyo Electric's Smart Energy System
5.12.Sanyo Electric's Large-, Medium- and Small-Scale Smart Energy Systems
5.13.Solar powered train concept
5.14.Solar Unity solar powered charging installed in 2005
5.15.SunPods solar charging station
5.16.The 1.9kW Pure Electric Vehicle (PEV) and Plug In Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) charging station
5.17.Road surface electricity generator
5.18.Innowattech Piezo Electric Generator
5.19.Hino "no plug in" bus
5.20.In-road charging of small buses in Turin Italy
5.21.Evatran EV charging
5.22.Evatran Plugless Power EV charging station
5.23.HaloIPT 2010 launch of the first wireless charging in the UK
5.24.Operating principle of HaloIPT
5.25.Drayson racing car
5.26.KAIST OLEVs in 2010
5.27.Proximity charged tram
5.28.Principle of the WiTricity Delphi wireless charging system
6.RECENT PROGRESS BY COMPANY AND COUNTRY, FUTURE ISSUES
6.1.AeroVironment USA
6.1.AeroVironment chargers with Think EV
6.2.AeroVironment multiple charging system
6.2.APplugs Belgium
6.3.Asea Brown Boveri (ABB) Switzerland
6.3.ABB DC fast charging station
6.4.Better Place charging stations in Israel
6.4.Better Place Israel / USA
6.5.Chargemaster UK
6.5.Chargemaster FastCharge
6.6.Clipper Creek USA
6.6.Circontrol Spain
6.7.Coulomb Technologies USA
6.7.Clipper Creek Level 2 residential charger
6.8.Coulomb Technologies charger
6.8.CT&T USA
6.9.Diamond Aircraft, Siemens, EADS
6.9.ChargePoint Level 3 fast charger shown left and residential/ light commercial charger shown right
6.10.CT&T charger
6.10.Eaton Corporation USA
6.11.ECOtality USA
6.11.The world's first aircraft with a serial hybrid electric drive system
6.12.Eaton Level 2 charging station and Quick Charger
6.12.Elektromotive UK
6.13.Epyon Netherlands
6.13.The home and commercial versions of the Blink EV charging stations
6.14.Elektromotive charging station
6.14.GE USA
6.15.Green Charge Networks USA
6.15.Epyon Terra charging station
6.16.GE WattStation
6.16.Hasetec Japan
6.17.Ingeteam Spain
6.17.Green Charge Networks transportable charging station with grid upgrade
6.18.Hasetec charging station in action
6.18.JFE Engineering Corporation USA
6.19.Leviton USA
6.19.Ingeteam roadside charger
6.20.JFE charging interface
6.20.Liberty PlugIns USA
6.21.Mitsubishi Japan
6.21.Leviton residential EV chargers
6.22.Liberty PlugIns EV charging stations
6.22.Nation-E Switzerland
6.23.NEC Takasago Japan
6.23.Mitsubishi roadside charger
6.24.Mitsubishi car charging - home management system
6.24.Nexco Japan
6.25.Nissan Japan
6.25.The Angel car mobile charger for rescue
6.26.Angel car in action
6.26.PEP Stations USA
6.27.Robert Bosch Germany
6.27.Nation-E Hummer rescue charger car
6.28.Oregon Governor Ted Kulongoski plugs in the all-electric Nissan LEAF to the nation's first publicly available quick-charge station at Portland General Electric headquarters in Portland, Oregon
6.28.Schneider Electric France
6.29.Siemens Germany
6.29.Nexco public charger in Hodogawa
6.30.Nissan home charging station
6.30.SwapPack USA
6.31.Tokyo Electric Power Company
6.31.PEP charging station
6.32.Robert Bosch EV charging station
6.32.Toyota Japan
6.33.Voltec USA
6.33.Schneider Electric EV charging stations
6.34.EVlink charging solutions
6.35.Tokyo Electric Power Company charge point
6.36.Toyota charging station
6.37.Voltec residential EV charger
7.EXAMPLES OF INFRASTRUCTURE INSTALLATION BY COUNTRY
7.1.Chinese cities restricting electric bikes
7.1.Austria
7.1.EV charging phone booth in Austria
7.2.Folkwang Universität The Plug
7.2.China
7.3.France
7.3.EV charger in Japan
7.4.Spanish phone booth suitable for addition of charger
7.4.Germany
7.5.Japan
7.5.World's first Tesla charging station installed in 2009 in California
7.6.Solar charging of car in San Jose
7.6.Portugal
7.7.Republic of Ireland
7.7.Sign in Raleigh
7.8.Basic charging system
7.8.Spain
7.9.Sweden
7.9.Feeding and using the smart grid
7.10.Smart grid simulation
7.10.United Kingdom
7.11.USA
7.11.1.California
7.11.2.North Carolina
7.11.3.Oregon
7.12.Fear of grid overload
7.13.Electric vehicles and the smart grid
7.13.1.Colliding with the needs of electric vehicles?
7.13.2.Opportunities
8.MARKET FORECASTS
8.1.Global market for electric vehicle chargers US$ billion ex factory 2011 and 2021 rounded
8.1.Ten year forecasts
8.1.Value of the global traction battery charging station hardware market 2011-2021 percent of total for East Asia, Europe and North America for 2011 and 2021
8.2.Nissan backed charging stations being installed in the USA by region
8.2.Pricing information
8.2.Approximate global car charging station market in 2011 and 2021 in $ billion rounded
8.3.Value of the global traction battery charging station hardware market 2011-2021 giving percent of total for East Asia, Europe and North America for 2011 and 2021
8.3.Forecasts of Level 1, 2 & 3
8.3.Number of car charging stations sold worldwide in thousands 2011-2021, residential, outdoor and destination, rounded
8.4.Numbers thousands of the three levels of charging station worldwide 2011-2021
8.4.Examples of expenditure in China
8.4.Number of car charging stations sold worldwide in thousands 2011-2021, residential, other and total, rounded
8.5.Numbers thousands of the three levels of car charging station hardware worldwide 2011-2021
8.5.Market beyond cars
8.5.Average unit price of the three levels of charging station hardware vehicle 2011-2021 in $ thousands
8.6.BYD Auto charging station for pure electric taxis in China
8.6.Vehicle projections by type
8.6.Examples of orders and commitments for non-residential car charging stations for on-road vehicles
8.7.Average unit price ex factory of the three levels of car charging station hardware 2011-2021 in $ thousands, excluding energy storage
8.7.Market drivers for charging stations
8.7.Slow charging station in China
8.8.Fast charger for lead acid traction batteries in electric bicycles in China
8.8.Typical hardware price of charging stations indoor and outdoor in $ thousands
8.9.Global market value of the three levels of car charging station 2011-2021 in $ millions
8.9.Global market value of the three levels of car charging station 2011-2021 in $ millions
8.10.Market for electric vehicles, both hybrid and pure electric, sold in the world 2011-2021 in thousands of units
8.10.Market for electric vehicles, both hybrid and pure electric, sold in the world 2011-2021 in thousands of units rounded
8.11.The charging infrastructure situation by category is as follows
8.11.Total number of plug-in cars in thousands 2011-2021
8.12.Sales of Light Electric Vehicles (LEVs) (two wheelers and allied eg electric quad bikes and on road three wheel micro cars) by region by percentage of units
8.13.Split between Level 2 and Level 3 chargers with rounded percentage
8.14.Number of hybrid and pure electric cars plugged in and the total number in thousands 2011-2021
APPENDIX 1: GLOSSARY
APPENDIX 2: IDTECHEX PUBLICATIONS AND CONSULTANCY
APPENDIX 3: LATEST PROGRESS WITH LITHIUM-ION TRACTION BATTERIES.
TABLES
FIGURES
 

Report Statistics

Pages 236
Tables 34
Figures 107
Companies 58
Forecasts to 2021
 
 
 
 

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