Printed, Flexible and Organic Electronics Report

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Electronic Smart Packaging

Uses of electronic smart packaging, including trials, emerging projects and goals

The hottest smart packaging sector

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What is Electronic Smart Packaging
Already over 50 billion packages have been fitted with electronic smart packaging devices - and now the market is really taking off. This Electronic Smart Packaging report exclusively analyses this extraordinary situation based on the imminent commercialization of the toolkit of technologies which will open up the industry. This includes printed electronics - such as disposable laminar batteries, sensors, displays and circuits - as well as other electronic features such as anti-theft tags and RFID smart labels. These devices are enabling innovative low-cost or disposable packaging to enhance brands, meet new legislation, change consumer lifestyles, beat crime and much more.
Summary of the Report
Electronic Smart Packaging follows on from the IDTechEx introductory report, Smart Packaging, and reflects the current situation of global electronic smart packaging. The report deals with what will be the dominant market sector - packaging incorporating electronic features. Today we see electrical battery testers, electronic anti-theft and RFID tags as the most important sectors of electrical and elelctronic smart packaging; but they are only a beginning. A wealth of features and a transformation of the human interface with moving colour images, speech, and other dramatic interfaces will transform the way that packaging is currently presented.
 
This report shows how electronic and electric smart packaging enhances the traditional functions of packaging - to protect, inform, and promote - but also achieves much more. Conventional electronic components will be replaced by printable circuits and displays that will be cheap enough to be disposable - great news for the packaging industry.
Your key questions answered
  • What is electronic smart packaging's role in the current packaging industry
  • Where is electronic smart packaging being used today
  • How is the industry adapting to the new technology
  • How can we eliminate errors and detect threats
  • What will this technology mean to the human interface
  • Which applications will be successful and generate revenue
  • How is this going to affect the supply chain
  • How much influence will standards and regulations have on the deployment of electronic smart packaging
  • How will this technology replace the barcode
  • How do you make a transparent laminar microphone, loudspeaker or transistor circuit that is cheap enough to be disposable
  • How do you co-deposit everything at high speed, even on low-grade plastic film for packaging, on cardboard or on paper
  • Who will benefit from this technology and when
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Table of Contents
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS
1.INTRODUCTION
1.1.What is smart packaging?
1.1.1.Primary packaging
1.1.2.Secondary packaging
1.1.3.Tertiary packaging
1.2.Primary electronic devices for packaging
1.2.1.Displays and display drivers
1.2.2.Sound systems
1.2.3.Timers and clocks
1.2.4.Sensor systems
1.2.5.Electronic Article Surveillance (EAS) systems
1.2.6.Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) systems
1.3.Needs for electronic and electric smart packaging
1.3.1.User friendliness
1.3.2.In the packaging not the product
1.3.3.Error prevention
1.3.4.Removing tedious procedures
1.3.5.Cost reduction
1.3.6.Increasing sales
1.3.7.Reduced crime
1.3.8.Environmental
1.3.9.Brand enhancement
1.3.10.Brand protection
1.3.11.Automated data collection
1.4.Applications by sector
1.4.1.The supermarket of the future
1.4.2.Other retailing
1.4.3.Consumer Packaged Goods (CPG) supply chain
1.4.4.Postal services
1.4.5.Heavy logistics
1.4.6.Military
1.4.7.Healthcare
1.5.Why use disposable electronics and electrics?
1.6.The key technologies for disposable electronics and electrics
1.6.1.Silicon chips and conventional electronics
1.6.2.Transistorless circuits and materials
1.6.3.Printed Thin Film Transistor Circuits (TFTCs)
1.6.4.Printed electronic displays and other new human interfaces
1.6.5.Disposable batteries
1.6.6.Sensors
1.6.7.Laminar microphones and loudspeakers
1.6.8.Piezoelectrics
1.7.Precursors of electronic smart packaging
1.7.1.Written and printed information
1.7.2.Barcodes and magnetic stripes
1.7.3.Electrical, mechanical and chemical smart packaging
1.7.4.Uncontrolled active packaging
1.7.5.Mechanical smart packaging
1.8.Statement of independence
2.ELECTRONIC DISPLAYS ON PACKAGING
2.1.Display functions required
2.1.Some choices of electronic display for packaging that are becoming available
2.1.Some new capabilities arising from printed displays, TFTCs, memory etc.
2.1.1.Room for many price performance compromises
2.1.2.Major needs in society
2.1.3.Very varied requirements
2.2.Technical challenges
2.2.A Cambridge Display Technology colour OLED display
2.2.Advantages and disadvantages of ink jet printing of OLEDs
2.2.1.Challenges of flexible substrates
2.2.2.Large area is important
2.2.3.Avoiding glass
2.2.4.True flexibility
2.2.5.Chemical damage in current forms
2.2.6.Compatibility
2.2.7.Government and private initiatives
2.3.Analysis of core display technologies relevant to packaging
2.3.Advantages and disadvantages of electrophoretic displays
2.3.CPDS display before the 1.5 volts bias is applied
2.3.1.Electrochromic
2.3.2.Organic Light Emitting Diodes
2.3.3.Micromachined Electromechanical Systems (MEMS)
2.3.4.Electronic paper
2.3.5.Electrophoretic
2.4.CPDS display after the 1.5 volts bias is applied
2.4.Comparison between OLEDs and E-Ink of various parameters
2.5.Left showing the internal network of resistors and right the resulting flashing message.
2.6.How traditional electrochromic ink works
2.7.How Commotion proprietary inks work
2.8.Basic structure of an OLED
2.9.Process flow in manufacture of OLEDs
2.10.EAS tag patterned with use of the dry phase patterning method
2.11.The dollhouse. When energy is added to the system the colour of the wallpaper changes and a picture appears on the wall
2.12.The same display shown in its two states. When energy is added to the system, the landscape to the left fades out and the winter landscape to the right emerges
2.13.Seven segment display printed with bi-stable inks
2.14.The principle behind E-Ink’s technology
2.15.E-Ink and Philips’ Advanced Paper-Like Display prototype
2.16.Microspheres used in Gyricon electrophoretic displays
2.17.Assembly of Gyricon spheres
2.18.Demonstration of large area Gyricon flexible display
3.GENERAL ELECTRONICS AND ELECTRICS FOR PACKAGING
3.1.Economics
3.1.Price sensitivity of useful features on or in packaging
3.2.2.45 GHz RFID Silicon chips only 0.4 mm across with embedded antenna shown on a grain of rice
3.2.Types of device needed
3.3.Technologies
3.3.Throw-away cartridges for blood analysis are manufactured by i-STAT Corporation and 60 million were sold in 2002
3.3.1.Limitations of silicon and conventional components
3.3.2.Ultra-small chips
3.3.3.Ultra-thin chips
3.3.4.Use of silicon chips in smart packaging today
3.3.5.Partially printed devices
3.4.Chipless electronic and electric solutions
3.4.Evolution of active packaging
3.4.1.Electronic diagnostics
3.4.2.New sensor technology
3.4.3.Battery testers
3.4.4.Artificial muscle; electroactive polymers
3.5.Smart dispensing
3.5.Front and reverse of the Bioett TTI label where a barcode provides track and trace but the TTI function comes from a printed inductor-capacitor pair (LC) with the capacitor containing a temperature sensitive dielectric. An interrogator device, rather li
3.5.1.Electrostatic sprays
3.5.2.Electrically and electronically controlled aerosols
3.5.3.Electrically releasable seals
3.6.Smart skin patches
3.6.Price vs volume for different types of TTI and other sensor systems showing how the extra functionality of electronic versions, such as data recording, becomes viable at high volumes
3.6.1.Environmental advantages
3.6.2.Drug delivery patches
3.6.3.Electronic patches
3.6.4.Trials and submissions
3.6.5.Compliance monitoring
3.6.6.Possibilities for the fourth generation
3.6.7.Closed loop control
3.6.8.Signalling through the body
3.6.9.Smart Active Labels (SAL) as skin patches
3.6.10.Printed transistor circuits for skin patches
3.7.Creation of new companies
3.7.Duracell battery testing chipless label – front and reverse view
3.8.EAPs are used in the form of flexible capacitors
3.9.How materials change shape with applied strain
3.10.Electrostatic insect-seeking fly spray in use
3.11.Can of insect-seeking fly spray
3.12.Micropumped aerosol spray
3.13.Aluminium coupons bonded with ElectRelease™ E4 and disbonded after the application of low voltage
3.14.Power Paper smart skin patch employing iontophoresis for blemish and wrinkle reduction
3.15.Diagnostic patch with thermometer
3.16.Active acne treatment patch
3.17.Pain relief patch
3.18.Companies recently created in Sweden to exploit technologies relevant to electronic smart packaging.
3.19.Origami electronics
4.THIN FILM TRANSISTOR CIRCUITS (TFTCS)
4.1.Why TFTCs will be the biggest breakthrough in electronic smart packaging
4.1.Coplanar electrode thin film transistor
4.1.Benefits of the best TFTCs vs very small silicon chips
4.2.Probable value split of the global RFID market, by numbers as a function of frequency, in 2010
4.2.Toshiba’s full colour 8.4 inch super-slim low-temperature polysilicon active-matrix TFT LCD supporting SVGA resolution
4.2.First came thin film silicon
4.3.Nothing viable on packaging materials so far
4.3.Toshiba’s TFT LCD display well on the way to a foldable LCD display
4.3.Typical carrier mobility in different TFTC semiconductors (actual and envisaged). Single crystal silicon may have a figure of up to 1,000 cm2/vs but it is not currently envisaged as a TFTC material
4.4.Working Gyricon electrophoretic display driven by Plastic Logic TFTCs
4.4.Variants of thin film silicon
4.5.Organic semiconductors – two choices
4.5.Polymer dispersed Liquid Crystal Device LCD driven by a Plastic Logic printed TFTC on polymer backplane substrate
4.6.Plastic Logic printed transistors on polymeric substrate – two pictures
4.6.Co-deposition of many types of electronic component
4.7.Use of cheap or “free” production equipment?
4.7.Feature size achieved by various deposition techniques
4.8.The principle of Dip Pen Nanolithography
4.8.Frequency limitations
4.8.1.Reducing channel length
4.8.2.Dip Pen Nanolithography (DPN)
4.8.3.Improved geometry
4.9.Options for semiconductor materials to make TFTCs on low-cost flexible substrates. Shown as a function of cost and frequency
4.9.Increasing charge carrier mobility
4.10.Power conservation - CMOS
4.10.Experimental PolyIC (formerly Siemens) 32-bit RFID smart label using printed polymer semiconductors
4.11.Principle of operation of TFE memory
4.11.Progress towards flexible/biodegradeable substrates
4.12.Breakthroughs in firmware and software
4.12.Picture of an all polymer memory from Thin Film Electronics
4.12.1.3M
4.12.2.NTRU
4.13.Structure of DRAM compared with TFE memory
4.13.Printed low cost memory
4.14.Applications envisaged for TFE all-polymer memory.
5.POWER SOURCES IN SMART PACKAGING
5.1.The Infinite Power battery is very small
5.1.Batteries
5.1.Shapes of battery for smart packaging compared
5.1.1.Battery overview
5.1.2.Laminar batteries
5.1.3.Coin type batteries
5.2.Fuel cells
5.2.The spectrum of choice of technologies for batteries in smart packaging
5.2.Infinite Power batteries ready for use
5.3.The Infinite Power battery is flexible. Here it forms part of an RFID tag
5.3.Examples of potential sources of thin film batteries
5.3.Photovoltaics
5.4.Other power sources for packaging
5.4.Examples of universities and research centres developing laminar batteries.
5.4.The Power Paper battery
5.5.Concept of a low cost, battery driven tag on packaging for stock control.
5.5.Examples of suppliers of coin type batteries by country
5.6.Flexible, disposable paper timer for packages of hair dye, hair curler etc.
5.7.Cymbet lithium thin film flexible battery
5.8.Relative performance claimed by Cymbet for its flexible batteries
5.9.Konarka photovoltaic flexible film
6.RADIO FREQUENCY IDENTIFICATION (RFID) IN PACKAGING
6.1.RFID – basic operation
6.1.Summary of today’s RFID physical configurations
6.1.The simplest case
6.2.An enabling technology
6.2.Choice between ‘number plate’ tags and those with extra data
6.2.Diprivan® TCI tag construction
6.2.1.Many functions
6.3.Tagged syringe and Diprifusor™
6.3.Choice of passive RFID tags – typical cost, range, memory in 2003/2004
6.3.Track and trace
6.4.Error prevention with packages
6.4.RFID choices of parameter are almost astronomic
6.4.RFID applications in packaging and products as a function of range
6.5.Very short range passive tags
6.5.Active tags and their use by frequency
6.5.Tamper and false refill prevention
6.6.Other crime reduction
6.6.Short range passive tags
6.7.Active beacon tags – long range
6.7.Increasing sales
6.8.How it works and success so far
6.8.Price – volume break by market and technology
6.8.1.Choosing range
6.8.2.Very short range, one at a time
6.8.3.Short range, multi tag reading, geofencing
6.8.4.Longer range, active vs passive, location
6.8.5.Importance of ultra small chips and tags
6.8.6.Tag price vs application
6.9.Xerox copiers being automatically monitored during shipment, using read-write tags on the packaging
6.9.Systems aspects
6.9.1.Data on the device or network
6.9.2.Privacy concerns for data on tag or network
6.9.3.Ad hoc networks
6.9.4.The importance of interoperability
6.9.5.Multi-frequency, multi-protocol interrogators
6.10.Astronomical choice of parameters
6.10.ParcelCall scenarios
6.11.Passive chip labels by frequency
6.11.Choosing frequency
6.11.1.Passive tags for packaging
6.11.2.Why the most popular frequency for passive tags is increasing
6.11.3.Choice of frequency for active tags
6.12.Chip vs chipless
6.12.RFID value chain
6.12.1.First vs second generation chipless
6.13.The RFID value chain
6.14.Paybacks
6.14.1.Apparel
7.THE INTERNET OF THINGS – EPC
7.1.EPCglobal
7.1.Functions of actual and planned smart shelving schemes
7.1.Smart shelf display
7.2.DET technologies for smart shelves
7.2.Auto ID Centers
7.3.The EPC code
7.3.ActivShelf™ infrastructure
7.4.Gateway reader from Intellident, UK used at Marks & Spencer
7.4.Smart shelves
7.5.The race for The Internet of Things smart label
7.5.1.Force feeding UHF
7.5.2.Chipless tags a possibility
7.5.3.Case Studies of RFID on packaging
8.COMBINED FUNCTIONS
8.1.General electronics
8.1.Patient compliance monitoring smart blister pack from Information Mediary of Canada
8.1.Problems of medicine non-compliance
8.2.Cypak patient monitoring blister pack for drug trials which records opinions and detects when tablets are removed
8.2.EAS with other smart features
8.3.RFID with sensors
8.4.Other electronics with RFID
8.4.1.Patient compliance monitoring
9.FUTURE TRENDS AND MARKET FORECASTS 2004-2014
9.1.Markets relevant to electronic smart packaging
9.1.Forecast rollout of EPC globally for Consumer Packaged Goods (CPG)
9.1.Size of global advertising industry
9.1.1.Diverting advertising spend to packaging
9.1.2.Reducing retail administration
9.1.3.Packaging industry
9.1.4.Importance of healthcare
9.1.5.The electronics industry
9.2.Growth of world packaging market 2004 to 2014, in billions of dollars
9.2.cintelliq forecast of dates of commercialisation of low cost devices based on thin film organic semiconductors
9.2.Electronic and electrical smart packaging projections
9.2.1.Electronic
9.2.2.EAS
9.2.3.RFID
9.2.4.EPC
9.2.5.TTIs
9.2.6.Active packaging
9.2.7.Electrical
9.3.Applicational market for packaging split by flexible or non-flexible material, in percentages
9.3.Milestones 2004 – 2015
9.4.Average cost of some food packaging materials
9.5.Growth of pharmaceutical packaging industry globally, 2003 to 2014, in billions of US dollars
9.6.Types of pharmaceutical packaging in the USA
9.7.Cost comparison for packages containing 30 tablets, by format
9.8.Statistics for the global semiconductor market in 2003. The different categories overlap.
9.9.Market opportunities for low-cost displays, by technology
9.10.Stanford Resources forecast for global OLED sales 2002-2008 with IDTechEx estimate of percentage concerned with packaging
9.11.Global EAS market, by numbers in billions of tags and average tag price, 2004 and 2014
9.12.Global market for RFID smart labels and systems, 2004 to 2015
9.13.Forecast for numbers, in billions, of EAS and RFID smart packaging devices sold globally, 2004 to 2014
9.14.Unit price in cents of electronic smart packaging devices 2004 to 2014
9.15.Value of the global market for electronic smart packaging devices 2004 to 2014 in billions of dollars.
9.16.The world market for TTI indicators for food and drink packaging
9.17.Market segments prioritised by active packaging suppliers
9.18.Milestones in the evolution of electronic and electrical smart packaging 2004 – 2015
APPENDIX 1: CHIPLESS RFID
GLOSSARY
TABLES
FIGURES
 

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