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Inorganic and Composite Printed Electronics 2009-2019: IDTechEx

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Inorganic and Composite Printed Electronics 2009-2019

World's only report on these technologies, presenting forecasts, players, technologies and opportunities

Updated Q1 2010

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This report is no longer for sale. To purchase the latest edition please go to Inorganic and Composite Printed Electronics 2010-2020
 
 
 
 
 
This unique report assesses the huge opportunities for fine chemicals, printing, production equipment and electronics companies in the largest part of the emerging $300 billion printed electronics business - inorganic materials and composites. Semiconductors, dielectrics, conductors, light emitters etc for displays, photovoltaics, transistors and much more are covered. Company profiles and ten year forecasts are given.
 
It is often argued that the inorganic options are interim, because the progress is coming to an end whereas organics are "future proof". Nothing could be further from the truth. For conductors with vastly better conductance and cost, for the best printed batteries, for quantum dot devices and for transistor semiconductors with ten times the mobility, look to the new inorganics. That is the emerging world of new nanoparticle metal and alloy inks that are magnitudes superior in cost, conductivity and stability, such as the flexible zinc oxide based transistor semiconductors working at ten times the frequency and with best stability and life, along with many other inorganic materials. Read the world's only report that pulls all this together in readable form.
Detailed forecasts
In 2009 IDTechEx find that the amount spent on inorganic electronic components and inorganic materials for composite components will be $1.1 billion of a $1.92 billion market for all of printed electronics. Much of this is in fairly mature markets - metal flake ink used for conductors in heated windscreens, membrane keyboards and circuit boards; and disposable sensors for the multi billion glucose sensor labels sold yearly. However, also making an impact in 2009 in this figure are electrophoretic, electroluminescent and electrochromic displays, laminar batteries and thin film photovoltaics such as CIGS and CDTe devices.
 
In 2009 inorganic semiconductors will begin to be sold from companies such as Kovio for RFID tags, being able to perform to existing RFID tag standards thanks to much higher mobilities than organic semiconductors.
 
 
Source: IDTechEx
 
 
IDTechEx find that in 2019, of a total $57.16 billion market (which includes printed and thin film displays, logic, memory, photovoltaics, power and sensors), the amount spent on inorganic components as a whole or in composites with organics will be approximately 50.7% - $28.98 billion. This highlights the importance of inorganic printed electronics and the opportunity for companies to be involved.
 
This IDTechEx report "Inorganic Printed and Composite Electronics" describes the reasons for the market growth based on wide industry research, participants and their achievements in these inorganic-based activities and the fabulous opportunities that lie ahead for them. Trends and forecasts to 2029 are given.
 
With over 160 tables and figures, this report critically compares the options, the trends and the emerging applications. It is the first in the world to comprehensively cover this exciting growth area. The emphasis is on technology basics, commercialisation and the key players.
 
This report is suitable for all companies developing or interested in the opportunity of printed or thin film electronics materials, manufacturing technologies or complete device fabrication and integration.
Technologies covered
The report considers inorganic printed and thin film electronics for displays, lighting, semiconductors, sensors, conductors, photovoltaics, batteries and memory giving detailed company profiles not available elsewhere. The coverage is global - with companies from East Asia to Europe to America covered in this report. The full contents list is shown at the bottom of this page.
 
The application of the technology in relation to other types such as organic electronics and silicon chips is given, with detailed information clearly summarised in over 160 tables and figures, such as those below. The table shows the likely impact of inorganic printed and potentially printed technology to 2019 by giving the dominant chemistry by device and device element. Dark green shows where inorganic technology is extremely important for the active (non-linear) components such as semiconductors. Light green shows important contributions from hybrid inorganic-organic technology. Red shows where organic technology has the greatest potential over inorganic.
 
 
Source: IDTechEx
Elements being targeted
In order to meet the widening variety of needs for printed and potentially printed electronics, not least in flexible, low cost form, a rapidly increasing number of elements are being brought to bear as illustrated below. Oxides, amorphous mixtures and alloys are particularly in evidence. Even the so-called organic devices such as OLEDs variously employ such materials as B, Al and Ti oxides and nitrides as barrier layers against water and oxygen, Al, Cu, Ag and indium tin oxide as conductors, Ca or Mg cathodes and CoFe nanodots, Ir and Eu in light emitting layers, for example.
The figure below is an illustration of some of the most promising elements currently being employed in research and production of printed and potentially printed devices. Those used as elements are shown red and those used as compounds and dopants are shown brown and each arrow refers to most of the highlighted elements of the group in question. The report covers the latest progress with these different materials and their compounds, and by whom.
 
Some of the most promising elements employed in research and production
 
 
Source: IDTechEx
Value chain dynamics studied
For some, it becomes a matter of "Shall I make the new inorganics printable?" or "Shall I make organics work better?" Not everyone is jumping the same way. Indeed there is a spectrum of choice as shown in the figure below. Here we are simplifying in calling the right side "organic" because it almost always involves metal conductors, just as the left side often involves organic substrates. The technologies live together - and that is not just an interim stage.
 
 
Source: IDTechEx
 
 
This report is essential for all those wishing to understand this technology, the players, opportunities and applications, to ensure they are not surpassed.
Additional benefits
The report price also includes free access to the electronic version of the IDTechEx Encyclopedia of Printed Electronics with over 380 definitions and 30 illustrations. This 110 page report is normally sold for $1500.00.
 
In addition, all report purchases include one hour free consulting with a report author from IDTechEx, by email or telephone. This needs to be used within 3 months of purchasing the report.
Analyst access from IDTechEx
All report purchases include up to 30 minutes telephone time with an expert analyst who will help you link key findings in the report to the business issues you're addressing. This needs to be used within three months of purchasing the report.
Further information
If you have any questions about this report, please do not hesitate to contact our report team at research@IDTechEx.com or call one of our sales managers:

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Table of Contents
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS
1.INTRODUCTION
1.1.Comparison of thin film silicon and organic thin films as transistor semiconductors.
1.1.SuperPanoramic cockpit with closable opaque layer - a concept of the US Air Force.
1.1.Printed electronics - reasons why
1.2.Impact of printed electronics on conventional electronics
1.2.US Warfighter's back pack must reduce in weight. Wrist displays, printed antennas, batteries, electronics and power generation will be part of this.
1.2.Likely impact of inorganic printed and potentially printed technology to 2019
1.3.Toppan Forms vision of a smart Tokyo Transportation network
1.3.Progress so far
1.3.1.The age of silicon
1.3.2.The dream of organic electronics
1.3.3.The example of smart clothing
1.3.4.Slow progress with organic conductors
1.3.5.New inorganic materials and composites are often better
1.3.6.Trade-off between inorganic and organic solutions
1.4.The new inorganic printed and thin film devices
1.4.Smart home
1.4.1.Rapidly widening choice of elements - déjà vu
1.4.2.Example - printed lighting
1.4.3.Example - printed photodetectors
1.5.Future shop
1.6.Future office
1.7.The smart airport will simplify air travel
1.8.The different impact of the new printed electronics on various existing electric and electronic markets.
1.9.Organic electronics - the dream
1.10.Concept of a power jacket
1.11.Silicon solar tents - heavy, semi rigid and expensive, but a start
1.12.Organic FET compared with silicon FET
1.13.Attributes and problems of inorganic, hybrid and organic thin film electronics form a spectrum.
1.14.Elements employed in the silicon chip business where blue refers to before the 1990s, green for since the 1990s and red for beyond 2005.
1.15.Projections for flexible printed and thin film lighting 2007-2025
2.INORGANIC TRANSISTORS
2.1.Inorganic compound semiconductors for transistors
2.1.Comparison of printed polymer ink used in pilot production of organic transistors vs two thin film inorganic semiconductors for transistors vs nanosilicon ink
2.1.Transparent inorganic transistor
2.1.1.Learning how to print inorganic compound transistors
2.1.2.Zinc oxide based transistor semiconductors
2.1.3.Amorphous InGaZnO
2.1.4.Gallium-indium hydroxide nanoclusters
2.1.5.Gallium arsenide semiconductors for transistors
2.1.6.Transfer printing silicon and gallium arsenide on film
2.1.7.Silicon nanoparticle ink
2.2.Inorganic dielectrics for transistors
2.2.Some of the organisations developing zinc oxide transistors
2.2.Example of ZnO based transistor circuit.
2.2.1.Solution processed barium titanate nanocomposite
2.2.2.Alternative inorganic dielectrics HafSOx etc
2.2.3.Hybrid inorganic dielectrics - zirconia
2.2.4.Hafnium oxide - latest work
2.2.5.Aluminium, lanthanum and other oxides
2.3.Hewlett Packard prints aSi backplanes reel to reel
2.3.Some properties of new thin film dielectrics
2.3.Using a nanolaminate as an e-platform
2.4.TEM images of solution processed nanolaminates
2.4.Benefits and challenges of R2R electronics fabrication were seen as follows:
2.4.Inorganic transistors on paper
2.5.Progress Towards p-type Metal Oxide Semiconductors
2.5.Printing choices
2.5.Cross-sectional schematic view of an amorphous oxide TFT
2.6.Transparent and flexible active matrix backplanes fabricated on PEN films
2.6.Hybrid inorganic/organic transistors and memory
2.6.1.Resistive switching
2.6.2.Oxides as anodes
2.7.Do organic transistors have a future?
2.7.Molecular precursors synthesized at the University of Oregon
2.8.Semprius transfer printing
2.9.Performance of Kovio's ink versus others by mobility
2.10.Road map
2.11.Motorola high permittivity printable OFET dielectric using a barium titanate organic nanocomposite
2.12.Hybrid organic-inorganic transistor and right dual dielectric transistor
2.13.Web as clean room
2.14.The basic imprint lithography process
2.15.Zinc oxide transistors printed on to paper
2.16.SEM image of p-type ZnO nanowires.
3.INORGANIC PHOTOVOLTAICS
3.1.Performance criteria and limitations of silicon photovoltaics
3.1.Efficiency vs deliverable output power
3.1.Wafer vs thin film photovoltaics
3.2.Summary of the applicational requirements for the large potential markets
3.2.Efficiencies for thin film solar cells
3.2.Comparison of photovoltaic technologies
3.3.Non-silicon inorganic options
3.3.Technology comparison between inorganic and other photovoltaic cells on plastic film
3.3.Progress in improving the efficiency of the different types of photovoltaic cell 1975-2005.
3.3.1.Copper Indium Gallium diSelenide (CIGS)
3.3.2.Gallium arsenide
3.3.3.Gallium arsenide - germanium
3.3.4.Gallium indium phosphide and gallium indium arsenide
3.3.5.Cadmium telluride and cadmium selenide
3.3.6.Porous zinc oxide
3.3.7.Polymer-quantum dot devices CdSe, CdSe/ZnS, PbS, PbSe
3.3.8.Other inorganic semiconductors for PV
3.4.Inorganic-organic and carbon-organic formulations
3.4.Summary of some of the important performance criteria for photovoltaics by type
3.4.CIGS photovoltaic cell configuration
3.4.1.Titanium dioxide Dye Sensitised Solar Cells DSSC
3.4.2.Fullerene enhanced polymers
3.5.Other advances in 2008
3.5.Some recent results for inorganic and organic-fullerene photovoltaic cells
3.5.Physical Vapor Deposition System for Cu(In,Ga)Se2 layers
3.6.Flexible CIGS module on plastic film
3.6.Companies pursuing industrial production of CIGS photovoltaics
3.6.Cobalt, phosphate and ITO to store the energy
3.7.Quantum Dots Available
3.7.CIGS-CGS absorber layer
3.8.Roll to roll production of CIGS on metal or polyimide film
3.8.Typical quantum dot materials from Evident and their likely application.
3.9.Thin film market share module cost by technology
3.9.An example of flexible, lightweight CdTe photovoltaics on polymer film
3.10.Mass production of flexible thin film electronic devices using the three generations of technology.
3.11.A typical DSSC construction
3.12.Printed polymer DSSCs as constructed by Solaronix
3.13.Solid DSSC from CEA Liten
3.14.Typical Solaronix DSSC assembly process.
3.15.Examples of DSSCs
3.16.Fullerene-pentacene photovoltaic device
3.17.Advantages of Pulse Thermal Processing (PTP)
4.BATTERIES
4.1.Applications of laminar batteries
4.1.Some examples of marketing thrust for laminar batteries
4.1.Inorganic micro-battery development by CEA Liten, illustrating the various chemistries
4.2.CEA Liten Li-Ion battery development
4.2.Shapes of battery for small RFID tags advantages and disadvantages
4.2.Technology and developers
4.2.1.Battery overview
4.2.2.CEA Liten
4.2.3.Rocket Electric, Bexel, Samsung, LG Chemicals and micro SKC batteries for Ubiquitous Sensor Networks
4.2.4.Power Paper
4.2.5.Solicore, USA
4.2.6.SCI, USA
4.2.7.Infinite Power Solutions, USA
4.2.8.Cymbet USA
4.2.9.Blue Spark Technologies USA
4.2.10.Enfucell
4.2.11.Progress with lithium batteries in 2008
4.2.12.Printed battery research
4.3.Smart skin patches
4.3.Examples of suppliers of coin type batteries by country
4.3.The Power Paper battery
4.4.The Infinite Power battery is very small
4.4.The spectrum of choice of technologies for batteries in smart packaging
4.5.Reel to reel printing of TBT batteries.
4.5.Infinite Power batteries ready for use
4.6.Cymbet lithium thin film flexible battery
4.6.Examples of potential sources of flexible thin film batteries
4.7.Examples of universities and research centres developing laminar batteries
4.7.Relative performance claimed by Cymbet for its flexible batteries
4.8.Carbon zinc thin film battery from Blue Spark Technologies, formerly Thin Battery Technologies.
4.8.Examples of drugs and cosmetics applied by company using iontophoresis
4.9.Examples of smart skin patches.
4.10.The four generations of delivery skin patches
4.11.The Estee Lauder smart cosmetic patch with printed inorganic battery and electrodes launched in 2006 a three pack costing $50 and an eight pack costing $100.
4.12.The ultimate dream for smart skin patches for drugs - closed loop automated treatment.
4.13.Evolution of smart skin patches
5.INORGANIC CONDUCTORS AND SENSORS
5.1.Silver, indium tin oxide and general comparisons.
5.1.Main applications of conductive inks and some major suppliers today
5.1.Silver-based ink as printed and after curing
5.2.Conductance in ohms per square for the different printable conductive materials compared with bulk metal
5.2.Different options for printing electronics, level of success and examples of companies
5.2.Conductor deposition technologies
5.3.Conductive Inks
5.3.Comparison of metal etch (e.g. copper and aluminium) conductor choices
5.3.Loading for spherical conductive fillers
5.4.Typical SEM images of CU flake C1 6000F. Copper flake
5.4.Electroless metal plate - Additive print process with weakly conductive ink (e.g. plastics or carbon) followed by wet metal plating
5.4.Progress with new conductive ink chemistries and cure processes
5.5.Printed conductors for RFID tag antennas
5.5.Electro metal plate - Additive print process with weakly conductive ink (e.g. plastics or carbon) followed by dry metal plating
5.5.Choice of printing technology for RFID antennas today
5.5.2.Process cost comparison
5.5.3.RFID tag manufacture consolidation and leaders in 2009
5.6.Printable metallic conductors cure at LT e.g. silver based ink
5.6.Printing wide area sensors and their memory: Polyscene, Polyapply, 3Plast, PriMeBits, Motorola
5.6.Projected tag assembly costs from Alien Technology in US Cents for volumes of several billions of tags
5.7.How negative refractive index works
5.7.Phase Change Memory
5.7.Parameters for metal ink choices
5.8.Market share among suppliers for metal (mainly silver) PTF inks
5.8.Printing metamaterials
5.8.How to make a working printed metamaterial
5.9.Meco's Flex Antenna Plating (FAP) machine
5.9.Company profiles
5.9.Examples of companies progressing printed RFID antennas etc
5.9.1.ASK
5.9.2.Poly-Flex
5.9.3.Avery Dennison
5.9.4.Sun Chemical (Coates Circuit Products)
5.9.5.Mark Andy
5.9.6.InTune (formerly UPM Raflatac)
5.9.7.Stork Prints
5.10.Some companies progressing ink jettable conductors
5.10.Electroless plating and electroplating technologies
5.10.APT's FFD prototype can operate faster than 20 meters per minute.
5.10.1.Conductive Inkjet Technology
5.10.1.Hanita Coatings
5.10.2.Omron
5.10.3.Meco
5.10.4.Additive Process Technologies Ltd
5.10.5.Ertek
5.10.6.Leonhard Kurz
5.11.Process Cost Comparison 1 - low volume - GB £ /sq metre web production - Antenna on substrate only
5.11.Polymer - metal suspensions
5.11.Additive Process Technologies 2 stage process
5.12.Additive Process Technologies antenna cost
5.12.Comparison of options
5.12.Cost breakdown of an average RFID tag in 2004 and target
5.13.Possibilities for various new printed conductors.
5.13.Dry Phase Patterning (DPP)
5.13.New technology to make conductive patterns
5.14.Dry Phase Patterned inductor
5.14.Inorganic biomedical sensors
5.14.1.Disposable blocked artery sensors
5.14.2.Disposable asthma analysis
6.NANOTUBES AND NANOWIRES
6.1.Nanotubes
6.1.Charge carrier mobility of carbon nanotubes compared with alternatives
6.1.Properties and morphology of single walled carbon nanotubes
6.2.Nanotube shrink-wrap from Unidym
6.2.Developers of Carbon Nanotubes for Printed Electronics
6.2.Carbon Nanotubes and printed electronics
6.3.Developers of Carbon Nanotubes for Printed Electronics
6.3.Zinc oxide nanowires generating power
6.4.Nanorods in photovoltaics
6.5.Zinc oxide nanorod semiconductors
6.6.Zinc oxide nano-lasers
6.7.Indium oxide nanowires
6.8.Zinc oxide nanorod piezo power
7.INORGANIC AND HYBRID DISPLAYS AND LIGHTING
7.1.AC Electroluminescent
7.1.Advantages and disadvantages of electrophoretic displays
7.1.An example of an elumin8 electroluminescent display
7.1.1.Electroluminescent and other printed displays
7.1.2.CASE STUDIES: Electroluminescent applications
7.1.3.Rapid Improvements in AC Electroluminescent Displays
7.2.A promotional display used at DeBeers
7.2.Comparison between OLEDs and E-Ink of various parameters
7.2.Thermochromic
7.2.1.Heat generation and sensitivity
7.2.2.CASE STUDY: Duracell battery testers
7.3.A concept inorganic electroluminescent display that is created by the energy of the sun on a window
7.3.Electrophoretic
7.3.2.Applications of E-paper displays
7.3.3.The Killer Application
7.4.The six inorganic layers of an ac electroluminescent display screen printed by elumin8 the phosphor is Cu doped ZnS from DuPont
7.4.Colour electrophoretics
7.5.Inorganic LED lighting and hybrid OLED
7.5.elumin8 billboard display with changing images
7.6.Pelikon TV remote control and moving image in Fossil watch using ac electroluminescent display using eight inorganic layers
7.6.Quantum dot lighting and displays
7.7.AC electroluminescent apparel
7.8.Pelikon products have progressed as follows
7.9.Pelikon's prize winning fashion watch and intuitive flexible touch displays
7.10.Future timelines from Pelikon
7.11.Experimental game printed on beer pack by VTT Technology of Finland
7.12.Duracell battery testing chipless label - front and reverse view
7.13.Principle of operation of electrophoretic displays
7.14.E-paper displays on a magazine sold in the US in October 2008
7.15.Retail Shelf Edge Labels from UPM
7.16.Secondary display on a cell phone
7.17.Amazon Kindle 2, launched in the US in February 2009
7.18.Electrophoretic display on a commercially sold financial card
7.19.A Polymer Vision display
7.20.Electronic paper from Fujitsu
8.COMPANY PROFILES
8.1.Unidym's target markets for transparent conducting nanotube films
8.1.Hewlett Packard
8.2.Unidym
8.2.NanoMas technology
8.3.Konarka thin film solar cell arrays
8.3.NanoMas Technologies
8.4.Miasolé
8.4.G24i has a new UK factory printing titanium oxide photovoltaics
8.5.G24i's advanced solar technology vs traditional polycrystalline
8.5.Konarka
8.6.Spectrolab
8.6.Printed Flexible Circuits from Soligie
8.7.Capabilities of Soligie
8.7.G24i
8.8.Soligie
8.8.Printed electronics from Soligie
8.9.Printing presses used for printing electronics at Soligie
8.9.BASF
8.10.DaiNippon Printing
8.10.An e-label from Soligie
8.11.Semiconductor development at Evonik
8.11.Evonik
8.12.InkTec
8.12.Target range for mobility and processing temperature of semiconductors.
8.13.Transfer characteristics of gen3 semiconductor system
8.13.Samsung
8.14.Toppan Printing
8.14.Current efficiency of a Novaled PIN OLEDTM stack on an inkjet printed, transparent conductive ITO anode.
8.15.Inks developed by InkTec
8.16.InkTec Printing methods
8.17.Samsung OLED display
9.TIMELINES, SIZING OF OPPORTUNITIES AND MARKET FORECASTS
9.1.The market for inorganic versus organic electronics defined by chemistry of key element
9.1.Printed electronics materials and other elements of device income 2009-2019
9.1.Market forecasts 2009-2029
9.2.Materials
9.2.Market forecast by component type for 2009-2019 in US $ billions, for printed and potentially printed electronics including organic, inorganic and composites
9.2.Percentage share as a whole of the market
9.3.Printed electronics materials and other elements of device income 2009-2029 in billions of dollars
9.3.Konarka estimates of opening markets for flexible photovoltaics
9.3.Devices
9.3.1.Photovoltaics
9.3.2.Batteries, displays, etc
9.4.Photovoltaic market growth in megawatts by country 2004-2010
9.4.Market for printed and potentially printed electronic devices 2009-2029 in billions of dollars
9.5.Statistics for electronic labels and their potential locations
9.5.Organic semiconductor projection by IBM
9.6.Technical challenges for the next ten year to improvement of FDICD capabilities
9.7.Facts about media
9.8.SM Products Road Map
APPENDIX 1: IDTECHEX PUBLICATIONS
APPENDIX 2: GLOSSARY
TABLES
FIGURES
 

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