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Inorganic and Composite Printed Electronics 2011-2021: IDTechEx

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Inorganic and Composite Printed Electronics 2011-2021

Updated February 2012

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There is increasing work on printed inorganics as people struggle with the performance of organics in some aspects. For conductors with vastly better conductance and cost, for the best printed batteries, for quantum dot devices and for transistor semiconductors with ten times the mobility, look to the new inorganics. That is the emerging world of new nanoparticle metal and alloy inks that are magnitudes superior in cost, conductivity and stability, such as the flexible zinc oxide based transistor semiconductors working at ten times the frequency and with best stability and life, along with many other inorganic materials. Read the world's only report that pulls all this together in readable form.
 
This report critically compares the options, the trends and the emerging applications. It is the first in the world to comprehensively cover this exciting growth area. The emphasis is on technology basics, commercialisation and the key players.
 
This report is suitable for all companies developing or interested in the opportunity of printed or thin film electronics materials, manufacturing technologies or complete device fabrication and integration.
 
Market Forecasts
IDTechEx forecasts a market of $45 Billion for printed electronics by 2021 and that market is expected to be more or less evenly divided between organic and inorganic materials.
 
This report reveals the rapidly increasing opportunities for inorganic and composite chemicals in the new printed electronics, given that so much of the limelight is on organics. Inorganics encompass various metals, metal oxides as transparent conductors (such as fluorine tin oxide or indium tin oxide, extensively used in displays and photovoltaic technologies) or transistor materials as well as nano-silicon or copper and silver inks, whether in particle or flake form. Then there are inorganic quantum dots, carbon structures such as graphene, nanotubes and the various buckyballs etc. However, there is much more, from light emitting materials to battery elements and the amazing new meta-materials that render things invisible and lead to previously impossible forms of electronics.
 
Over the next ten years, improvements in inorganic conductors such as the use of nanotechnology and the lack of improvement of the very poorly conductive and expensive organic alternatives means that inorganics will be preferred for most conductors whether for electrodes, antennas, touch buttons, interconnects or for other purposes. By contrast, organic substrates for flexible electronics such as low cost polyester film and paper will be preferred in most cases because they are light weight, low cost and have a wide range of mechanical flexibility. The use of inorganic substrates such as glass represents a fall-back particularly required where there is failure to reduce processing temperatures. Here stainless steel foil printed reel to reel is an improvement, where possible.
 
Inorganic vs. Organic Market Forecasts 2011-2021
 
 
Source: IDTechEx
Technologies covered
The report considers inorganic printed and thin film electronics for displays, lighting, semiconductors, sensors, conductors, photovoltaics, batteries and memory giving detailed company profiles not available elsewhere. The coverage is global - with companies from East Asia to Europe to America all included.
 
The application of the technology in relation to other types such as organic electronics and silicon chips is given, with detailed information clearly summarised in over 160 tables and figures.
 
Printed and Flexible PV Market Forecasts 2011-2021
 
 
Source:IDTechEx
Elements being targeted
In order to meet the widening variety of needs for printed and potentially printed electronics, not least in flexible, low cost form, a rapidly increasing number of elements are being brought to bear. Oxides, amorphous mixtures and alloys are particularly in evidence. Even the so-called organic devices such as OLEDs variously employ such materials as B, Al and Ti oxides and nitrides as barrier layers against water and oxygen, Al, Cu, Ag and indium tin oxide as conductors, Ca or Mg cathodes and CoFe nanodots, Ir and Eu in light emitting layers, for example.
 
This report is essential for all those wishing to understand this technology, the players, opportunities and applications, to ensure they are not surpassed.
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Table of Contents
1.INTRODUCTION
1.1.Printed electronics - reasons why
1.1.Comparison of thin film silicon and organic thin films as transistor semiconductors.
1.1.SuperPanoramic cockpit with closable opaque layer - a concept of the US Air Force
1.2.US Warfighter's back pack must reduce in weight. Wrist displays, printed antennas, batteries, electronics and power generation will be part of this.
1.2.Impact of printed electronics on conventional electronics
1.3.Progress so far
1.3.The different impact of the new printed electronics on various existing electric and electronic markets
1.3.1.The age of silicon
1.3.2.The dream of organic electronics
1.3.3.The example of smart clothing
1.3.4.Slow progress with organic conductors
1.3.5.Boron nitride - tailoring carbon composites
1.4.Organic electronics - the dream
1.4.The new inorganic printed and thin film devices
1.4.1.Rapidly widening choice of elements - déjà vu
1.4.2.Example - printed lighting
1.4.3.Example - printed photodetectors
1.4.4.Inorganic barrier layers - alumina, silicon nitride, boron nitride etc
1.5.Attributes and problems of inorganic, hybrid and organic thin film electronics form a spectrum
1.6.Elements employed in the silicon chip business where blue refers to before the 1990s, green for since the 1990s and red for beyond 2005.
1.7.Projections for flexible printed and thin film lighting 2007-2025
1.8.Tera-Barrier's barrier stack
2.INORGANIC TRANSISTORS
2.1.Comparison of printed polymer ink used in pilot production of organic transistors vs two thin film inorganic semiconductors for transistors vs nanosilicon ink
2.1.Transparent inorganic transistor
2.1.Inorganic compound semiconductors for transistors
2.1.1.Learning how to print inorganic compound transistors
2.1.2.Zinc oxide based transistor semiconductors and Samsung breakthrough
2.1.3.More work on inorganic transistors: Progress at Evonik
2.1.4.Amorphous InGaZnO
2.1.5.Gallium-indium hydroxide nanoclusters
2.1.6.Gallium arsenide semiconductors for transistors
2.1.7.Transfer printing silicon and gallium arsenide on film
2.1.8.Silicon nanoparticle ink
2.1.9.Molybdenite transistors at EPFL Lausanne
2.1.10.Carbon nanotube TFTs at SWeNT
2.2.Inorganic dielectrics for transistors
2.2.Example of ZnO based transistor circuit.
2.2.Some of the organisations developing zinc oxide transistors
2.2.1.Solution processed barium titanate nanocomposite
2.2.2.Alternative inorganic dielectrics HafSOx etc
2.2.3.Hybrid inorganic dielectrics - zirconia
2.2.4.Hafnium oxide - latest work
2.2.5.Aluminium, lanthanum and other oxides
2.3.Hewlett Packard prints aSi backplanes reel to reel
2.3.Some properties of new thin film dielectrics
2.3.Using a nanolaminate as an e-platform
2.4.TEM images of solution processed nanolaminates
2.4.Benefits and challenges of R2R electronics fabrication were seen as follows:
2.4.Inorganic transistors on paper
2.5.Progress Towards p-type Metal Oxide Semiconductors
2.5.Printing choices
2.5.Semiconductor development
2.6.Target range for mobility and processing temperature of semiconductors
2.6.High-Mobility Ambipolar Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Transistors
2.7.Hybrid inorganic/organic transistors and memory
2.7.Transfer characteristics of gen3 semiconductor system
2.7.1.Resistive switching
2.7.2.Oxides as anodes
2.8.Do organic transistors have a future?
2.8.Current efficiency of a Novaled PIN OLEDTM stack on an inkjet printed, transparent conductive ITO anode
2.9.Cross-sectional schematic view of an amorphous oxide TFT
2.10.Transparent and flexible active matrix backplanes fabricated on PEN films
2.11.Molecular precursors synthesized at the University of Oregon
2.12.Semprius transfer printing
2.13.Performance of Kovio's ink versus others by mobility
2.14.Road map
2.15.Molybdenite transistor from EPFL Lausanne
2.16.Hybrid organic-inorganic transistor and right dual dielectric transistor
2.17.Web as clean room
2.18.The basic imprint lithography process
2.19.Zinc oxide transistors printed on to paper
2.20.SEM image of p-type ZnO nanowires
3.INORGANIC PHOTOVOLTAICS AND THERMOELECTRIC
3.1.Efficiency vs deliverable output power
3.1.Wafer vs thin film photovoltaics
3.1.Performance criteria and limitations of silicon photovoltaics
3.2.Comparison of photovoltaic technologies
3.2.Summary of the applicational requirements for the large potential markets
3.2.Efficiencies for thin film solar cells
3.3.Technology comparison between inorganic and other photovoltaic cells on plastic film
3.3.Progress in improving the efficiency of the different types of photovoltaic cell 1975-2011
3.3.Non-silicon inorganic options
3.3.1.Lowest cost solar cells - CuSnZnSSe?
3.3.2.Copper Indium Gallium diSelenide (CIGS)
3.3.3.Gallium arsenide
3.3.4.Gallium arsenide - germanium
3.3.5.Gallium indium phosphide and gallium indium arsenide
3.3.6.Cadmium telluride and cadmium selenide
3.3.7.Bismuth ferrite - new principle of operation
3.3.8.Porous zinc oxide
3.3.9.Polymer-quantum dot devices CdSe, CdSe/ZnS, PbS, PbSe
3.3.10.Cuprous oxide PV
3.3.11.Other inorganic semiconductors for PV
3.4.Inorganic-organic and carbon-organic formulations
3.4.CIGS photovoltaic cell configuration that is not yet printed. Nanosolar now prints similar structures reel to reel.
3.4.Summary of some of the important performance criteria for photovoltaics by type
3.4.1.Titanium dioxide Dye Sensitised Solar Cells (DSSC)
3.4.2.Zinc oxide DSCC photovoltaics
3.4.3.Development of high-performance organic-dye sensitized solar cells
3.4.4.Fullerene enhanced polymers
3.5.Other recent advances
3.5.Some recent results for inorganic and organic-fullerene photovoltaic cells
3.5.CIGS-CGS absorber layer
3.6.Roll to roll production of CIGS on metal or polyimide film
3.6.Companies pursuing industrial production of CIGS photovoltaics
3.6.Cobalt, phosphate and ITO to store the energy
3.7.Major US funding for thin Si, CIGS/ZnMnO, DSSC photovoltaics
3.7.Quantum Dots Available
3.7.An example of flexible, lightweight CdTe photovoltaics on polymer film
3.8.Mass production of flexible thin film electronic devices using the three generations of technology.
3.8.Typical quantum dot materials from Evident and their likely application.
3.9.Thin film market share module cost by technology
3.9.A typical DSSC construction
3.10.Solar cell researchers
3.11.Fullerene-pentacene photovoltaic device
3.12.Advantages of Pulse Thermal Processing (PTP)
4.BATTERIES AND SUPERCAPACITORS
4.1.Some examples of marketing thrust for laminar batteries
4.1.Inorganic micro-battery development by CEA Liten, illustrating the various chemistries
4.1.Applications of laminar batteries
4.2.Technology and developers
4.2.CEA Liten Li-Ion battery development
4.2.Shapes of battery for small RFID tags advantages and disadvantages
4.2.1.All-inorganic printed lithium electric vehicle battery: Planar Energy
4.2.2.Zirconium disulphide
4.2.3.Battery overview
4.2.4.The Paper Battery Co
4.2.5.Nanotecture
4.2.6.CEA Liten
4.2.7.Rocket Electric, Bexel, Samsung, LG Chemicals and micro SKC batteries for Ubiquitous Sensor Networks
4.2.8.Power Paper
4.2.9.Solicore, USA
4.2.10.SCI, USA
4.2.11.Infinite Power Solutions, USA
4.2.12.Blue Spark Technologies, USA
4.2.13.Enfucell
4.2.14.Printed battery research
4.3.Smart skin patches
4.3.Examples of suppliers of coin type batteries by country
4.3.The Power Paper battery
4.4.The Infinite Power battery is very small
4.4.The spectrum of choice of technologies for batteries in smart packaging
4.4.Nano metal oxides with carbon create new supercapacitor
4.5.Examples of potential sources of flexible thin film batteries
4.5.Infinite Power batteries ready for use
4.6.IPS Thinergy rechargeable, solid-state lithium batteries
4.6.Examples of universities and research centres developing laminar batteries
4.7.The four generations of delivery skin patches
4.7.Reel to reel printing of Blue Spark Technologies batteries
4.8.Carbon zinc thin film battery from Blue Spark Technologies
4.8.Examples of drugs and cosmetics applied by company using iontophoresis
4.9.Examples of smart skin patches.
4.10.The Estee Lauder smart cosmetic patch with printed inorganic battery and electrodes launched in 2006 a three pack costing $50 and an eight pack costing $100
4.11.The ultimate dream for smart skin patches for drugs - closed loop automated treatment
4.12.Evolution of smart skin patches
5.CONDUCTORS, SENSORS, METAMATERIALS AND MEMRISTORS
5.1.Main applications of conductive inks and some major suppliers today
5.1.Typical SEM images of Copper flake C1 6000F.
5.1.Silver, indium tin oxide and general comparisons.
5.2.Conductor deposition technologies
5.2.Industrial Inkjet Printhead and nano-Cu ink developed by Samsung Electro-Mechanics
5.2.Different options for printing electronics, level of success and examples of companies
5.3.Comparison of metal etch (e.g. copper and aluminium) conductor choices
5.3.Silver-based ink as printed and after curing
5.3.2009/2010 breakthroughs in printing copper
5.3.1.Challenges with copper
5.3.2.University of Helsinki
5.3.3.NanoDynamics
5.3.4.Applied Nanotech Holdings
5.3.5.Samsung Electro-Mechanics
5.3.6.Intrinsiq announces nano copper for printing
5.3.7.NovaCentrix
5.3.8.Hitachi Chemical
5.4.Conductive Inks
5.4.Conductance in ohms per square for the different printable conductive materials compared with bulk metal
5.4.Electroless metal plate - Additive print process with weakly conductive ink (e.g. plastics or carbon) followed by wet metal plating
5.5.Electro metal plate - Additive print process with weakly conductive ink (e.g. plastics or carbon) followed by dry metal plating
5.5.Loading for spherical conductive fillers
5.5.Progress with new conductive ink chemistries and cure processes
5.5.1.Novacentrix PulseForge
5.6.Pre-Deposit Images in Metal PDIM
5.6.Typical SEM images of CU flake C1 6000F. Copper flake
5.6.Printable metallic conductors cure at LT e.g. silver based ink
5.7.Parameters for metal ink choices
5.7.PolyIC approach to patterned transparent electrodes
5.7.Transparent electrodes by metal patterning
5.8.Printed conductors for RFID tag antennas
5.8.Caledon Controls transparent conductive film using printed metal patterning.
5.8.Examples of suppliers for metal (mainly silver) PTF inks
5.8.1.Print resolutions required for high performance RFID tag antennas
5.8.2.Process cost comparison
5.8.3.RFID tag manufacture consolidation and leaders in 2009
5.9.Printing wide area sensors and their memory: Polyscene, Polyapply, 3Plast, PriMeBits, Motorola
5.9.Examples of companies progressing printed RFID antennas etc
5.9.Choice of printing technology for RFID antennas today
5.10.Projected tag assembly costs from Alien Technology in US Cents for volumes of several billions of tags
5.10.Some companies progressing ink jettable conductors
5.10.Phase Change Memory
5.11.Printing metamaterials
5.11.Process Cost Comparison 1 - low volume - GB £ /sq metre web production - Antenna on substrate only
5.11.How negative refractive index works
5.12.How to make a working printed metamaterial
5.12.Cost breakdown of an average RFID tag in 2004 and target
5.12.Flexible memristors
5.13.Company profiles
5.13.Possibilities for various new printed conductors.
5.13.Printed metal patterning to form metamaterial
5.13.1.ASK
5.13.2.Poly-Flex
5.13.3.Avery Dennison
5.13.4.Sun Chemical (Coates Circuit Products)
5.13.5.Mark Andy
5.13.6.InTune (formerly UPM Raflatac)
5.13.7.Stork Prints
5.14.Aerosol jet printing by Optomec
5.14.Flexible memristor
5.15.Meco's Flex Antenna Plating (FAP) machine
5.15.Electroless plating and electroplating technologies
5.15.1.Conductive Inkjet Technology
5.15.1.Hanita Coatings
5.15.2.Omron
5.15.3.Meco
5.15.4.Additive Process Technologies Ltd
5.15.5.Ertek
5.15.6.Leonhard Kurz
5.16.Polymer - metal suspensions
5.16.APT's FFD prototype can operate faster than 20 meters per minute.
5.17.Additive Process Technologies 2 stage process
5.17.Comparison of options
5.18.Dry Phase Patterning (DPP)
5.18.Additive Process Technologies antenna cost
5.19.New technology to make conductive patterns
5.19.Inorganic biomedical sensors
5.19.1.Disposable blocked artery sensors
5.19.2.Disposable asthma analysis
5.20.Dry Phase Patterned inductor
6.NANOTUBES AND NANOWIRES
6.1.Charge carrier mobility of carbon nanotubes compared with alternatives
6.1.Properties and morphology of single walled carbon nanotubes
6.1.Nanotubes
6.2.At Stanford, nanotubes + ink + paper = instant battery
6.2.Nanotube shrink-wrap from Unidym
6.2.Developers of Carbon Nanotubes for Printed Electronics
6.3.Zinc oxide nanowires generating power
6.3.Carbon Nanotubes and printed electronics
6.4.Developers of Carbon Nanotubes for Printed Electronics
6.5.Nanorods in photovoltaics
6.6.Zinc oxide nanorod semiconductors
6.7.Zinc oxide nano-lasers
6.8.Indium oxide nanowires
6.9.Zinc oxide nanorod piezo power
7.INORGANIC AND HYBRID DISPLAYS AND LIGHTING
7.1.Advantages and disadvantages of electrophoretic displays
7.1.Pelikon's (now MFLEX) prize winning fashion watch
7.1.AC Electroluminescent
7.1.1.Fully flexible electroluminescent displays
7.1.2.Watch displays
7.1.3.MorphTouch™ from MFLEX
7.1.4.Electroluminescent and other printed displays
7.2.Thermochromic
7.2.An example of an elumin8 electroluminescent display
7.2.Comparison between OLEDs and E-Ink of various parameters
7.2.1.Heat generation and sensitivity
7.2.2.CASE STUDY: Duracell battery testers
7.3.Electrophoretic
7.3.Experimental game printed on beer pack by VTT Technology of Finland
7.3.1.Background
7.3.2.Applications of E-paper displays
7.3.3.Electrochromic E-Paper using ZnO Nanowire Array
7.3.4.The Killer Application
7.4.Colour electrophoretics
7.4.Duracell battery testing chipless label - front and reverse view
7.5.Principle of operation of electrophoretic displays
7.5.Inorganic LED lighting and hybrid OLED
7.6.Affordable electronic window shutters
7.6.E-paper displays on a magazine sold in the US in October 2008
7.7.Retail Shelf Edge Labels from UPM
7.7.Quantum dot lighting and displays
7.8.Secondary display on a cell phone
7.9.Scheme of the fabricated e-paper nanostructure based on ZnO nanowires
7.10.Photo image of (a) bleached, and (b) color state of the flexible ZnO nanowire electrode
7.11.Electronic paper from Fujitsu
8.COMPANY PROFILES
8.1.Unidym's target markets for transparent conducting nanotube films
8.1.Hewlett Packard
8.2.Unidym
8.2.NanoMas technology
8.3.Konarka thin film solar cell arrays
8.3.NanoMas Technologies
8.4.Miasolé
8.4.G24i has a new UK factory printing titanium oxide photovoltaics
8.5.G24i's advanced solar technology vs traditional polycrystalline
8.5.Konarka
8.6.Spectrolab
8.6.Printed Flexible Circuits from Soligie
8.7.Capabilities of Soligie
8.7.G24i
8.8.Soligie
8.8.Printed electronics from Soligie
8.9.Printing presses used for printing electronics at Soligie
8.9.BASF
8.10.DaiNippon Printing
8.10.An e-label from Soligie
8.11.Semiconductor development at Evonik
8.11.Evonik
8.12.InkTec
8.12.Target range for mobility and processing temperature of semiconductors.
8.13.Transfer characteristics of gen3 semiconductor system
8.13.Samsung
8.14.Toppan Printing
8.14.Current efficiency of a Novaled PIN OLEDTM stack on an inkjet printed, transparent conductive ITO anode.
8.15.Inks developed by InkTec
8.15.Nanogram
8.16.InkTec Printing methods
8.17.Samsung OLED display
8.18.NanoGram's Laser Reactive Deposition (LRD) technology
9.TIMELINES, SIZING OF OPPORTUNITIES AND MARKET FORECASTS
9.1.The market for inorganic versus organic electronics defined by chemistry of key element 2011-2021
9.1.Printed electronics materials and other elements of device income 2011-2021
9.1.Market forecasts 2011-2021
9.2.Materials
9.2.Market forecast by component type for 2011-2021 in US $ billions, for printed and potentially printed electronics including organic, inorganic and composites
9.2.Percentage share as a whole of the market 2011-2021
9.3.Printed electronics materials and other elements of device income 2011-2021 in billions of dollars
9.3.Konarka estimates of opening markets for flexible photovoltaics
9.3.Devices
9.3.1.Photovoltaics
9.3.2.Batteries, displays, etc
9.3.3.Market for printed electronic labels
9.4.Organic semiconductor projection by IBM
9.4.Market forecast by component type for 2011-2021 in US $ billions, for printed and potentially printed electronics including organic, inorganic and composites
9.5.Market size for thin film photovoltaic technologies beyond silicon technologies % of the market that is printed and flexible
9.5.Technical challenges for the next ten year to improvement of FDICD capabilities
9.6.Facts about media
9.6.Statistics for electronic labels and their potential locations
9.7.SM Products Road Map
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS
APPENDIX 1: IDTECHEX PUBLICATIONS AND CONSULTANCY
TABLES
FIGURES
 

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