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Inorganic and Composite Printed Electronics 2014-2024: IDTechEx

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Inorganic and Composite Printed Electronics 2014-2024

Transistors, PV, batteries/supercapacitors, conductors, sensors, metamaterials, memristors, displays and lighting


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There is increasing work on printed inorganics as people struggle with the performance of organics in some aspects. For conductors with vastly better conductance and cost, for the best printed batteries, for quantum dot devices and for transistor semiconductors with ten times the mobility, look to the new inorganics. That is the emerging world of new nanoparticle metal and alloy inks that are magnitudes superior in cost, conductivity and stability, such as the flexible zinc oxide based transistor semiconductors working at ten times the frequency and with best stability and life, along with many other inorganic materials. Read the world's only report that pulls all this together in readable form.
 
This report critically compares the options, the trends and the emerging applications. It is the first in the world to comprehensively cover this exciting growth area. The emphasis is on technology basics, commercialisation and the key players.
 
This report is suitable for all companies developing or interested in the opportunity of printed or thin film electronics materials, manufacturing technologies or complete device fabrication and integration.
Market forecasts
IDTechEx forecasts a market of $75 billion for printed electronics by 2024 and that market is expected to be more or less evenly divided between organic and inorganic materials.
 
This report reveals the rapidly increasing opportunities for inorganic and composite chemicals in the new printed electronics, given that so much of the limelight is on organics. Inorganics encompass various metals, metal oxides as transparent conductors (such as fluorine tin oxide or indium tin oxide, extensively used in displays and photovoltaic technologies) or transistor materials as well as nano-silicon or copper and silver inks, whether in particle or flake form. Then there are inorganic quantum dots, carbon structures such as graphene, nanotubes and the various buckyballs etc. However, there is much more, from light emitting materials to battery elements and the amazing new meta-materials that render things invisible and lead to previously impossible forms of electronics.
 
The market for inorganic versus organic electronics defined by chemistry of key element*
 
*For the full forecast data please purchase this report
 
Source: IDTechEx
 
Over the next ten years, improvements in inorganic conductors such as the use of nanotechnology and the lack of improvement of the very poorly conductive and expensive organic alternatives means that inorganics will be preferred for most conductors whether for electrodes, antennas, touch buttons, interconnects or for other purposes. By contrast, organic substrates for flexible electronics such as low cost polyester film and paper will be preferred in most cases because they are light weight, low cost and have a wide range of mechanical flexibility. The use of inorganic substrates such as glass represents a fall-back particularly required where there is failure to reduce processing temperatures. Here stainless steel foil printed reel to reel is an improvement, where possible.
Technologies covered
The report considers inorganic printed and thin film electronics for displays, lighting, semiconductors, sensors, conductors, photovoltaics, batteries and memory giving detailed company profiles not available elsewhere. The coverage is global - with companies from East Asia to Europe to America all included.
 
The application of the technology in relation to other types such as organic electronics and silicon chips is given, with detailed information clearly summarised in many tables and figures.
Elements being targeted
In order to meet the widening variety of needs for printed and potentially printed electronics, not least in flexible, low cost form, a rapidly increasing number of elements are being brought to bear. Oxides, amorphous mixtures and alloys are particularly in evidence. Even the so-called organic devices such as OLEDs variously employ such materials as B, Al and Ti oxides and nitrides as barrier layers against water and oxygen, Al, Cu, Ag and indium tin oxide as conductors, Ca or Mg cathodes and CoFe nanodots, Ir and Eu in light emitting layers, for example.
 
This report is essential for all those wishing to understand this technology, the players, opportunities and applications, to ensure they are not surpassed.
Analyst access from IDTechEx
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Further information
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Table of Contents
1.EXECUTIVE SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS
1.1.Printed electronics
1.1.The market for inorganic versus organic electronics defined by chemistry of key element 2014 2024
1.1.Growth of the market for silicon chips compared with IDTechEx projections for printed and potentially printed electronics and electrics
1.2.Some of the most promising elements employed in research and production
1.2.Printed electronics materials and other elements of device income 2014-2024 in billions of dollars
1.2.Mainly inorganic
1.3.The opportunity for chemical companies
1.3.Examples of inorganic materials needed for printed electronics and their suppliers.
1.3.The market for inorganic versus organic electronics defined by chemistry of key element 2014 2024
1.4.Printed electronics materials and other elements of device income 2014-2024
1.4.Comparison of the more challenging inorganic and organic materials used in printed and potentially printed electronics
1.4.Inorganic vs organic
1.5.Photovoltaics
1.5.Typical quantum dot materials from Evident Technologies and their likely application.
1.5.The increasing potential of progress towards the printing of electric and electronic devices
1.6.Attributes and problems of inorganic, hybrid and organic thin film electronics form a spectrum.
1.6.The leading photovoltaic technologies compared
1.6.Progress with Semiconductors
1.6.1.Oxide Semiconductors
1.6.2.Carbon Nanotubes
1.6.3.Organics
1.6.4.Others
1.7.Printed electronics needs new design rules
1.7.Likely impact of inorganic printed and potentially printed technology to 2020 - dominant technology by device and element
1.7.1.Metamaterials, nantennas and memristors
1.8.Mass production of flexible thin film electronic devices using the three generations of technology
1.8.Inorganic compounds for future 2D crystal devices
1.9.Strategy options for chemical companies seeking a major share of the printed electronics market, with examples.
1.10.Metal interconnect and antennas on a BlueSpark printed manganese dioxide zinc battery supporting integral antenna and interconnects.
2.INTRODUCTION
2.1.SuperPanoramic cockpit with closable opaque layer - a concept of the US Air Force
2.1.Comparison of thin film silicon and organic thin films as transistor semiconductors.
2.1.Printed electronics - reasons why
2.2.Impact of printed electronics on conventional electronics
2.2.US Warfighter's back pack must reduce in weight. Wrist displays, printed antennas, batteries, electronics and power generation will be part of this.
2.3.The different impact of the new printed electronics on various existing electric and electronic markets
2.3.Progress so far
2.3.1.The age of silicon
2.3.2.The dream of organic electronics
2.3.3.The example of smart clothing
2.3.4.Slow progress with organic conductors
2.3.5.Boron nitride - tailoring carbon composites
2.3.6.Molybdenum disulfide
2.4.Organic electronics - the dream
2.4.The new inorganic printed and thin film devices
2.4.1.Rapidly widening choice of elements - déjà vu
2.4.2.Metamaterial solar cells and sensors
2.4.3.Printed lighting
2.4.4.Printed photodetectors
2.4.5.Inorganic barrier layers - alumina, silicon nitride, boron nitride etc
2.5.Attributes and problems of inorganic, hybrid and organic thin film electronics form a spectrum
2.6.Elements employed in the silicon chip business where blue refers to before the 1990s, green for since the 1990s and red for beyond 2005.
2.7.Projections for flexible printed and thin film lighting 2007-2025
2.8.Tera-Barrier's barrier stack
3.INORGANIC TRANSISTORS
3.1.Inorganic compound semiconductors for transistors
3.1.Transparent inorganic transistor
3.1.Comparison of printed polymer ink used in pilot production of organic transistors vs two thin film inorganic semiconductors for transistors vs nanosilicon ink
3.1.1.Learning how to print inorganic compound transistors
3.1.2.Zinc oxide based transistor semiconductors and Samsung breakthrough
3.1.3.Aluminium oxide n type transistor semiconductor
3.1.4.Amorphous InGaZnO
3.1.5.Gallium-indium hydroxide nanoclusters
3.1.6.Gallium arsenide semiconductors for transistors
3.1.7.Transfer printing silicon and gallium arsenide on film
3.1.8.Silicon nanoparticle ink
3.1.9.Molybdenite transistors at EPFL Lausanne
3.1.10.Carbon nanotube TFTs at SWeNT
3.2.Inorganic dielectrics for transistors
3.2.Some of the organisations developing zinc oxide transistors
3.2.Example of ZnO based transistor circuit.
3.2.1.Solution processed barium titanate nanocomposite
3.2.2.Alternative inorganic dielectrics HafSOx etc
3.2.3.Hybrid inorganic dielectrics - zirconia
3.2.4.Hafnium oxide - latest work
3.2.5.Aluminium, lanthanum and other oxides
3.3.Hewlett Packard prints aSi backplanes reel to reel
3.3.Using a nanolaminate as an e-platform
3.3.Some properties of new thin film dielectrics
3.4.Benefits and challenges of R2R electronics fabrication
3.4.TEM images of solution processed nanolaminates
3.4.Inorganic transistors on paper
3.5.Progress Towards p-type Metal Oxide Semiconductors
3.5.Cross-sectional schematic view of an amorphous oxide TFT
3.5.Printing choices
3.6.Transparent and flexible active matrix backplanes fabricated on PEN films
3.6.High-Mobility Ambipolar Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Transistors
3.7.Hybrid inorganic/organic transistors and memory
3.7.Molecular precursors synthesized at the University of Oregon
3.7.1.Resistive switching
3.7.2.Oxides as anodes
3.8.Do organic transistors have a future?
3.8.Semprius transfer printing
3.9.Performance of Kovio's ink versus others by mobility
3.9.Latest progress
3.9.1.Oxide Semiconductors
3.9.2.Carbon Nanotubes
3.9.3.Organics
3.9.4.Nickel oxide transistors and sensors
3.9.5.Inorganic transistors for ubiquitous RFID
3.9.6.Others
3.10.Road map
3.11.Molybdenite transistor from EPFL Lausanne
3.12.Hybrid organic-inorganic transistor and right dual dielectric transistor
3.13.Web as clean room
3.14.The basic imprint lithography process
3.15.Zinc oxide transistors printed on to paper
3.16.SEM image of p-type ZnO nanowires
4.INORGANIC PHOTOVOLTAICS AND THERMOELECTRIC
4.1.Performance criteria and limitations of silicon photovoltaics
4.1.Wafer vs thin film photovoltaics
4.1.Efficiency vs deliverable output power
4.2.Efficiencies for thin film solar cells
4.2.Summary of the applicational requirements for the large potential markets
4.2.Comparison of photovoltaic technologies
4.3.Non-silicon inorganic options
4.3.Progress in improving the efficiency of the different types of photovoltaic cell 1975-2011
4.3.Technology comparison between inorganic and other photovoltaic cells on plastic film
4.3.1.Lowest cost solar cells - CuSnZnSSe?
4.3.2.Copper Indium Gallium diSelenide (CIGS)
4.3.3.Gallium arsenide
4.3.4.Gallium arsenide - germanium
4.3.5.Gallium indium phosphide and gallium indium arsenide
4.3.6.Cadmium telluride and cadmium selenide
4.3.7.Bismuth ferrite - new principle of operation
4.3.8.Porous zinc oxide
4.3.9.Polymer-quantum dot devices CdSe, CdSe/ZnS, PbS, PbSe
4.3.10.Cuprous oxide PV
4.3.11.Other inorganic semiconductors for PV
4.4.Inorganic-organic and carbon-organic formulations
4.4.Summary of some of the important performance criteria for photovoltaics by type
4.4.CIGS photovoltaic cell configuration that is not yet printed. Nanosolar now prints similar structures reel to reel.
4.4.1.Titanium dioxide Dye Sensitised Solar Cells (DSSC)
4.4.2.Zinc oxide DSCC photovoltaics
4.4.3.Development of high-performance organic-dye sensitized solar cells
4.4.4.Fullerene enhanced polymers
4.5.Other recent advances
4.5.CIGS-CGS absorber layer
4.5.Some recent results for inorganic and organic-fullerene photovoltaic cells
4.6.Companies pursuing industrial production of CIGS photovoltaics
4.6.Roll to roll production of CIGS on metal or polyimide film
4.6.Cobalt, phosphate and ITO to store the energy
4.7.Major US funding for thin Si, CIGS/ZnMnO, DSSC photovoltaics
4.7.An example of flexible, lightweight CdTe photovoltaics on polymer film
4.7.Quantum Dots Available
4.8.Typical quantum dot materials from Evident and their likely application.
4.8.Mass production of flexible thin film electronic devices using the three generations of technology.
4.8.Nanoplasmonic silicon film photovoltaics
4.9.A typical DSSC construction
4.9.Thin film market share module cost by technology
4.10.Solar cell researchers
4.11.Fullerene-pentacene photovoltaic device
4.12.Advantages of Pulse Thermal Processing (PTP)
5.BATTERIES AND SUPERCAPACITORS
5.1.Printing large rechargeable batteries and supercapacitors
5.1.Reel to reel printing of Blue Spark Technologies batteries
5.1.Inorganic materials now used for cathodes and anodes of lithium-ion and "rechargeable lithium" (lithium metal rechargeable) batteries
5.2.Some examples of marketing thrust for laminar batteries
5.2.Carbon zinc thin film battery from Blue Spark Technologies
5.2.Applications of laminar batteries
5.3.Technology and developers
5.3.Inorganic micro-battery development by CEA Liten, illustrating the various chemistries
5.3.Shapes of battery for small RFID tags advantages and disadvantages
5.3.1.All-inorganic printed lithium electric vehicle battery: Planar Energy
5.3.2.Battery overview
5.3.3.Blue Spark Technologies, USA
5.3.4.CEA Liten
5.3.5.Enfucell
5.3.6.Imprint
5.3.7.Infinite Power Solutions, USA
5.3.8.Printed battery research
5.3.9.Rocket Electric, Bexel, Samsung, LG Chemicals and micro SKC batteries for Ubiquitous Sensor Networks
5.3.10.SCI, USA
5.3.11.Showa Denko KK Japan
5.3.12.Solicore, USA
5.3.13.The Paper Battery Co
5.3.14.Zirconium disulphide
5.4.Smart skin patches
5.4.Examples of suppliers of coin type batteries by country
5.4.CEA Liten Li-Ion battery development
5.5.The Infinite Power battery is very small
5.5.The spectrum of choice of technologies for batteries in smart packaging
5.5.Nano metal oxides with carbon create new supercapacitor
5.6.Stretchable supercapacitors in 2014-15
5.6.Examples of potential sources of flexible thin film batteries
5.6.Infinite Power batteries ready for use
5.7.IPS Thinergy rechargeable, solid-state lithium batteries
5.7.Examples of universities and research centres developing laminar batteries
5.8.The four generations of delivery skin patches
5.8.Examples of smart skin patches.
5.9.The Estee Lauder smart cosmetic patch with printed inorganic battery and electrodes launched in 2006 a three pack costing $50 and an eight pack costing $100
5.9.Examples of drugs and cosmetics applied by company using iontophoresis
5.10.The ultimate dream for smart skin patches for drugs - closed loop automated treatment
5.11.Evolution of smart skin patches
6.CONDUCTORS, SENSORS, METAMATERIALS AND MEMRISTORS
6.1.Silver, indium tin oxide and general comparisons.
6.1.Typical SEM images of Copper flake C1 6000F.
6.1.Main applications of conductive inks and some major suppliers today
6.2.Different options for printing electronics, level of success and examples of companies
6.2.Industrial Inkjet Printhead and nano-Cu ink developed by Samsung Electro-Mechanics
6.2.Conductor deposition technologies
6.3.Breakthroughs in printing copper
6.3.Silver-based ink as printed and after curing
6.3.Comparison of metal etch (e.g. copper and aluminium) conductor choices
6.3.1.Challenges with copper
6.3.2.University of Helsinki
6.3.3.NanoDynamics
6.3.4.Applied Nanotech Holdings
6.3.5.Samsung Electro-Mechanics
6.3.6.Intrinsiq announces nano copper for printing
6.3.7.NovaCentrix
6.3.8.Hitachi Chemical
6.4.Conductive Inks
6.4.Electroless metal plate - Additive print process with weakly conductive ink (e.g. plastics or carbon) followed by wet metal plating
6.4.Conductance in ohms per square for the different printable conductive materials compared with bulk metal
6.5.Loading for spherical conductive fillers
6.5.Electro metal plate - Additive print process with weakly conductive ink (e.g. plastics or carbon) followed by dry metal plating
6.5.Progress with new conductive ink chemistries and cure processes
6.5.1.Novacentrix PulseForge
6.6.Pre-Deposit Images in Metal PDIM
6.6.Printable metallic conductors cure at LT e.g. silver based ink
6.6.Typical SEM images of CU flake C1 6000F. Copper flake
6.7.PolyIC approach to patterned transparent electrodes
6.7.Parameters for metal ink choices
6.7.Transparent conductors/electrodes by metal patterning and transparent materials
6.7.1.Metal patterning
6.7.2.Nanocarbon hybrid transparent electrodes
6.8.Transparent conductors by growth of metal
6.8.Examples of suppliers for metal (mainly silver) PTF inks
6.8.Caledon Controls transparent conductive film using printed metal patterning.
6.9.Choice of printing technology for RFID antennas today
6.9.Examples of companies progressing printed RFID antennas etc
6.9.Particle-free silver inks
6.9.1.University of Illinois
6.10.Printed conductors for RFID tag antennas
6.10.Some companies progressing ink jettable conductors
6.10.Projected tag assembly costs from Alien Technology in US Cents for volumes of several billions of tags
6.10.1.Print resolutions required for high performance RFID tag antennas
6.10.2.Process cost comparison
6.10.3.RFID tag manufacture consolidation and leaders
6.11.Printing wide area sensors and their memory: Polyscene, Polyapply, 3Plast, PriMeBits, Motorola
6.11.Fabric memristors
6.11.Process Cost Comparison 1 - low volume - GB £ /sq metre web production - Antenna on substrate only
6.12.Cost breakdown of an average RFID tag in 2004 and target
6.12.Memristors: basis of the human brain
6.12.Phase Change Memory, Cu and Ti oxides etc
6.13.Printing metamaterials
6.13.The test arrays were constructed of an 8×8 grid of transistor-memristor cells
6.13.Possibilities for various new printed conductors.
6.14.How negative refractive index works
6.14.Quantum Tunneling Composites (QTC)
6.15.Flexible memristors
6.15.How to make a working printed metamaterial
6.16.Printed metal patterning to form metamaterial
6.16.Company profiles
6.16.1.ASK
6.16.2.Poly-Flex
6.16.3.Avery Dennison
6.16.4.Sun Chemical (Coates Circuit Products)
6.16.5.Mark Andy
6.16.6.InTune (formerly UPM Raflatac)
6.16.7.Stork Prints
6.17.Aerosol jet printing by Optomec
6.17.Flexible memristor
6.18.Meco's Flex Antenna Plating (FAP) machine
6.18.Electroless plating and electroplating technologies
6.18.1.Conductive Inkjet Technology
6.18.2.Meco
6.18.3.Additive Process Technologies Ltd
6.18.4.Ertek
6.18.5.Leonhard Kurz
6.18.6.Hanita Coatings
6.19.Polymer - metal suspensions
6.19.APT's FFD prototype can operate faster than 20 meters per minute.
6.20.Additive Process Technologies 2 stage process
6.20.Comparison of options
6.21.Dry Phase Patterning (DPP)
6.21.Additive Process Technologies antenna cost
6.22.New technology to make conductive patterns
6.22.Inorganic biomedical sensors
6.22.1.Disposable blocked artery sensors
6.22.2.Disposable asthma analysis
6.23.Dry Phase Patterned inductor
7.NANOTUBES AND NANOWIRES
7.1.Nanotubes
7.1.Properties and morphology of single walled carbon nanotubes
7.1.Charge carrier mobility of carbon nanotubes compared with alternatives
7.2.Developers of Carbon Nanotubes for Printed Electronics
7.2.Nanotube shrink-wrap from Unidym
7.2.At Stanford, nanotubes + ink + paper = instant battery
7.3.Carbon Nanotubes and printed electronics
7.3.Zinc oxide nanowires generating power
7.4.Developers of Carbon Nanotubes for Printed Electronics
7.5.Nanorods in photovoltaics
7.6.Zinc oxide nanorod semiconductors
7.7.Zinc oxide nano-lasers
7.8.Indium oxide nanowires
7.9.Zinc oxide nanorod piezo power
7.10.Zinx oxide piezotronic transistors
8.INORGANIC AND HYBRID DISPLAYS AND LIGHTING
8.1.AC Electroluminescent
8.1.Pelikon's (now MFLEX) prize winning fashion watch
8.1.Advantages and disadvantages of electrophoretic displays
8.1.1.Fully flexible electroluminescent displays
8.1.2.Watch displays
8.1.3.MorphTouch™ from MFLEX
8.1.4.Electroluminescent and other printed displays
8.2.Comparison between OLEDs and E-Ink of various parameters
8.2.An example of an elumin8 electroluminescent display
8.2.Thermochromic
8.2.1.Heat generation and sensitivity
8.2.2.Duracell battery testers
8.3.Experimental game printed on beer pack by VTT Technology of Finland
8.3.Electrophoretic
8.3.1.Background
8.3.2.Applications of E-paper displays
8.3.3.Electrochromic E-Paper using ZnO Nanowire Array
8.3.4.The Killer Application
8.4.Duracell battery testing chipless label - front and reverse view
8.4.Colour electrophoretics
8.5.Inorganic LED lighting and hybrid OLED
8.5.Principle of operation of electrophoretic displays
8.5.1.Nth Degree Technologies - printing LED lighting
8.5.2.Tungsten oxide OLED Hole Transport layer
8.6.E-paper displays on a magazine sold in the US in October 2008
8.6.Affordable electronic window shutters
8.7.Quantum dot lighting and displays
8.7.Retail Shelf Edge Labels from UPM
8.8.Secondary display on a cell phone
8.9.Scheme of the fabricated e-paper nanostructure based on ZnO nanowires
8.10.Photo image of (a) bleached, and (b) color state of the flexible ZnO nanowire electrode
8.11.Electronic paper from Fujitsu
9.COMPANY PROFILES
9.1.Semiconductor development at Evonik
9.1.Boeing Spectrolab
9.2.Cambrios
9.2.Target range for mobility and processing temperature of semiconductors.
9.3.Transfer characteristics of gen3 semiconductor system
9.3.DaiNippon Printing
9.4.Evonik
9.4.Current efficiency of a Novaled PIN OLEDTM stack on an inkjet printed, transparent conductive ITO anode.
9.5.G24i has a new UK factory printing titanium oxide photovoltaics
9.5.G24i
9.6.Hewlett Packard
9.6.G24i's advanced solar technology vs traditional polycrystalline
9.7.Inks developed by InkTec
9.7.InkTec
9.8.ITRI Taiwan
9.8.InkTec Printing methods
9.9.NanoGram's Laser Reactive Deposition (LRD) technology
9.9.Kovio Inc
9.10.Miasolé
9.10.NanoMas technology
9.11.Printed Flexible Circuits from Soligie
9.11.NanoForge
9.12.Nanogram Teijin
9.12.Capabilities of Soligie
9.13.Printed electronics from Soligie
9.13.NanoMas Technologies
9.14.Peratech
9.14.Printing presses used for printing electronics at Soligie
9.15.An e-label from Soligie
9.15.Samsung
9.16.Soligie
9.16.A flexible display sample
9.17.Printed electronics samples
9.17.Toppan Forms
10.TIMELINES, SIZING OF OPPORTUNITIES AND MARKET FORECASTS
10.1.Market forecasts 2014-2024
10.1.The market for inorganic versus organic electronics defined by chemistry of key element 2014 2024
10.1.The market for inorganic versus organic electronics defined by chemistry of key element 2014 2024
10.2.Percentage share as a whole of the market 2014-2024
10.2.Percentage share as a whole of the market 2014-2024
10.2.Materials
10.3.Devices
10.3.Printed electronics materials and other elements of device income 2014-2024 in billions of dollars
10.3.Printed electronics materials and other elements of device income 2014-2024
10.3.1.Photovoltaics
10.3.2.Other products
10.4.Market forecast by component type for 2014-2024 in US $ billions, for printed and potentially printed electronics including organic, inorganic and composites
10.4.Market forecast by component type for 2014-2024 in US $ billions, for printed and potentially printed electronics including organic, inorganic and composites
10.5.Technical challenges for the next ten year to improvement of FDICD capabilities
10.5.Market size for thin film photovoltaic technologies beyond silicon technologies % of the market that is printed and flexible
10.6.Facts about media
10.7.SM Products Road Map
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