Li-ion Battery Recycling Market 2022-2042: IDTechEx

12 million tonnes of Li-ion batteries will be recycled in 2042 with the market at a CAGR of 22%.

Li-ion Battery Recycling Market 2022-2042

Global Li-ion battery recycling market analysis including technologies, policies, economics, and 20-year recycling forecasts for Li-ion batteries from electric vehicles, consumer electronics, manufacturing scrap and stationary energy storage


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Li-ion batteries dominate the electric vehicle (EV) market, are part of everyday life in consumer electronics, and will be prevalent in stationary energy storage. However, Li-ion battery sustainability depends on their whole lifecycle, including end-of-life management. Additionally, there are increasing concerns over raw material supplies such as cobalt. Recycling can recover the embedded value of battery metals to create extra revenues and a circular supply chain, which is shielded against the fluctuating commodity prices of battery materials. Stakeholders across the Li-ion battery supply chain are recognising the potential of recycling, and the Li-ion battery recycling market is expected to boom over the next two decades. In 2042, 12 million tonnes of Li-ion batteries will be recycled obtaining $51 billion USD in valuable metals.
 
The past year has seen interest and investments in the Li-ion battery recycling market accelerate as companies prepare for the mass availability of waste Li-ion batteries. At the moment, the majority come from consumer electronics (e.g. laptops and mobile phones) are never recycled. It is easier to build the collection network for EV batteries because when they can't be utilized in the vehicles anymore, they need to be handled by professionals. In many countries, the extended producer responsibility (EPR) requires the original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) to take care of retired batteries. As EV batteries are beginning to reach their end-of-life in the coming decades, we will see an exponential growth of retired EV batteries available for recycling causing them to dominate the market, bringing huge value opportunities.
 
Source IDTechEx
The report provides an in-depth analysis of the current state of the Li-ion battery recycling market, including a global technology and policy deep-dive. While there is a clear dominance in China, due to establishing specific Li-ion battery management policy early-on, Europe and North America are catching on. Following the analysis of data from over 85 Li-ion battery recyclers worldwide, IDTechEx report on multiple commercial-scale recycling plants planned across these regions to start operation in 2022/2023. In addition to up-to-date mechanical, hydro- and pyrometallurgical process descriptions, the report analyses developments in direct recycling. While currently at a pre-commercial stage, direct recycling offers a promising technology that can reinvigorate spent cathodes and has the potential to recover other battery components, such as the anode and foils, with high environmental benefits. As the market matures and economies seek advanced circularity, direct recycling could become commercially viable.
 
We found that several key issues need to be addressed for efficient recycling of Li-ion batteries. Battery collection is one of the most important prerequisites for efficient Li-ion battery recycling. Without an efficient battery collection network, the low volume of batteries to be recycled or high cost of collection could damage the economics of recycling. Another challenge is the lack of design for recycling that make battery disassembly and sorting costly and time-consuming. While the easier collection and sheer scale of EV batteries provides a huge opportunity it also comes with various technical and economic challenges. The numerous designs and high voltage of EV battery packs mean safe disassembly will remain a complex and time-consuming stage. Furthermore, the $/kWh value embedded within EV batteries will be lower compared to consumer electronics batteries, meaning recyclers will have to extract more material at higher purities and efficiencies if they want to break even on their recycling process.
 
Another topical discussion around end-of-life EV batteries is whether they should be recycled to obtain the raw materials or repurposed for a second-life in alternative applications such as stationary energy storage. Whether retired EV batteries are repurposed or not, they will need to be recycled anyway in the end. In theory, recycling is the least sustainable measure in a circular economy and should be the last step when the batteries can't be utilised anymore. However, in practice, many more factors are considered. Technologically, repurposing a second-life for retired EV batteries should not have any effect on its ability to be recycled - it will delay the recycling process and thus have an impact on the logistics and economics of recycling. In this report, we discuss the economics of Li-ion battery recycling and the key factors that might impact its value.
 
Source IDTechEx
 
This IDTechEx report provides a twenty-year market forecast on the Li-ion battery recycling market for the period 2020-2042, in both volume and market value. The forecasts are broken down by region, cathode chemistry, Li-ion battery sector (consumer electronics, stationary energy storage, manufacturing scrap and EVs), and key metals (lithium, cobalt, nickel, manganese, copper, and aluminium) recovered. EVs are split into electric cars, light-commercial vehicles, medium- and heavy-duty trucks, buses, and two-wheelers (scooters and motorcycles). Data is given in GWh, ktonnes and $bn with a bottom-up analysis of recycling rates.
 
Key takeaways from this report:
  • Overview of Li-ion battery market
  • Current market landscape of Li-ion battery recycling
  • Comprehensive analysis and examples of recycling processes and technologies
  • Global Li-ion battery recycling regulations and policies
  • Analysis of Li-ion battery recycling value chain and economics
  • Detailed 20-year Li-ion battery recycling market forecast in both volume and market value; granular market forecasts are provided by major regions, sectors, cathode chemistries and key metals recovered.
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Table of Contents
1.EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
1.1.Drivers for recycling Li-ion batteries
1.2.LIB recycling approaches overview
1.3.Pyrometallurgical recycling
1.4.Hydrometallurgical recycling
1.5.Direct recycling
1.6.Recycling techniques compared
1.7.EV battery recycling value chain
1.8.When will Li-ion batteries be recycled?
1.9.Recycling or second life?
1.10.Is recycling Li-ion batteries economic?
1.11.Economic analysis of Li-ion battery recycling
1.12.Impact of cathode chemistries on recycling economics
1.13.Sector involvement
1.14.Recycling market
1.15.Planned commercial plants
1.16.Global Li-ion battery recycling market 2020-2042: by region (GWh)
1.17.Global Li-ion battery recycling market 2020-2042: by region (GWh) - summary
1.18.Global Li-ion battery recycling market 2020-2042: by region (ktonnes)
1.19.Global Li-ion battery recycling market 2020-2042: by region (ktonnes) - summary
1.20.Global Li-ion battery recycling market 2020-2042: by chemistry (ktonnes)
1.21.Global Li-ion battery recycling market 2020-2042: by chemistry (ktonnes) - summary
1.22.Global recycled metals from Li-ion batteries 2020-2042 (ktonnes)
1.23.Global recycled metals from Li-ion batteries 2020-2042 (ktonnes) - summary
1.24.Global Li-ion battery recycling market value 2020-2042 ($ billion USD)
1.25.Global Li-ion battery recycling market value 2020-2042 ($ billion USD) - summary
2.INTRODUCTION AND LI-ION BATTERY MARKET OVERVIEW
2.1.What is a Li-ion battery?
2.2.Li-ion cathode overview
2.3.Li-ion anode overview
2.4.Cycle life and End-of-life
2.5.Why batteries fail?
2.6.Li-ion degradation complexity
2.7.What happens to end-of-life Li-ion batteries
2.8.When will Li-ion batteries be recycled?
2.9.The Li-ion supply chain
2.10.Demand for Li-ion shifting
2.11.Market overview
2.12.Drivers for High-Nickel Cathode
2.13.Silicon Anodes - Mergers, Acquisitions, and Investments
2.14.Battery cathode technology trends
2.15.Battery technology trends in anode and beyond Li-ion
2.16.The elements used in Li-ion batteries
2.17.Supply and demand overview
2.18.Potential for raw material shortage
2.19.Carbon emissions from electric vehicles
2.20.Sustainability of Li-ion materials
2.21.Questionable mining practice
2.22.Drivers and restraints
3.RECYCLING REGULATION AND POLICY
3.1.Circular economy
3.2.Benefits of recycling regulation
3.3.Extended Producer Responsibility
3.4.China is preparing for EV battery recycling
3.5.Overview of Chinese Regulations
3.6.China's Policy Framework
3.7.The EV battery traceability management system in China
3.8.The battery recycling and traceability management platform
3.9.Drawbacks of Chinas policy framework
3.10.South Korea and Japan
3.11.India
3.12.EU critical raw materials
3.13.EU Battery Directive 2006/66/EC
3.14.EU Battery Directive 2018 Amendment
3.15.Proposed EU regulation concerning batteries and waste batteries
3.16.European batteries Alliance
3.17.Building a policy framework in the UK
3.18.UK battery recycling industry
3.19.US Critical Minerals Act
3.20.US Policy
3.21.National Blueprint for Lithium Batteries (US)
3.22.US Li-ion battery recycling incentives and tax breaks examples
3.23.Australia
3.24.Australia - Battery Stewardship Scheme
3.25.Transportation
3.26.Unintended consequences of policy
3.27.Policy Summary
3.28.New/upcoming policy summary
4.LI-ION RECYCLING PROCESSES AND TECHNOLOGIES
4.1.1.Recycling history - Pb-acid
4.1.2.Pb-acid batteries
4.1.3.Pb-acid vs Li-ion cost breakdown
4.1.4.Lessons to be learned
4.1.5.Recycling alkaline cells
4.1.6.Drivers for recycling Li-ion batteries 1
4.1.7.Drivers for recycling Li-ion batteries 2
4.1.8.Constraints on recycling Li-ion batteries
4.1.9.LIB recycling process overview
4.1.10.Recycling feedstock streams
4.1.11.LIB recycling approaches overview
4.1.12.LIB recycling approaches overview
4.1.13.Recycler capabilities
4.1.14.Is there enough global resource?
4.1.15.Material content
4.1.16.BEV Li-ion recycling mass flow
4.2.Mechanical processing
4.2.1.Recycling different Li-ion batteries
4.2.2.Recycling different Li-ion batteries
4.2.3.Lack of pack standardisation
4.2.4.EV LIB discharge and disassembly
4.2.5.LIB disassembly
4.2.6.Mechanical processing and separation
4.2.7.Mechanical processing and separation process example
4.2.8.Recycling pre-treatments and processing
4.2.9.Sieving
4.2.10.Gravity separation/Eddy current separation
4.2.11.Froth flotation
4.2.12.Mechanical separation flow diagram
4.2.13.Recupyl mechanical separation flow diagram
4.2.14.TES-AMM black mass process
4.3.Pyrometallurgy
4.3.1.Pyrometallurgical recycling
4.3.2.Pyrometallurgical recycling
4.3.3.Pyrometallurgical recycling strengths/weaknesses
4.3.4.Umicore recycling flow diagram
4.4.Hydrometallurgy and material recovery
4.4.1.Hydrometallurgical recycling
4.4.2.Hydrometallurgical recycling strengths/weaknesses
4.4.3.Recycling example via hydrometallurgy
4.4.4.Recupyl recycling flow diagram
4.4.5.TES-AMM hydrometallurgical process flow diagram
4.4.6.Electrometallurgy
4.4.7.Solvent extraction
4.4.8.Precipitation
4.4.9.Opportunities in Li-ion recycling
4.5.Direct recycling
4.5.1.Direct recycling process development
4.5.2.Direct recycling strengths/weaknesses
4.5.3.Hydrometallurgical-direct hybrid recycling
4.5.4.ReCell Center
4.5.5.Pre-processing
4.5.6.Electrolyte separation
4.5.7.Cathode-cathode and cathode-anode separation
4.5.8.Binder Removal
4.5.9.Relithiation
4.5.10.Solid-state and electrochemical relithiation
4.5.11.OnTo Technology
4.5.12.Cathode HealingTM (Hydrothermal)
4.5.13.Cathode recovery and rejuvenation
4.5.14.Solid state vs. cathode healing
4.5.15.Upcycling
4.5.16.Direct recycling of manufacturing scrap
4.5.17.Cost and life-cycle analysis
4.6.Recycling technology conclusions
4.6.1.Trends in Li-ion recycling
4.6.2.Recycling methods map
4.6.3.Li-ion production chain/loop
4.6.4.Designed for recycling
4.6.5.Recycling technology conclusions
4.6.6.Recycling techniques compared
4.6.7.Academic research
4.6.8.Academic research by region
5.VALUE CHAIN AND BUSINESS MODELS FOR LI-ION BATTERY RECYCLING
5.1.Why Li-ion batteries fail?
5.2.What happens to end-of-life Li-ion batteries
5.3.Overview of the Li-ion battery recycling value chain
5.4.Closed-loop value chain of electric vehicle batteries
5.5.EV battery recycling value chain
5.6.The lifecycle view of EV battery recycling value chain
5.7.When will Li-ion batteries be recycled?
5.8.Is recycling Li-ion batteries economic?
5.9.Economic analysis of battery recycling
5.10.Impact of battery chemistries on recycling economics
5.11.Recycling value by cathode chemistry
5.12.Recycling or second life?
5.13.Recycling or second life: techno-economic analysis (1)
5.14.Recycling or second life: techno-economic analysis (2)
5.15.Recycling or second life: complementary information
5.16.Impact of recycling on Li-ion battery cost reduction
5.17.Where are the retired Li-ion batteries?
5.18.Reverse logistics: Li-ion battery collection
5.19.Case study of a EV battery collection network in China
5.20.Battery sorting and disassembling
5.21.Design for recycling
5.22.Concluding remarks
6.RECYCLING MARKET OVERVIEW
6.1.LIB recycling market
6.2.Interest in recycling across the value chain
6.3.Location of Li-ion recycling companies
6.4.European recycling
6.5.European Recycling
6.6.Asia-Pacific (exc. China) recycling
6.7.Recycling in China
6.8.North American recycling
6.9.Sector involvement
6.10.Recycling commercialisation stages
6.11.Recycling technology breakdown
6.12.State of recycling players
6.13.Planned commercial plants
6.14.Global recycling capacity
6.15.Conclusions
7.COMPANY PROFILES
7.1.1.List of companies included
7.2.Automotive OEMs
7.2.1.BMW's strategic partnerships for EV battery recycling
7.2.2.Renault's circular economy efforts for Li-ion batteries
7.2.3.Volkswagen plans for retired EV batteries
7.2.4.Volkswagen's in-house Li-ion battery recycling plant
7.2.5.Tesla's 'circular Gigafactory'
7.3.Europe
7.3.1.Accurec
7.3.2.Akkuser Oy
7.3.3.BASF
7.3.4.Batrec
7.3.5.Duesenfeld
7.3.6.Duesenfeld process overview
7.3.7.Fortum
7.3.8.Fortum acquisition of Crisolteq
7.3.9.Fortum intensify collaboration with BASF and Nornickel
7.3.10.Fortum - further updates
7.3.11.Glencore Nikkelverk
7.3.12.Inobat Combining recycling and mining with Rio Tinto
7.3.13.Nickelhütte Aue
7.3.14.Northvolt's Revolt recycling program
7.3.15.Northvolt
7.3.16.ReLieVe Project (Suez, Eramet and BASF)
7.3.17.Stena Recycling AB
7.3.18.Umicore
7.4.Asia
7.4.1.4R Energy
7.4.2.4R Energy's Namie plant
7.4.3.Anhua Taisen
7.4.4.CATL and Brunp Recycling
7.4.5.Blast at Brunp Recycling factory
7.4.6.Dowa Eco-System Co.
7.4.7.EcoPro
7.4.8.Ganfeng Lithium
7.4.9.GEM
7.4.10.GS E&C Involvement with Hyundai, including SungEel HiTech
7.4.11.Guangdong Guanghua Sci-Tech
7.4.12.Hefei Guoxuan High-Tech (Gotion)
7.4.13.JX Nippon Metal Mining
7.4.14.Kobar
7.4.15.Kyoei Seiko
7.4.16.Lohum Cleantech
7.4.17.POSCO Joint venture with Huayou Cobalt
7.4.18.Sumitomo
7.4.19.Sumitomo processes
7.4.20.SungEel HiTech POSCO, Samsung, LG Energy Solutions
7.4.21.TES-AMM (1)
7.4.22.TES-AMM (2)
7.5.North America
7.5.1.American Manganese
7.5.2.Battery Resourcers
7.5.3.Farasis
7.5.4.Farasis recycling process patent
7.5.5.Heritage Battery Recycling and 6K
7.5.6.Li-Cycle
7.5.7.Li-cycle business model
7.5.8.Li-cycle process overview
7.5.9.Lithion including Nouveau Monde Graphite and Hyundai Canada
7.5.10.OnTo Technology
7.5.11.Johnson Matthey and OnTo Technology
7.5.12.Redivivus
7.5.13.Redwood Materials
7.5.14.Retriev Including Marubeni Corporation and Hobi International
7.6.Rest of World (RoW)
7.6.1.Envirostream
7.6.2.Pure Battery Technologies (PBT)
8.MARKET FORECASTS
8.1.Methodology explained
8.2.Assumptions
8.3.Global Li-ion battery recycling market 2020-2042: by region (GWh)
8.4.Global Li-ion battery recycling market 2020-2042: by region (GWh) - summary
8.5.Global Li-ion battery recycling market 2020-2042: by region (ktonnes)
8.6.Global Li-ion battery recycling market 2020-2042: by region (ktonnes) - summary
8.7.Global Li-ion battery recycling market 2020-2042: by chemistry (ktonnes)
8.8.Global Li-ion battery recycling market 2020-2042: by chemistry (ktonnes) - summary
8.9.Global Li-ion battery recycling market by chemistry in major regions
8.10.Global recycled metals from Li-ion batteries 2020-2042 (ktonnes)
8.11.Global recycled metals from Li-ion batteries 2020-2042 (ktonnes) - summary
8.12.Global Li-ion battery recycling market value 2020-2042 ($ billion USD)
8.13.Global Li-ion battery recycling market value share
8.14.Global Li-ion battery recycling market value 2020-2042 ($ billion USD) - summary
8.15.China
8.15.1.Li-ion battery recycling market 2020-2042 in China: by sector (GWh)
8.15.2.Li-ion battery recycling market 2020-2042 in China: by sector (GWh) - summary
8.15.3.Li-ion battery recycling market 2020-2042 in China: by sector (ktonnes)
8.15.4.Li-ion battery recycling market 2020-2042 in China: by sector (ktonnes) - summary
8.15.5.Li-ion battery recycling market share by sector in China
8.15.6.Li-ion battery recycling market 2020-2042 in China: by chemistry (GWh)
8.15.7.Li-ion battery recycling market 2020-2042 in China: by chemistry (GWh) - summary
8.15.8.Li-ion battery recycling market 2020-2042 in China: by chemistry (ktonnes)
8.15.9.Li-ion battery recycling market 2020-2042 in China: by chemistry (ktonnes) - summary
8.15.10.Li-ion battery recycling market share by cathode in China
8.15.11.Recycled metals from Li-ion batteries 2020-2042 in China (ktonnes)
8.15.12.Recycled metals from Li-ion batteries 2020-2042 in China (ktonnes) - summary
8.16.Europe
8.16.1.Li-ion battery recycling market 2020-2042 in Europe: by sector (GWh)
8.16.2.Li-ion battery recycling market 2020-2042 in Europe : by sector (GWh) - summary
8.16.3.Li-ion battery recycling market 2020-2042 in Europe: by sector (ktonnes)
8.16.4.Li-ion battery recycling market 2020-2042 in Europe: by sector (ktonnes) - summary
8.16.5.Li-ion battery recycling market share by sector in Europe
8.16.6.Li-ion battery recycling market 2020-2042 in Europe: by chemistry (GWh)
8.16.7.Li-ion battery recycling market 2020-2042 in Europe: by chemistry 2020-2042 (GWh) - summary
8.16.8.Li-ion battery recycling market 2020-2042 in Europe: by chemistry (ktonnes)
8.16.9.Li-ion battery recycling market 2020-2042 in Europe: by chemistry 2020-2042 (ktonnes) - summary
8.16.10.Recycled metals from Li-ion batteries 2020-2042 in Europe (ktonnes)
8.16.11.Recycled metals from Li-ion batteries 2020-2042 in Europe (ktonnes) - summary
8.17.North America
8.17.1.Li-ion battery recycling market 2020-2042 in North America: by sector (GWh)
8.17.2.Li-ion battery recycling market 2020-2042 in North America: by sector (GWh) - summary
8.17.3.Li-ion battery recycling market 2020-2042 in North America: by sector (ktonnes)
8.17.4.Li-ion battery recycling market 2020-2042 in North America: by sector (ktonnes) - summary
8.17.5.Li-ion battery recycling market share by sector in North America
8.17.6.Li-ion battery recycling market 2020-2042 in North America: by chemistry (GWh)
8.17.7.Li-ion battery recycling market 2020-2042 in North America: by chemistry (GWh) - summary
8.17.8.Li-ion battery recycling market 2020-2042 in North America: by chemistry (ktonnes)
8.17.9.Li-ion battery recycling market 2020-2042 in North America: by chemistry (ktonnes) - summary
8.17.10.Recycled metals from Li-ion batteries in North America 2020-2042 (ktonnes)
8.17.11.Recycled metals from Li-ion batteries in North America 2020-2042 (ktonnes) - summary
8.18.Sector breakdown and methodology
8.18.1.Global Li-ion battery recycling market 2020-2042: by sector (GWh)
8.18.2.Global Li-ion battery recycling market 2020-2042 for consumer electronics: by product (GWh)
8.18.3.Consumer electronics - collection rates
8.18.4.Global Li-ion battery recycling market 2028-2042 for stationary energy storage (GWh)
8.18.5.Global Li-ion battery recycling market 2028-2042 for stationary energy storage: by chemistry (GWh)
8.18.6.Global Li-ion battery recycling market 2020-2042 for manufacturing scrap: by region (GWh)
8.18.7.Global Li-ion battery recycling market 2020-2042 for car BEVs (GWh)
8.18.8.Global Li-ion battery recycling market 2020-2042 for car BEVs: by chemistry (GWh)
8.18.9.Global Li-ion battery recycling market 2020-2042 for non-car electric vehicles: by vehicle type (GWh)
8.19.Battery packs
8.19.1.Global Li-ion battery pack recycling market 2020-2042: by region (thousand units)
8.19.2.Global Li-ion battery pack recycling market 2020-2042: by region (thousand units) - summary
8.19.3.Global Li-ion battery pack recycling market 2020-2042: by region (ktonnes)
8.19.4.Global Li-ion battery pack recycling market 2020-2042: by region (ktonnes) -summary
8.19.5.Global Li-ion battery pack recycling market 2020-2042: by metal (ktonnes)
8.19.6.Global Li-ion battery pack recycling market 2020-2042: by metal (ktonnes) - summary
8.19.7.Global Li-ion battery pack market value 2020-2042: by region ($ million USD)
8.19.8.Global Li-ion battery pack market value 2020-2042: by metal ($ million USD)
 

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Slides 344
Forecasts to 2042
Published Nov 2021
ISBN 9781913899806
 

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