Manufacturing Printed Electronics 2023-2033: IDTechEx

High throughput roll-to-roll manufacturing for flexible hybrid electronics gains traction.

Manufacturing Printed Electronics 2023-2033

Printed electronics equipment market covering roll-to-roll and sheet-to-sheet manufacturing, analogue and digital printing methods, vacuum processing, flexible hybrid electronics, mounting components.


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Manufacturing Printed Electronics 2023-2033 explores the developments, transitions, and technological innovations within the printed electronics equipment market. Drawing on interviews and interactions with over 40 companies, we assess the attributes, readiness level, use cases and market demand for three classes of analogue printing and five classes of digital printing (throughput, minimum feature size and compatible ink viscosity of these competing technologies is clearly outlined). The report also covers vacuum deposition, additive circuit prototyping (both 2D and 3D) and mounting components - a critical step in the production of flexible hybrid electronics. Furthermore, the motivation, challenges and facilitating technologies associated with the transition towards roll-to-roll R2R electronics manufacturing are comprehensively covered.
 
Drawing on IDTechEx's comprehensive coverage of current and emerging applications across the printed/flexible electronics market, the report provides over 50 distinct forecast lines with each manufacturing methodology further segmented by application. Primary insight from interviews and interactions with individual players, ranging from established players to innovative start-ups, is included via over 40 detailed company profiles that include discussion of both technology and business model along with SWOT analysis. Overall, the report provides a comprehensive view of trends and competing technologies with printed/flexible electronics.
 
 
Manufacturing methods covered in the report.
Transition to R2R manufacturing
Compatibility with rapid roll-to-roll (R2R) manufacturing is commonly cited as a key value proposition of printed/flexible electronics. By printing the functionality onto flexible substrates, rather than etching copper from rigid substrates, similar manufacturing methods (and hence throughputs) as conventional graphics printing can be achieved. With such high throughputs the fixed cost of the production equipment can be shared across many more circuits, meaning that the total production cost is dominated by the materials used. As such R2R electronics manufacturing is seen as an important facilitator of ubiquitous electronics, which will enable technologies such as smart packaging and electronic skin patches to be produced cost-effectively. Furthermore, the high throughput of R2R electronics is ideally suited for producing large area devices such as photovoltaic panels and lighting.
 
However, thus far most R2R electronics manufacturing (RFID excepted) has remained confined to research centers and pilot lines. Some of the challenges associated with adopting R2R electronics manufacturing include establishing sufficient order volume, quality control, and component attachment. The report explores these issues, and outlines emerging technological solutions such as high throughput digital printing, contactless in-line conductivity measurement, and photonic soldering.
 
 
Benchmarking manufacturing methods by throughput and minimum feature size.
 
Printing methods
Screen printing currently dominates printed electronics manufacturing, due to its compatibility with high viscosity flake-based conductive inks that enable thick traces to be deposited in a single pass. Furthermore, the resolution (i.e., minimum feature size) that screen printing can achieve has been steadily increasing with the development of finder meshes. However, it is far from the only deposition option.
 
While many conventional analogue graphics printing methods (such as flexography) can be applied to printed/flexible electronics, much of the innovation is within digital deposition methods that enable rapid prototyping and facilitate high mix low volume manufacturing (HMLV). Especially notable is laser induced forward transfer (LIFT), which can be regarded as combining the benefits of inkjet, screen printing and laser direct structuring. This digital method can handle viscous inks, has a high throughput (being optically driven), and can even be used on non-planar surfaces since it is a non-contact method.
 
Other emerging printing methods aim to bring additive digital manufacturing to length scales currently achieved with subtractive methods. Electrohydrodynamic (EHD) printing, in which traces as narrow as 1 um are produced using an electric field, is gradually gaining commercial traction for prototyping and repairs. Furthermore, multiple companies are developing multi-nozzle systems using MEMS (micro electromechanical systems) printheads to somewhat break the longstanding trade-off between throughput and viscosity.
 
Outlook
It is an exciting time for printed/flexible electronics, with multiple products (such as backlit capacitive touch sensors in cars) reaching significant commercial adoption over the last year. However, arguably the most compelling growth opportunities are for applications facilitated by printed/flexible electronics, since conventional electronics is either too expensive, too rigid, or both. Electronic skin patches for continuous health monitoring and smart packaging are great examples but will need high throughput R2R manufacturing to produce the flexible circuitry at an acceptable price point. At much smaller length scales, aerosol printing is gaining commercial traction in advanced semiconductor packaging, while increasing the throughput of very high resolution EHD printing will open up new applications in this space and others such as microfluidics.
 
Key questions answered in this report
 
  • What are the options for manufacturing printed/flexible electronics across different length scales and throughputs?
  • What are the advantages of additive over subtractive manufacturing?
  • What are the emerging manufacturing technologies for printed/flexible electronics, and what is their technological and commercial readiness status?
  • What are the challenges associated with adopting R2R electronics manufacturing? How can these be resolved?
  • Which manufacturing technologies are best suited to each application?
  • Who are the key players producing each manufacturing technology? How do they compare?
  • What are the innovations in component placement and attachment that facilitate flexible hybrid electronics?
 
IDTechEx has 20 years of expertise covering printed and flexible electronics, including printing and manufacturing methods. Our analysts have closely followed the latest developments in the technology and associated markets by interviewing many equipment suppliers and product developers, along with annually attending multiple printed electronics conferences such as LOPEC and FLEX. This report provides a comprehensive picture of the manufacturing landscape for this emerging technology, helping to support choices in product development and when scaling up to mass production
 
Key aspects
This report provides the following information:
 
Technology trends & manufacturer analysis:
  • Discussion, comparison, and evaluation of seven analogue and seven digital printing methods. This includes innovative digital manufacturing methods with novel capabilities, including laser induced forward transfer (LIFT), electrohydrodynamic (EHD) printing from multiple nozzles simultaneously, and impulse printing.
  • Over 40 company profiles of manufacturing equipment suppliers, contract manufacturers and producers, including SWOT analysis and size along with discussion of value proposition and target applications.
  • Discussion of the status, challenges and opportunities associated with R2R manufacturing, a key potential benefit of printed electronics.
  • Benchmarking of analogue and digital manufacturing methods by throughput, minimum feature size, and ink viscosity.
  • Many case studies outlining how the different manufacturing technologies are being deployed for production and in research centers.
  • Discussion and evaluation of emerging component attachment methods, such as photonic soldering and direct transfer, which are essential in realizing flexible hybrid electronics (FHE). Emerging component attachment materials such as ultra-low-temperature solder and field-aligned conductive adhesives are also discussed.
  • Review of competing additive circuit prototyping technologies, both 2D and 3D.
  • Assessment of which applications each manufacturing methodology is best suited to.
 
Market Forecasts & Analysis:
  • Market size and 10-year market forecast (circuit area produced) for each manufacturing method, segmented by application.
  • Assessment of technological and commercial readiness of the competing analogue and digital manufacturing methods.
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Table of Contents
1.EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
1.1.Manufacturing printed & flexible electronics: An introduction
1.2.Comparing benefits of conventional and printed/flexible electronics
1.3.Motivation for R2R electronics manufacturing
1.4.Improving speed and sustainability
1.5.Applications of R2R electronics manufacturing
1.6.Can R2R manufacturing be used for high mix low volume (HMLV)?
1.7.Readiness level: R2R manufacturing technologies
1.8.Summary: Roll-to-roll manufacturing
1.9.What is analogue printing?
1.10.Technological and commercial readiness level of analogue printing methods
1.11.Summary: Analogue printing methods
1.12.Introduction to digital printing
1.13.Digital printing spans multiple length scales
1.14.Technological and commercial readiness level of digital printing methods
1.15.Summary: Digital printing methods
1.16.Technological and commercial readiness of different printing methods
1.17.Benchmarking ink types: Throughput vs minimum feature size
1.18.Introduction to vacuum deposition for flexible electronics
1.19.Summary: Vacuum deposition
1.20.Additive circuit prototyping: an introduction
1.21.Readiness level of additive circuit prototyping
1.22.Summary: Additive circuit prototyping
1.23.Mounting components on printed/flexible electronics: Introduction
1.24.Readiness level of methods for mounting components on flexible substrate
1.25.Summary: methods for mounting components on printed/flexible electronics
1.26.Overall forecast: Analogue printing methods
1.27.Overall forecast: Analogue printing methods (proportion)
1.28.Overall forecast: Digital printing methods
1.29.Overall forecast: Digital printing methods (proportion)
2.INTRODUCTION
2.1.Manufacturing printed electronics: An introduction
2.2.Analogue and digital printing methods for electronics
2.3.Improving speed and sustainability
2.4.Design maturity of electronics manufacturing methods
2.5.Combining multiple established manufacturing methodologies
2.6.Scaling up printed electronics production: Transitioning from sheet-to-sheet to roll-to-roll manufacturing
2.7.Ensuring reliability of printed/flexible electronics is crucial
2.8.Conventional manufacturing methods best for complex multilayer circuits
2.9.SWOT Analysis: Conventional electronics manufacturing
2.10.Comparing benefits of conventional and printed/flexible electronics
3.MARKET FORECASTS
3.1.Market forecasting methodology
3.2.Overall forecast: Analogue printing methods
3.3.Overall forecast: Analogue printing methods (proportion)
3.4.Overall forecast: Digital printing methods
3.5.Overall forecast: Digital printing methods (proportion)
3.6.Forecast: Printing methods for flexible hybrid electronics (FHE)
3.7.Forecast: Printing methods for in-mold electronics (IME)
3.8.Forecast: Printing methods for partially additive 3D electronics
3.9.Forecast: Printing methods for e-textiles
3.10.Forecast: Printing methods for circuit prototyping
3.11.Forecast: Printing methods for printed sensors
3.12.Forecast: Printing methods for electronic skin patches/wearable electrodes
3.13.Forecast: Printing methods for flexible thin film PV
3.14.Forecast: Printing methods for EMI shielding
3.15.Forecast: Printing methods for antennas
3.16.Forecast: Printing methods for RFID and smart packaging
4.ROLL-TO-ROLL (R2R) MANUFACTURING
4.1.Overview
4.1.1.Motivation for R2R electronics manufacturing
4.1.2.R2R vs S2S electronics: Fixed and variable costs
4.1.3.R2R vs S2S electronics: Transition point
4.1.4.Can R2R manufacturing be used for high mix low volume (HMLV)?
4.1.5.What is the main commercial challenge for roll-to-roll manufacturing?
4.1.6.Examples of R2R pilot/production lines for electronics
4.2.R2R manufacturing: Technology
4.2.1.Emergence of a contract manufacturer for flexible hybrid electronics (FHE)
4.2.2.R2R manufacturing of flexible hybrid electronics at research centers
4.2.3.Roll-to-roll production of nanomesh
4.2.4.Integrating equipment from multiple suppliers makes R2R manufacturing challenging
4.2.5.Web speed and yield
4.2.6.Roll to roll (R2R) assembly
4.2.7.Typical multicomponent R2R line for component placement
4.2.8.Bridging the gap from lab to production for R2R electronics
4.2.9.Increased interest in R2R equipment, especially high-resolution screen printing
4.2.10.Coated substrates for printed electronics
4.2.11.NIR heating for curing printed/flexible electronics
4.2.12.In-line monitoring important for R2R manufacturing
4.2.13.Applying 'Industry 4.0' to printed electronics with in-line monitoring
4.2.14.Digitization facilitates 'printed-electronics-as-a-service'
4.2.15.Readiness level: R2R manufacturing technologies
4.3.R2R manufacturing: Applications
4.3.1.Applications of R2R electronics manufacturing
4.3.2.R2R manufacturing essential for mass adoption of smart packaging
4.3.3.R2R printing of anisotropic conductive adhesive
4.3.4.Cables manufactured with R2R etched copper (New Cable Corporation)
4.3.5.Direct printed battery-on-flexible production for smart devices (CPI)
4.3.6.Towards roll-to-roll printing for OPV
4.3.7.First organic photodetector production line (ISORG)
4.3.8.Commercial printed pressure sensors production via R2R electronics
4.3.9.Flexible batteries produced via R2R manufacturing in development for smart packaging
4.4.R2R Manufacturing: Summary
4.4.1.Overview of R2R equipment providers for printed/flexible electronics
4.4.2.SWOT Analysis: Roll-to-roll manufacturing
4.4.3.Summary: Roll-to-roll manufacturing
5.ANALOGUE PRINTING METHODS
5.1.What is analogue printing?
5.2.Analogue printing methods: Screen printing
5.2.1.Increased demand for wearable/medical manufacturing leads to expansion plans
5.2.2.Asada Mesh: Fine black stainless-steel mesh enables 22-micron screen printing resolution
5.2.3.Applied Materials: High resolution screen-printing for wrap around electrodes
5.2.4.Metafas: Screen printing manufacturer transitions to printed/flexible electronics
5.2.5.SWOT Analysis: Screen printing
5.2.6.Summary: Screen printing
5.3.Analogue printing methods: Cliché based
5.3.1.Introduction to cliché-based printing methods
5.3.2.Direct printed metal mesh for transparent conductive films
5.3.3.Offset printed metal mesh transparent conductive film
5.3.4.High-resolution reverse offset printing (ROP)
5.3.5.Applications of high-resolution reverse offset printing
5.3.6.R2R ultrafine printing using 'seamless roller mold'
5.3.7.How is the ultrafine feature R2R mold fabricated?
5.3.8.Printed transparent metal mesh for backlit capacitive touch
5.3.9.SWOT Analysis: Cliché-based printing methods (I)
5.3.10.SWOT Analysis: Cliché-based printing methods (II)
5.3.11.Summary: Cliché-based printing
5.4.Analogue printing methods: Coating (blade, slot-die, spray)
5.4.1.Blade coating is cheap but inconsistent
5.4.2.Slot-die coating is promising for industry
5.4.3.Spray coating - rapid but wasteful
5.4.4.Jet Metal: Patterning 3D surfaces using patterning then spraying removes need for thermoformable/stretchable ink
5.4.5.SWOT Analysis: Cliché-based printing methods (I)
5.4.6.Summary: Coating methods (blade, slot-die, spray)
5.5.Analogue printing methods: Summary
5.5.1.Technological and commercial readiness level of analogue printing methods
5.5.2.Benchmarking analogue printing methods
5.5.3.Summary: Analogue printing methods
6.DIGITAL PRINTING METHODS
6.1.Overview
6.1.1.Introduction to digital printing
6.1.2.Digital printing spans multiple length scales
6.2.Digital printing methods: Inkjet / extrusion
6.2.1.Inkjet printing vs paste extrusion
6.2.2.Inkjet printing for high spatial resolution
6.2.3.Print-then-plate utilizes inkjet to produce a seed layer (I)
6.2.4.Print-then-plate utilizes inkjet to produce a seed layer (II)
6.2.5.A hybrid approach to making flexible circuits from copper ink
6.2.6.Extruding conductive paste for antennas on 3D surfaces
6.2.7.Extruded conductive paste for antennas
6.2.8.Printing wiring onto 3D surfaces
6.2.9.SWOT analysis: Inkjet (for printed/flexible electronics)
6.2.10.Summary: Inkjet and extrusion
6.3.Digital printing methods: laser induced forward transfer (LIFT)
6.3.1.Laser induced forward transfer (LIFT): Combining the best of inkjet and laser direct structuring (LDS)
6.3.2.Operating mechanism of laser induced forward transfer (LIFT)
6.3.3.Comparing LIFT with other deposition methods
6.3.4.Applications for LIFT
6.3.5.Altana introduces laser induced forward transfer (LIFT) for printed/additive electronics (I)
6.3.6.Altana introduces laser induced forward transfer (LIFT) for printed/additive electronics (II)
6.3.7.IO-Tech launches its first laser induced forward transfer machine
6.3.8.Keiron printing technologies
6.3.9.Research center NAITEC develop LIFT for multilayer printing
6.3.10.Overview of EHD system providers
6.3.11.SWOT analysis: Laser induced forward transfer
6.3.12.Summary: Laser induced forward transfer (LIFT)
6.4.Digital printing methods: Aerosol printing
6.4.1.Aerosol printing: An introduction
6.4.2.Aerosol printing mechanism
6.4.3.Aerosol deposition onto 3D surfaces
6.4.4.Example of aerosol printed functionality
6.4.5.Aerosol printing with atomization in the printhead reduces costs
6.4.6.Aerosol deposition vs LDS (laser direct structuring)
6.4.7.Varying line width to control resistance with aerosol printing
6.4.8.Aerosol printed transistors: An early stage technology
6.4.9.Aerosol printing of terahertz metamaterials
6.4.10.Overview of aerosol printing system providers
6.4.11.SWOT Analysis: Aerosol printing
6.4.12.Summary: Aerosol printing
6.5.Electrohydrodynamic (EHD) printing
6.5.1.Electrohydrodynamic printing enables high resolution
6.5.2.Electrohydrodynamic (EHD) printing from a multi-nozzle MEMS chip increases throughput
6.5.3.EHD for microfluidics
6.5.4.EHD for display manufacturing with emissive OLED materials and quantum dots
6.5.5.Increasing interest in electrohydrodynamic (EHD) printing
6.5.6.SWOT Analysis: Electrohydrodynamic printing
6.5.7.Summary: Electrohydrodynamic (EHD) printing
6.6.Digital printing methods: Other emerging approaches
6.6.1.XTPL: Capabilities of high-resolution/high-viscosity printing system
6.6.2.Viscosity vs feature size for high resolution printing
6.6.3.Applications of high-resolution/high-viscosity UPD printing system
6.6.4.SWOT Analysis: Ultra-precise deposition
6.6.5.High resolution patterning from an adapted atomic force microscope (AFM)
6.6.6.SWOT Analysis: AFM with ink dispensing
6.6.7.Impulse printing could speed up ink deposition for 3D electronics
6.6.8.SWOT Analysis: Impulse printing
6.6.9.Summary: Other emerging digital printing methods
6.7.Digital printing methods: Summary
6.7.1.Emerging start-ups in microfabrication (I)
6.7.2.Emerging start-ups in microfabrication (II)
6.7.3.Benchmarking digital printing methods
6.7.4.Technological and commercial readiness level of digital printing methods
6.7.5.Summary: Digital printing methods
7.VACUUM DEPOSITION
7.1.Introduction to vacuum deposition for flexible electronics
7.2.CreaPhys/MBraun: Controlling vapor-phase perovskite deposition with cooled evaporation chambers.
7.3.Vacuum deposition is used for photovoltaics manufacturing
7.4.Sputtering for high purity deposition
7.5.VSParticle: Creation and deposition of nanoparticles made from a wide range of metals
7.6.AACVD is an emerging solution-based vacuum approach
7.7.How to decide on thin film deposition methods for PV?
7.8.SWOT Analysis: Vacuum deposition
7.9.Summary: Vacuum deposition
8.ADDITIVE CIRCUIT PROTOTYPING
8.1.Overview
8.1.1.Additive circuit prototyping: An introduction
8.1.2.Additive circuit prototyping landscape
8.2.Additive circuit prototyping: 2D
8.2.1.Prototyping 2D circuits with additive electronics
8.2.2.Multilayer circuit prototyping
8.2.3.Affordable pick-and-place for prototyping and small volume manufacturing
8.3.Additive circuit prototyping: 3D
8.3.1.3D printed electronics extends 3D printing
8.3.2.Fully 3D printed electronics
8.3.3.Advantages of fully additively manufactured 3D electronics
8.3.4.Making 3D electronics sustainable
8.3.5.Neotech-AMT: Scaling up 3D electronics and improving sustainability
8.3.6.Capabilities of Nano Dimension's dragonfly system (I)
8.3.7.Capabilities of Nano Dimension's dragonfly system (II)
8.4.Additive circuit prototyping: Summary
8.4.1.Readiness level of additive circuit prototyping
8.4.2.Summary: Additive circuit prototyping
9.MOUNTING COMPONENTS
9.1.Overview
9.1.1.Mounting components on printed/flexible electronics: introduction
9.1.2.What counts as FHE?
9.1.3.Overcoming the flexibility/functionality compromise
9.1.4.Volume production of flexible hybrid electronics
9.1.5.Development of flexible hybrid electronics (FHE) beyond LEDs continues
9.1.6.FHE value chain: Many materials and technologies
9.1.7.SWOT Analysis: Flexible hybrid electronics (FHE)
9.2.Mounting components: Placement
9.2.1.Combining printed and placed functionality
9.2.2.Development from conventional boxed to flexible hybrid electronics will be challenging
9.2.3.Hybrid printing methods can utilize the best of both approaches
9.2.4.Mounting SMD components via roll to roll (R2R) manufacturing
9.2.5.Pick-and-place flowchart: Challenges with flexible electronics
9.2.6.Direct transfer can replace pick and place
9.2.7.Direct die attach - an alternative to pick-and-place
9.2.8.Laser transfer of LEDs and SMD components
9.2.9.Flip chip bonding of integrated circuits on flexible substrates
9.2.10.Self-assembly: An alternative pick-and-place strategy
9.3.Mounting components: Attachment
9.3.1.Durable and efficient component attachment remains an important topic in the development of FHE circuit.
9.3.2.Low temperature solder enables thermally fragile substrates
9.3.3.Substrate compatibility with existing infrastructure
9.3.4.Low temperature solder could perform as well as conventional solder
9.3.5.Low temperature solder may increase cost per PCB by extending reflow times
9.3.6.Key ECA innovations reduce silver content
9.3.7.Comparing component attachment types
9.3.8.Photonic soldering gains traction (I)
9.3.9.Photonic soldering gains traction (II)
9.3.10.Solder free compliant flexible interconnects
9.3.11.Attachment with thermo-sonic bonding
9.3.12.Assessing flip-chip attachment on flexible substrates
9.4.Mounting components: Summary
9.4.1.Readiness level of methods for mounting components on flexible substrate
9.4.2.Summary: Methods for mounting components on printed/flexible electronics
10.COMPANY PROFILES
10.1.Altana
10.2.Applied Materials
10.3.Asada Mesh
10.4.BotFactory
10.5.Ceradrop
10.6.Coatema
10.7.CPI
10.8.Enjet
10.9.Epishine
10.10.FlexBright
10.11.Fraunhofer FEP
10.12.Henkel
10.13.Holst Center
10.14.Hummink
10.15.Integrated Deposition Solutions
10.16.IOTech
10.17.ISORG
10.18.Jet Metal
10.19.Keiron Printing Technologies
10.20.Muhlbauer
10.21.Nano Dimension
10.22.Neotech-AMT
10.23.New Cable Corporation
10.24.Novacentrix/PulseForge
10.25.nScrypt
10.26.NthDegree
10.27.OLEDWorks
10.28.Optomec
10.29.PASS
10.30.PolyIC
10.31.PragmatIC
10.32.PV Nano Cell
10.33.Quad Industries
10.34.Rohinni
10.35.Screentec
10.36.Scrona
10.37.SIJ Technologies
10.38.Sunew
10.39.SysteMECH
10.40.Terecircuits
10.41.TF Massif
10.42.TRAQC
10.43.Voltera
10.44.VSParticle
10.45.VTT
10.46.XTPL
 

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Manufacturing Printed Electronics 2023-2033

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Report Statistics

Slides 263
Forecasts to 2033
Published Dec 2022
ISBN 9781915514455
 

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