Micro EVs 2023-2043: Electric Two-Wheelers, Three-Wheelers, and Microcars: IDTechEx

Global micro EV market to reach US$180 billion by 2043.

Micro EVs 2023-2043: Electric Two-Wheelers, Three-Wheelers, and Microcars

Electric scooters and motorcycles, electric cargo and passenger three-wheelers, microcars. China, India, Southeast Asia, Europe, USA, and the rest of the world. Battery demand (lead-acid and Li-ion) and market value.


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What are micro EVs?
 
While there is no standardized definition of micro EVs, it is generally used to describe small vehicles that can seamlessly navigate highly populated urban areas. Micro EVs are designed for short trips of only a few kilometres and travel at low speeds, typically under 80 kilometres per hour (with various regional exceptions). These vehicles do not rely on internal combustion engines, and many are powered by electric motors.
 
Electric two- and three-wheelers are the 'low hanging fruits', as these are used by the masses in India, China, and Southeast Asia for last-mile connectivity due to their low cost of operations. Urbanization in these countries has been, and is, increasing rapidly - a trend that is correlated to a rise in the demand for personal mobility and emergence of local e-commerce businesses. This leads to sales of electric two-wheelers for the individual and the use of three-wheelers as ride sharing or cargo delivery.
 
Microcars are an important piece of the puzzle as well. Offering more space, power and protection than two- and three-wheelers, these tiny vehicles come at an affordable price and are designed for an urban environment. Most car trips are short trips carrying just one person. Most of the energy is wasted on carrying the vehicle's own weight. Oversized vehicles are the root cause of urban congestion, pollution and wasted energy, material, and public space. As cities everywhere move toward a high-density, low speed, low impact model, it calls for a new type of personal vehicle to be created for people to conveniently get around in - this is where microcars are trying to fit in.
 
Micro EV types and specifications. Data source: IDTechEx
Regional mobility culture
 
What makes people choose to take public transit over a car? Or a scooter over walking? While distance plays a factor, at the root of this decision is the influence of the city's mobility culture. Mobility culture, by definition, is the built-in preference of how individuals decide to travel from A to B within the city. This preference comes from a culmination of factors such as social norms, urban landscape, and transportation infrastructure.
 
Local mobility culture is important to look at because it indicates how people will choose to get around the city. Obvious examples include the USA with its car-centric focus, compared to India with a two-wheeler-centric atmosphere. When it comes to bringing micro EVs to cities, understanding what the mobility culture looks like can bridge the gap between consumers' needs and wants, and what the new mobility segment can offer.
 
The latest report from IDTechEx covers the key global regions which are the hotbed for micro EV adoption - India, China, Southeast Asia, EU and the UK, and the USA. For each region, the local mobility culture is identified and popular micro EV models are benchmarked based on specifications like motor power, battery capacities, and price. Market shares of leading players is also included for each region. Overall, the report provides a commercial and technical overview for the various micro EVs by region with over 45 forecast lines spanning unit sales, battery demand, and market values.
Summary of Report Contents and Forecasts:
 
  • Electric two- and three-wheeler units sales by power class and region 2021-2043
  • Electric two- and three-wheeler battery demand (GWh) by power class and region 2021-2043
  • Electric two- and three-wheeler battery demand by lead-acid and lithium-ion split regionally 2021-2043
  • Electric two- and three-wheeler market value (US$) by region 2021-2043
  • Electric microcar unit sales by region 2021-2043
  • Electric microcar battery demand (GWh) 2021-2043
  • Electric microcar market value (US$) 2021-2043
  • Market shares of electric two- and three-wheeler manufacturers in each region
  • Electric two- and three-wheelers and microcar models by region - technologies, costs, players
This report provides the following information:
 
Introduction to micro EVs
• Vehicle segments - two-wheelers, three-wheelers, and microcars
• The need for micro EVs
• Local mobility cultures and the cost of congestion
• Micro EV usage models
• Policies supporting micro EV uptake
• Battery chemistries (lead-acid vs lithium-ion)
 
Electric two-wheelers
• Two-wheeler classification by power class - moped, scooter, and motorcycle
• Electric two-wheeler manufacturers by region and market shares
• Global two-wheeler production hubs
• China and India export volumes
• Electric scooters - models by region and benchmarking
• Electric motorcycles - models, challenges, and benchmarking
 
Electric three-wheelers
• Three-wheelers classification by application - shared transport and cargo
• Electric three-wheelers manufacturers by region and market shares
• Benchmarking electric three-wheeler models in China, India, and rest of the world
 
Microcars
• Microcar classification by region - Japan, USA, EU, China, and India
• Microcar benefits, characteristics, and applications
• Benchmarking microcar models by range, top speed, motor power, and battery capacities
 
20-year market forecasts & Analysis:
• Unit sales by micro EV segments - electric two- and three-wheelers and microcars by region
• Battery demand (GWh) by micro EV segments - lithium-ion and lead-acid
• Market value (US$) by micro EV segments - regional breakdown
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Table of Contents
1.EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
1.1.Introduction
1.2.Report scope
1.3.Micro EV types
1.4.Micro EV characteristics
1.5.The EV revolution is happening on two wheels
1.6.Micro EV forecast 2021-2043 (unit sales)
1.7.Battery chemistry choices
1.8.Li-ion vs lead-acid micro EVs 2021-2043 (GWh)
1.9.Micro EV - A $180 billion market opportunity
1.10.China is the leader of the pack, other countries poised to play catch-up
1.11.Electric two-wheeler sales growth
1.12.China's electric two-wheeler market to experience a replacement wave
1.13.India's electric two-wheeler market will experience the largest growth
1.14.Electric two-wheeler battery demand 2021-2043
1.15.China and India are major three-wheeler markets
1.16.Electrification is occurring faster in the three-wheeler markets
1.17.Electric three-wheelers to become a $40 billion market by 2043
1.18.Microcars: The goldilocks of urban EVs
1.19.Over 8 million microcar sales by 2043
2.INTRODUCTION
2.1.1.What are micro EVs?
2.1.2.The cost of congestion
2.1.3.Micro EVs help relieve congestion
2.1.4.Local mobility culture
2.1.5.Regional micro EV preferences
2.1.6.Micro EV usage models
2.1.7.Report scope
2.1.8.Micro EV types
2.1.9.Micro EV characteristics
2.1.10.Comparison of micro EV segments
2.1.11.Micro EVs are sustainable
2.1.12.Trip typology for 2 and 3 wheelers
2.1.13.Policies supporting two and three-wheelers
2.2.Battery chemistries
2.2.1.Battery chemistry choices
2.2.2.Battery cost of two-wheelers in China
2.2.3.Lithium-ion two-wheelers on the rise
2.2.4.Lithium-based battery family tree
2.2.5.More than one type of Li-ion battery
2.2.6.Cathode performance comparison
2.2.7.The promise of silicon-based anodes
2.2.8.The reality of silicon
2.2.9.Silicon: Incremental steps
3.TWO-WHEELERS
3.1.1.Two-wheelers vs other electric vehicles
3.1.2.Two-wheeler popularity in Asia
3.1.3.Electric two-wheeler classification
3.1.4.Electric two-wheelers: Power classes
3.1.5.Two-wheeler terminology
3.1.6.Electric two-wheeler manufacturers by region
3.1.7.Global two-wheeler markets snapshot
3.1.8.Global electric two-wheeler markets snapshot
3.1.9.Two-wheeler production hubs
3.1.10.China and India export volumes
3.1.11.Electric two-wheelers over 4kW
3.1.12.Electric motorcycle survey
3.1.13.Electric motorcycle performance
3.1.14.E-motorcycle specifications
3.1.15.E-motorcycle benchmarking
3.1.16.Electrification of motorcycles - Challenges
3.1.17.Electrification of large motorcycles and licensing
3.1.18.Charging e-motorcycles in Europe
3.1.19.Battery swapping consortium
3.1.20.Gachaco
3.1.21.Two and three wheeler swapping players
3.2.India
3.2.1.India: High pollution and oil dependence
3.2.2.Mobility trends in India
3.2.3.Indian two-wheeler market
3.2.4.Indian two-wheeler exports
3.2.5.India electric two-wheeler market growth
3.2.6.Indian electric two-wheeler segments
3.2.7.High-speed scooter sales in India
3.2.8.India electric two-wheeler forecast
3.2.9.Growth drivers of electric two wheelers in India
3.2.10.Indian electric two-wheeler OEMs
3.2.11.Hero brand clarity
3.2.12.Indian electric two-wheeler OEM market shares
3.2.13.Examples of electric two-wheeler models
3.2.14.Indian electric two-wheeler benchmarking
3.2.15.India to localise cell production
3.2.16.Indian electric scooter fires
3.3.China
3.3.1.Car sales and two-wheeler sales in China
3.3.2.How Chinese two-wheelers are different
3.3.3.China's electric two-wheeler explosion
3.3.4.China electric two-wheeler market history
3.3.5.China's new national standard helps electric two-wheelers set sail again
3.3.6.China electric two-wheeler forecast
3.3.7.China electric two-wheeler segmentation (2022)
3.3.8.Sales by province
3.3.9.Chinese electric two-wheeler OEM market shares
3.3.10.Electric motorcycles in China
3.3.11.Yadea
3.3.12.Niu
3.3.13.Chinese electric two-wheeler prices
3.3.14.Chinese electric two-wheeler industry map
3.4.Southeast Asia
3.4.1.ASEAN markets
3.4.2.Historic sales in Southeast Asia
3.4.3.Two-wheeler sales in Southeast Asia
3.4.4.Electric two-wheeler market shares
3.4.5.ASEAN electric two-wheeler wheeler brands
3.4.6.ASEAN electric two-wheeler battery types
3.4.7.Indonesia historic motorcycle sales
3.4.8.Indonesia electric two-wheeler models
3.4.9.Indonesia: Electric two-wheeler forecast
3.4.10.Vietnam - Similar story to China?
3.4.11.Electric two-wheeler models in Vietnam
3.4.12.Vietnam electric two-wheeler battery type
3.4.13.Vietnamese electric two-wheeler OEM market share
3.4.14.Southeast Asia electric two-wheeler forecast
3.5.EU and UK
3.5.1.EU classification of micro EVs
3.5.2.European two-wheeler classification
3.5.3.ACEM: EU data source
3.5.4.Historic electric two-wheeler sales in Europe
3.5.5.Electric mopeds and motorcycles in Europe
3.5.6.Electric motorcycle sales in Europe
3.5.7.Electric moped sales in Europe
3.5.8.European electric two-wheeler forecast
3.5.9.Market players in Europe
3.5.10.L-category vehicles in UK
3.5.11.Electrification of L-category vehicles in UK
3.5.12.Triumph TE-1 project
3.5.13.Kawasaki's transmission for e-motorcycles
3.5.14.Italy
3.6.USA
3.6.1.The US two-wheeler market
3.6.2.US electric two-wheelers
3.6.3.Zero-emission motorcycles in the US
3.6.4.US electric two-wheeler OEM market shares
3.6.5.Zero motorcycles
3.6.6.Zero Z-Force powertrain
3.6.7.US electric two-wheeler forecast
3.7.Rest of the world
3.7.1.Taiwan: Historic motorcycle sales
3.7.2.Gogoro
3.7.3.Gogoro swap station network
3.7.4.Gogoro partnerships
3.7.5.Gogoro expansion plans
3.7.6.Rest of the world electric two-wheeler forecast
4.THREE-WHEELERS
4.1.1.Three-wheeled oddities?
4.1.2.The role of three-wheelers
4.1.3.Electric three-wheeler classification
4.1.4.Three wheeler manufacturers by region
4.1.5.China and India: Major three-wheeler markets
4.2.India
4.2.1.India's three-wheeler market
4.2.2.Electric three-wheelers in India
4.2.3.Electrification in the Indian three-wheeler market
4.2.4.Large unregistered segment
4.2.5.Electric three wheeler sales
4.2.6.Indian electric three-wheeler OEMs
4.2.7.Examples of E3W models
4.2.8.Indian electric three-wheeler OEM market shares
4.2.9.Audi three-wheelers?
4.2.10.Vikram Solar
4.2.11.India electric three-wheeler forecast
4.2.12.India electric three-wheeler battery demand
4.3.China
4.3.1.China - Kingdom of the tricycle
4.3.2.Chinese three-wheeler types
4.3.3.China's three-wheeler market
4.3.4.Electrification in the Chinese three-wheeler market
4.3.5.Large number of exports
4.3.6.Electric cargo three-wheelers in China
4.3.7.Electric passenger three-wheelers in China
4.3.8.Chinese three-wheeler manufacturers
4.3.9.Examples of E3W models
4.3.10.Chinese three-wheeler OEM market shares
4.3.11.Chinese three-wheeler characteristics
4.3.12.Lead-acid vs lithium-ion
4.3.13.China regulating electric-three wheelers
4.3.14.Policies in China's three-wheeler market
4.3.15.Componentry for three-wheelers
4.3.16.China electric three-wheeler forecast
4.3.17.China electric three-wheeler battery demand
4.4.Rest of the world
4.4.1.Three wheelers outside China and India
4.4.2.Three-wheeler classification in USA and Europe
4.4.3.Privately owned three-wheeler specifications
4.4.4.Arcimoto: Electric three-wheeler
4.4.5.Arcimoto three-wheeler platform
4.4.6.Arcimoto production and financials
4.4.7.Electrameccanica: Electric three-wheeler
4.4.8.Carver: Electric three-wheeler
4.4.9.Electric three-wheelers in Southeast Asia
5.MICROCARS
5.1.1.The problem
5.1.2.Microcars: The goldilocks of urban EVs
5.1.3.What is a microcar?
5.1.4.The resurgence of microcars?
5.1.5.The role of microcars
5.1.6.Other applications of microcars
5.1.7.Average daily driving distance
5.1.8.Average range of microcars
5.1.9.Average urban speeds
5.1.10.Average battery capacities of microcars
5.1.11.Average motor power of microcars
5.1.12.Microcar characteristics
5.1.13.Microcar benefits
5.1.14.Concerns around microcars
5.1.15.Carsharing schemes
5.1.16.Price of microcar sharing
5.1.17.Rightsizing the footprint
5.1.18.Autonomous microcars in the future?
5.1.19.Honda self-driving microcars
5.2.Microcars by region
5.2.1.Variants of microcars
5.2.2.Microcar classification by region
5.2.3.Examples of microcars by region
5.2.4.US Low-Speed Vehicle (LSV)
5.2.5.Europe quadricycle category
5.2.6.Historic electric quadricycle sales in EU
5.2.7.Unregistered low speed EVs in China
5.2.8.Banning unregistered low speed EVs
5.2.9.China A00 category
5.2.10.A00 segment is almost entirely electric
5.2.11.China A00 sales by model
5.3.Microcar models
5.3.1.Hongguang Mini EV
5.3.2.Citroen Ami
5.3.3.Renault Twizy
5.3.4.Renault Mobilize - The new Twizy?
5.3.5.Polaris GEM e2
5.3.6.Polaris GEM battery & charging options
5.3.7.Microlino
5.3.8.Estrima Biro
5.3.9.Italcar
5.3.10.CEVO C-SE
5.3.11.Eli Zero
5.3.12.Zhidou
5.3.13.Triggo
5.4.Microcars at EVS35
6.FORECASTS
6.1.Forecast assumptions
6.2.Forecast methodology
6.3.Pricing and battery information by region
6.4.Electric two-wheeler unit sales by power class 2021-2043 (millions)
6.5.Electric two-wheeler unit sales by region 2021-2043 (millions)
6.6.Electric two-wheeler battery demand by battery type 2021-2043 (GWh)
6.7.Electric two-wheeler battery demand by region 2021-2043 (GWh)
6.8.Electric two-wheeler market value by power class 2021-2043 ($ billion)
6.9.Electric two-wheeler market value by region 2021-2043 ($ billion)
6.10.Electric three-wheeler unit sales by power class 2021-2043 (millions)
6.11.Electric three-wheeler unit sales by region 2021-2043 (millions)
6.12.Electric three-wheeler battery demand by battery type 2021-2043 (GWh)
6.13.Electric three-wheeler market value by region 2021-2043 ($ billions)
6.14.Electric microcar unit sales by region 2021-2043 (millions)
6.15.Electric microcar battery demand by region 2021-2043 (GWh)
6.16.Electric microcar market value by region 2021-2043 ($ billion)
 

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Report Statistics

Slides 259
Forecasts to 2043
Published Dec 2022
ISBN 9781915514448
 

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