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Range Extenders for Electric Vehicles Land, Water & Air 2013-2023: IDTechEx

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Range Extenders for Electric Vehicles Land, Water & Air 2013-2023

Analysis of technologies, players and market forecasts


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We are in the decade of the hybrid electric vehicle despite the fact that most off road and underwater vehicles are pure electric. That includes most forklifts, golf cars and mobility vehicles for the disabled plus Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUVs) and personal submarines. Indeed, most electric aircraft are pure electric as well. The reason is that these are mainly small as are electric two-wheelers, which are also almost all pure electric. Small vehicles rarely need to travel long distances. In addition, these pure electric vehicles are often used where a conventional engine is banned as on lakes and indoors or where it is impracticable as with underwater vehicles. By contrast, half the electric vehicle market value lies in larger road vehicles, notably cars, and here the legal restrictions are weaker or non-existent and range anxiety compels most people to buy hybrids if they go electric at all.
 
About eight million hybrid cars will be made in 2023, each with a range extender, the additional power source that distinguishes them from pure electric cars. Add to that significant money spent on the same devices in buses, military vehicles, boats and so on and a major new market emerges. This unique report is about range extenders for all these purposes - their evolving technology and market size. Whereas today's range extenders usually consist of little more than off the shelf internal combustion engines, these are rapidly being replaced by second generation range extenders consisting of piston engines designed from scratch for fairly constant load in series hybrids. There are some wild cards like Wankel engines and rotary combustion engines or free piston engines both with integral electricity generation. However, a more radical departure is the third generation micro turbines and fuel cells that work at constant load. The report compares all these. It forecasts the lower power needed over the years given assistance from fast charging and energy harvesting innovations ahead. Every aspect of the new range extenders is covered.
 
This report profiles key developers, manufactures and integrators of range extenders for land, water and airborne electric vehicles. It gives ten year forecasts of the different types of electric vehicle and of range extenders by number, unit value and market value. Market drivers and the changing requirements for power output are analysed. Will shaftless range extenders with no separate electricity generator take over and when will that be? What fuels will be used and when? What are the pros and cons of each option and who are the leaders? It is all here.
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Table of Contents
1.EXECUTIVE SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS
1.1.Range extender market in 2023
1.1.Numbers of EVs, in thousands, sold globally, 2012-2023, by applicational sector
1.1.Numbers of EVs, in thousands, sold globally, 2012-2023, by applicational sector
1.2.Ex-factory unit price of EVs, in thousands of US dollars, sold globally, 2012-2023, by applicational sector, rounded
1.2.Ex-factory unit price of EVs, in thousands of US dollars, sold globally, 2012-2023, by applicational sector, rounded
1.2.EV Market 2013 and 2023
1.3.Ten year forecast for electric cars, hybrids and their range extenders
1.3.Ex-factory value of EVs, in billions of US dollars, sold globally, 2012-2023, by applicational sector, rounded
1.3.Ex-factory value of EVs, in billions of US dollars, sold globally, 2012-2023, by applicational sector, rounded
1.4.Number of hybrid and pure electric cars (including quadricycles) sold and those that plug in thousands 2012-2022
1.4.Advantages and disadvantages of hybrid vs pure electric vehicles
1.4.Hybrid and pure electric vehicles compared
1.5.Hybrid market drivers
1.5.Indicative trend of charging and electrical storage for large hybrid vehicles over the next decade
1.5.Some primary hybrid market drivers
1.6.Three generations of range extender with examples of construction, manufacturer and power output
1.6.Evolution of construction of range extenders over the coming decade
1.6.What will be required of a range extender 2012-2023
1.7.Three generations of range extender
1.7.Examples of range extender technology in the shaft vs no shaft categories
1.8.Illustrations of range extender technologies over the coming decade with "gen" in red for those that have inherent ability to generate electricity
1.8.Why range extenders need lower power over the years
1.9.Energy harvesting - mostly ally not alternative
1.9.Trend of size of largest (in red) and smallest (in green) fuel cell sets used in bus trials worldwide over the last twenty years
1.10.Evolution of lower power range extenders for large vehicles
1.10.Key trends for range extended vehicles
1.11.Combining Heating and Range-Extension for Electric Vehicles
1.11.Three generations of lithium-ion battery
1.12.The most powerful energy harvesting in vehicles
1.12.Emergency range extenders
1.13.Latest timelines
2.INTRODUCTION
2.1.Types of electric vehicle
2.1.ThunderVolt hybrid bus
2.2.BAE Systems powertrain in a bus
2.2.Many fuels
2.3.Born electric
2.3.Hybrid bus powertrain
2.4.Hybrid car powertrain using CNG
2.4.Pure electric vehicles are improving
2.5.Series vs parallel hybrid
2.5.Mitsubishi hybrid outdoor forklift replacing a conventional ICE vehicle
2.6.Hybrid military vehicle that replaces a conventional ICE version
2.6.Modes of operation of hybrids
2.6.1.Plug in hybrids
2.6.2.Charge-depleting mode
2.6.3.Blended mode
2.6.4.Charge-sustaining mode
2.6.5.Mixed mode
2.7.Microhybrid is a misnomer
2.7.Hybrid sports boat replacing a conventional ICE version
2.8.CAF-E hybrid motorcycle design based on a Prius type of drivetrain
2.8.Deep hybridisation
2.9.Battery cost and performance are key
2.9.Hybrid tugboat replacing a conventional ICE version to meet new pollution laws and provide stronger pull from stationary
2.10.Some hybrid variants
2.10.Hybrid price premium
2.11.Progressing the REEV
2.11.Evolution of plug in vs mild hybrids
2.12.Trend to deep hybridisation
2.12.What is a range extender?
2.12.1.First generation range extender technology
2.12.2.Second generation range extender technology
2.12.3.Radically new approaches - Hüttlin range extender
2.12.4.Third generation range extender technology
2.13.Market position of fuel cell range extenders
2.13.Evolution of hybrid structure
2.14.Three generations of lithium-ion traction battery
2.14.Energy harvesting on and in electric vehicles
2.15.Tradeoff of energy storage technologies
2.15.Battery price assisting price of hybrid and pure electric vehicles as a function of power stored
2.16.Probable future improvement in parameters of lithium-ion batteries for pure electric and hybrid EVs
2.16.Trend to high voltage
2.17.Component choices for energy density/ power density
2.17.Cleaner hybrid bus promotion
2.18.Price premium for hybrid buses
2.18.Fuel cells rescued by batteries
2.19.PEM fuel cells
2.19.Main modes of rotational energy harvesting in vehicles
2.20.Main forms of photovoltaic energy harvesting on vehicles
2.20.Trend to distributed components
2.21.Trend to flatness then smart skin
2.21.Maximum power from the most powerful forms of energy harvesting on or in vehicles
2.22.Hybrid bus with range improved by a few percent using solar panels
2.23.Comparison of battery technologies
2.24.Possible trend in battery power storage and voltage of power distribution
2.25.Comparison of energy density of power components for hybrid vehicles
2.26.Trend of size of the largest (in red) and smallest (in green) fuel cell sets used in 98 bus trials worldwide over the last twenty years.
2.27.Evolution of traction batteries and range extenders for large hybrid electric vehicles as they achieve longer all-electric range over the next decade.
2.28.Three generations of lithium-ion battery with technical features that are sometimes problematical
2.29.The principle of the Proton Exchange Membrane fuel cells
2.30.Mitsubishi view of hybrid vehicle powertrain evolution
2.31.Flat lithium-ion batteries for a car and, bottom, UAVs
2.32.Supercapacitors that facilitate fast charging and discharging of the traction batteries are spread out on a bus roof
2.33.Asola photovoltaic panel on Fisker hybrid sports car.
3.ELECTRIC VEHICLE MARKET OVERVIEW
3.1.The whole picture
3.1.Numbers of EVs, in thousands, sold globally, 2012-2023, by applicational sector
3.1.Main market drivers 2013-2023
3.1.1.Synergies
3.1.2.What is excluded?
3.2.Largest sectors
3.2.Ex-factory unit price of EVs, in thousands of US dollars, sold globally, 2012-2023, by applicational sector, rounded
3.2.Numbers of EVs, in thousands, sold globally, 2012-2023, by applicational sector
3.3.Ex-factory unit price of EVs, in thousands of US dollars, sold globally, 2012-2023, by applicational sector, rounded
3.3.Ex-factory value of EVs, in billions of US dollars, sold globally, 2012-2023, by applicational sector, rounded
3.3.Numbers of manufacturers
3.4.Heavy industrial sector
3.4.Approximate number of manufacturers of electric vehicles worldwide by application in 2010
3.4.Ex-factory value of EVs, in billions of US dollars, sold globally, 2012-2023, by applicational sector, rounded
3.5.Approximate number of manufacturers of electric vehicles worldwide in 2013 by application with numbers for China
3.5.Number of manufacturers of electric vehicles in China by application in 2010
3.5.Buses
3.6.The light industrial and commercial sector
3.6.Energy per 100 kilometers per person for different on-road travel options.
3.6.Global sales of heavy industrial EVs by numbers, ex-factory unit price and total value 2012-2023, rounded
3.7.Global sales of buses, ex-factory unit price and total value 2012-2023, rounded
3.7.The Mission Motors Mission One 150 mph, 150 mile range electric motorcycle
3.7.Two wheel and allied vehicles
3.8.Cars
3.8.Global sales of light industrial and commercial EVs excluding buses by numbers thousands, ex-factory unit price in thousands of dollars and total value in billions of dollars 2012-2023, rounded
3.9.Global sales of EVs used as mobility aids for the disabled by number, ex-factory unit price in thousands of dollars and total value in billions of dollars, 2012-2023, rounded
3.9.Golf
3.10.Military
3.10.Global sales of two wheel and allied EVs number, ex-factory unit price in thousands of dollars and total value in billions of dollars 2012-2022, rounded
3.11.Global sales of car hybrid number thousands, ex-factory unit price in thousands of dollars and total value in billions of dollars 2012-2023, rounded
3.11.Marine
3.12.Other
3.12.Global sales of car pure electric number thousands, ex-factory unit price in thousands of dollars and total value in billions of dollars 2012-2023, rounded
3.13.Number of hybrid and pure electric cars plugged in and the total number in thousands 2011-2021
3.13.Market for EV components
3.14.Timelines
3.14.Global sales of electric golf cars and motorised caddies in number thousands, ex-factory unit price in thousands of dollars and total value in billions of dollars 2012-2023, rounded
3.15.Global sales of electric military vehicles in number thousands, ex-factory unit price in thousands of dollars and total value in billions of dollars 2012-2023, rounded
3.15.Watch Japan, China and Korea
3.16.Vacillation by some governments
3.16.Global sales of electric marine craft in number thousands, ex-factory unit price in thousands of dollars and total value in billions of dollars 2012-2023, rounded
3.17.Global sales of other electric vehicles (including civil aircraft and robot) in number thousands, ex-factory unit price in thousands of dollars and total value in billions of dollars 2012-2022, rounded
3.17.Healthy shakeout of the car industry
3.18.Full circle back to pure EVs
3.18.Components and subsystems fitted in new electric vehicles 2010-2020 in thousands
3.19.Highlights 2010-2020
3.19.Winning strategies
4.MARKETS AND TECHNOLOGIES FOR REEVS
4.1.Range extenders for land craft
4.1.Northrop Grumman surveillance airship with fuel cell range extender and energy harvesting for virtually unlimited range
4.2.Light utility aircraft - power-systems weight comparison
4.2.Range Extenders for electric aircraft
4.2.1.Military aircraft
4.3.Comparisons
4.3.Light primary trainer - power-systems weight comparison
4.4.Battery and jet fuel loading
4.4.Fuel cells in aviation
4.5.Civil aircraft
4.5.Pilot plus payload vs range for fuel cell light aircraft and alternatives
4.6.Total weight vs flight time for PEM fuel cell planes
4.6.Potential for electric airliners
4.7.Range extenders for marine craft
4.7.Takeoff gross weight breakdowns. Left: Conventional reciprocating-engine-powered airplane. Right: Fuel-cell-powered airplane.
4.8.JAMSTEC Fuel Cell Underwater Vehicle FCUV
4.9.Soliloquy superyacht with multiple energy harvesting including solar sails that fold like a penknife
5.RANGE EXTENDER DEVELOPERS AND MANUFACTURERS
5.1.Advanced Magnet Laboratory USA
5.1.AeroVironment Raven
5.1.Data for RQ-11A version of AeroVironment Raven
5.2.Raven enhancement
5.2.AeroVironment / Protonex Technology USA
5.3.Austro Engine Austria
5.3.Aqua Puma
5.4.AeroVironment Helios
5.4.Bladon Jets UK
5.5.BMW Germany
5.5.Global Observer first flight August 2010
5.6.Bladon Jets gas turbine range extender for cars and light aircraft and the Jaguar CX75
5.6.Brayton Energy USA
5.7.Capstone Turbine Corporation USA
5.7.Jaguar Land Rover
5.8.Latest Bladon Jets design
5.8.Clarian Laboratories USA
5.9.Compound Rotary Engines UK
5.9.Capstone microturbine
5.10.Capstone turbine in a Japanese bus
5.10.Daimler AG inc Mercedes Benz Germany
5.11.DLR German Aerospace Center Germany
5.11.Various sizes of Capstone MicroTurbines
5.11.1.Free piston range extenders
5.12.EcoMotors
5.12.Clarian Laboratories' range extender
5.13.Daimler roadmap for commercial vehicles
5.13.Ener1 USA
5.14.ETV Motors Israel
5.14.DLR fuel cell and the electric A320 airliner nose wheel it drives when the airliner is on the ground.
5.15.Holstenblitz fuel cell car trial
5.15.FEV USA
5.16.Flight Design Germany
5.16.A new power generator for hybrid vehicles
5.17.EcoMotors opposing piston range extender
5.17.Getrag Germany
5.18.GSE USA
5.18.FEV extreme downsized range extender engine
5.19.GSE mini diesel driving a propeller
5.19.Intelligent Energy UK
5.20.KSPG Germany
5.20.Greg Stevenson (left) and Gene Sheehan, Fueling Team GFC contender, with GSE Engines.
5.21.Block diagram of the Frank/Stevenson parallel hybrid system
5.21.LiquidPiston USA
5.22.Lotus Engineering UK
5.22.Fuel cell taxi trials
5.23.Fuel cell development
5.23.MAHLE Powertrain UK
5.24.Mazda Japan
5.24.The LiquidPiston engine
5.25.New two cylinder range extender from Lotus Engineering
5.25.Polaris Industries Switzerland
5.26.Powertrain Technologies UK
5.26.Lotus hybrid powertrain and second generation range extender ICE
5.27.Lotus three and two cylinder range extenders
5.27.Proton Power Systems plc UK/Germany
5.28.Ricardo UK
5.28.Proton EMAS
5.29.MAHLE range extenders
5.29.Urbee Canada
5.30.Volkswagen Germany
5.30.MAHLE compact range extender
5.31.MAHLE range extender at EVS26 2012
5.31.Warsaw University of Technology, Poland
5.32.Polaris REX range extender left with generator, right with peripherals as well
5.33.Location of technical advances in Polaris range extender
5.34.Ricardo Wolverine engine for hybrid UAVs
5.35.Volkswagen XL1 hybrid concept
6.RANGE EXTENDER INTEGRATORS
6.1.ACAL Energy UK
6.1.Adura powertrain with microturbine.
6.2.Ashok Leyland CNG hybrid bus
6.2.Altria Controls USA
6.3.Ashok Leyland India
6.3.Azure Dynamics hybrid powertrain
6.4.Bus with BAE Systems hybrid power train
6.4.Audi Germany
6.5.AVL Austria
6.5.Boeing fuel cell aircraft
6.6.DesignLine bus with Capstone turbine range extender.
6.6.Azure Dynamics USA
6.7.BAE Systems UK
6.7.ENFICA FC two seater fuel cell plane
6.8.Ford Lincoln hybrid car has no price premium over the conventional version
6.8.BMW Germany
6.9.Boeing Dreamworks USA
6.9.Frazer-Nash EREV powertrain
6.10.Namir EREV Supercar
6.10.Chrysler USA
6.11.DesignLine New Zealand
6.11.Proton Exora
6.12.Chevrolet Volt powertrain
6.12.EADS Germany
6.13.ENFICA-FC Italy
6.13.Honda IMA
6.14.German fuel cell powered diesel submarine
6.14.Ford USA
6.15.Frazer-Nash UK
6.15.Hyundai Blue hybrid car
6.16.Hyundai fuel cell powered car
6.16.General Motors including Opel
6.17.Honda Japan
6.17.Igot Chak hybrid motorcycle
6.18.Hybrid Land Rover trial
6.18.Howaldtswerke-Deutsche Werft Germany
6.19.Hyundai Korea
6.19.Planned Jaguar supercar
6.20.The LPE REEV concept car
6.20.Igor Chak Russia
6.21.Jaguar Land Rover UK
6.21.Marion Hyper-Sub Submersible Powerboat
6.22.Skyspark in flight 2009
6.22.Lange Aviation Germany
6.23.Langford Performance Engineering Ltd UK
6.23.Suzuki Burgman fuel cell scooter
6.24.Suzuki concept fuel cell motorcycle headed for production
6.24.Marion HSPD USA
6.25.Pipistrel Slovenia
6.25.Tata Motors roadmap for hybrid commercial vehicles
6.26.Toyota Prius hybrid car is the world's best selling electric car
6.26.SAIC China
6.27.Skyspark Italy
6.27.Toyota hybrid forklift
6.28.Turtle Airship landed on water in concept drawing
6.28.Suzuki Japan
6.29.Tata Motors India
6.29.Glassock hybrid set up for dynamometer testing
6.30.Hybrid quad bike
6.30.Toyota Japan
6.31.Turtle Airships Spain
6.31.Hydrogenius
6.32.Tyrano hybrid tractor
6.32.University of Bristol UK
6.33.Université de Sherbrooke Canada
6.33.Volvo hybrid bus
6.34.Volvo technical concept 1
6.34.University of Stuttgart Germany
6.35.Vision Motor Corporation USA
6.35.Volvo technical concept 2
6.36.Volvo technical concept 3
6.36.Volvo Sweden/ China
6.37.Wrightspeed USA
6.38.Yo-Avto Russia
7.MARKET DRIVERS AND FORECASTS
7.1.Market drivers and impediments
7.1.Forecast for car, hybrid car and car range extender sales globally in thousands 2012-2023
7.1.Primary hybrid market drivers
7.2.Probable global market for electric vehicle range extenders in 2021 by power, number and market value for small, medium and large range extenders
7.2.Indicative trend of charging and electrical storage for large hybrid vehicles over the next decade.
7.2.Funding as a market driver
7.3.EV Market 2011 and 2021
7.3.Evolution of construction of range extenders over the coming decade
7.3.Forecasts of global sales of electric vehicles by numbers thousands 2011-2021
7.4.Forecast for car, hybrid car and car range extender sales globally in thousands 2012-2023
7.4.Examples of range extender technology in the shaft vs no shaft categories
7.4.Ten year forecast for electric cars, hybrids and their range extenders
7.5.Three generations of range extender
7.5.Illustrations of range extender technologies over the coming decade with "gen" in red for those that have inherent ability to generate electricity
7.5.Three generations of range extender with examples of construction, manufacturer and power output
APPENDIX 1: IDTECHEX PUBLICATIONS AND CONSULTANCY
APPENDIX 2: FUEL CELL 2000 SUMMARY OF FUEL CELL BUS TRIALS TO 2010
TABLES
FIGURES
 

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