Range Extenders for Electric Vehicles Land, Water & Air 2017-2027: IDTechEx

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Range Extenders for Electric Vehicles Land, Water & Air 2017-2027

Technologies, players, market forecasts


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We are in the decade of the hybrid electric vehicle despite the fact that most off-road and underwater vehicles are pure electric. That includes most forklifts, golf cars and mobility vehicles for the disabled plus Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUVs) and personal submarines. Indeed, most electric aircraft are pure electric as well. The reason is that these are mainly small as are electric two-wheelers, which are also almost all pure electric. Small vehicles rarely need to travel long distances. In addition, these pure electric vehicles are often used where a conventional engine is banned as on lakes and indoors or where it is impracticable as with underwater vehicles. By contrast, half the electric vehicle market value lies in larger road vehicles, notably cars, and here the legal restrictions are weaker or non-existent and range anxiety compels most people to buy hybrids if they go electric at all.
 
Over nine million hybrid cars will be made in 2027, each with a range extender, the additional power source that distinguishes them from pure electric cars. Add to that significant money spent on the same devices in buses, military vehicles, boats and so on and a major new market emerges. This unique report is about range extenders for all these purposes - their evolving technology and market size. Whereas today's range extenders usually consist of little more than off the shelf internal combustion engines, these are rapidly being replaced by second generation range extenders consisting of piston engines designed from scratch for fairly constant load in series hybrids. There are some wild cards like Wankel engines and rotary combustion engines or free piston engines both with integral electricity generation. However, a more radical departure is the third generation micro turbines and fuel cells that work at constant load. The report compares all these. It forecasts the lower power needed over the years given assistance from fast charging and energy harvesting innovations ahead. Every aspect of the new range extenders is covered.
 
This report profiles key developers, manufactures and integrators of range extenders for land, water and airborne electric vehicles. It gives ten year forecasts of the different types of electric vehicle and of range extenders by number, unit value and market value. Market drivers and the changing requirements for power output are analysed. Will shaftless range extenders with no separate electricity generator take over and when will that be? What fuels will be used and when? What are the pros and cons of each option and who are the leaders? It is all here.
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Table of Contents
1.EXECUTIVE SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS
1.1.Numbers of EVs, in thousands, sold globally, 2017-2027 by applicational sector
1.1.Range extender market in 2027
1.1.Number of hybrid vehicles sold globally (in thousands), this being approximately equal to the number of range extender sets in later years
1.2.Range extender numbers (thousand) 2017-2027
1.2.EV market 2017 and 2027 identifying hybrids
1.2.Number of hybrid vehicles sold globally (in thousands), this being approximately equal to the number of range extender sets in later years
1.3.Range extender numbers (thousand), unit price (US$) and market value (US$ million) 2017-2027
1.3.Hybrid and pure electric vehicles compared
1.3.Range extender unit price (US$) 2017-2027
1.4.Range extender market value (US$ million) 2017-2027
1.4.Hybrid market drivers
1.4.Three generations of range extender with examples of construction, manufacturer and power output
1.5.What will be required of a range extender 2017-2027
1.5.Advantages and disadvantages of hybrid vs pure electric vehicles
1.6.Indicative trend of charging and electrical storage for large hybrid vehicles over the next decade
1.6.Three generations of range extender
1.7.Why range extenders need lower power over the years
1.7.Evolution of construction of range extenders over the coming decade
1.8.Examples of range extender technology in the shaft vs no shaft categories
1.8.Energy harvesting - mostly ally not alternative
1.9.Key trends for range extended vehicles
1.9.Trend of size of largest (in red) and smallest (in green) fuel cell sets used in bus trials worldwide 1991-2011
1.10.Evolution of lower power range extenders for large vehicles
1.10.Combining heating and range-extension for electric vehicles
1.11.Emergency range extenders
1.11.The most powerful energy harvesting in vehicles
1.12.The gull wing BMW i8
1.12.Latest timelines
1.12.1.Piston engine use and rotary engine tests
1.12.2.Gas turbines
1.12.3.Delta Motorsport microturbine
1.12.4.Fuel cell rollouts
1.13.BMW
1.13.Workhorse E-Gen electric delivery vehicle
1.13.1.BMW i supply agreement with Workhorse Group - October 2016
1.14.Effect of 2015 oil price collapse on electric vehicles
1.14.Types of range extender by cost and local emission, with the zero emission options compared with energy harvesting, all of which has zero local emission.
1.15.Types of energy harvesting by type of vehicle
1.15.Range extender synergy with energy harvesting
1.16.Interviews
1.16.Magna International fuel cell range-extended electric vehicle
1.17.Lessons from CENEX LCV event UK
1.18.Aquarius Engines and range extender futures - December 2016
1.19.Torqeedo small boat RE new in 2017
1.20.Nissan 3 cylinder piston range extender in 2017
1.21.Jet engine aircraft range extenders
1.22.Magna International self-charging fuel cell vehicle 2017
2.INTRODUCTION
2.1.Price premium for hybrid buses
2.1.Types of electric vehicle
2.1.ThunderVolt hybrid bus
2.2.BAE Systems powertrain in a bus
2.2.Many fuels
2.3.Born electric
2.3.Hybrid bus powertrain
2.4.Hybrid car powertrain using CNG
2.4.Pure electric vehicles are improving
2.4.1.Battery gambles
2.4.2.Many solutions
2.4.3.Agriculture
2.4.4.Many niches
2.4.5.The end game approaches: Energy Independent Electric Vehicles EIV
2.5.Series vs parallel hybrid
2.5.Mitsubishi hybrid outdoor forklift replacing a conventional ICE vehicle
2.6.Hybrid military vehicle that replaces a conventional ICE version
2.6.Modes of operation of hybrids
2.6.1.Plug in hybrids
2.6.2.Charge-depleting mode
2.6.3.Blended mode
2.6.4.Charge-sustaining mode
2.6.5.Mixed mode
2.7.Microhybrid is a misnomer
2.7.Hybrid sports boat replacing a conventional ICE version
2.8.CAF-E hybrid motorcycle design based on a Prius type of drivetrain
2.8.Deep hybridisation
2.9.Battery cost and performance are key
2.9.Hybrid tugboat replacing a conventional ICE version to meet new pollution laws and provide stronger pull from stationary
2.10.EP Tender
2.10.Hybrid price premium
2.11.What is a range extender?
2.11.Autonomous car trends
2.11.1.First generation range extender technology
2.11.2.Second generation range extender technology
2.11.3.Third generation range extender technology
2.11.4.Single cylinder range extenders
2.12.EP Tender assessments and proposal Late 2016.
2.12.PEM fuel cells
2.13.Market position of fuel cell range extenders
2.13.Some hybrid variants
2.14.Evolution of plug in vs mild hybrids
2.14.Energy harvesting and regenerative acceleration
2.15.Trend to deep hybridisation
2.16.Evolution of hybrid structure
2.17.Battery price assisting price of hybrid and pure electric vehicles as a function of power stored
2.18.Electric machine and ICE sub-assembly
2.19.48V Model chosen
2.20.The principle of the Proton Exchange Membrane fuel cells
3.MARKETS AND TECHNOLOGIES FOR REEVS
3.1.Range extenders for land craft
3.1.Northrop Grumman surveillance airship with fuel cell range extender and energy harvesting for virtually unlimited range
3.2.Light utility aircraft - power-systems weight comparison
3.2.Range Extenders for electric aircraft
3.2.1.Military aircraft
3.3.Light primary trainer - power-systems weight comparison
3.3.Comparisons
3.4.Fuel cells in aviation
3.4.Battery and jet fuel loading
3.5.Pilot plus payload vs range for fuel cell light aircraft and alternatives
3.5.Civil aircraft
3.6.Range extenders for marine craft
3.6.Total weight vs flight time for PEM fuel cell planes
3.7.Takeoff gross weight breakdowns. Left: Conventional reciprocating-engine-powered airplane. Right: Fuel-cell-powered airplane.
3.8.JAMSTEC Fuel Cell Underwater Vehicle FCUV
4.RANGE EXTENDER DEVELOPERS AND MANUFACTURERS
4.1.Data for RQ-11A version of AeroVironment Raven
4.1.AeroVironment Raven
4.1.Advanced Magnet Laboratory USA
4.2.AeroVironment / Protonex Technology USA
4.2.Raven enhancement
4.3.Aqua Puma
4.3.Austro Engine Austria
4.4.Bladon Jets UK
4.4.AeroVironment Helios
4.5.Global Observer first flight August 2010
4.5.BMW Germany
4.6.Brayton Energy USA
4.6.Bladon Jets gas turbine range extender for cars and light aircraft and the Jaguar CX75
4.7.Jaguar Land Rover
4.7.Capstone Turbine Corporation USA
4.8.Compound Rotary Engines UK
4.8.Latest Bladon Jets design
4.9.Range extender for BMW i3 electric car
4.9.Daimler AG inc Mercedes Benz Germany
4.10.DLR German Aerospace Center Germany
4.10.Capstone microturbine
4.10.1.Free piston range extenders
4.11.Capstone turbine in a Japanese bus
4.11.Duke Engine axial piston
4.12.EcoMotors
4.12.Various sizes of Capstone MicroTurbines
4.13.Daimler roadmap for commercial vehicles
4.13.Ener1 USA
4.14.ETV Motors Israel
4.14.DLR fuel cell and the electric A320 airliner nose wheel it drives when the airliner is on the ground.
4.15.Holstenblitz fuel cell car trial
4.15.FEV USA
4.16.Flight Design Germany
4.16.A new power generator for hybrid vehicles
4.17.EcoMotors opposing piston range extender
4.17.Getrag Germany
4.18.GSE USA
4.18.FEV extreme downsized range extender engine
4.19.GSE mini diesel driving a propeller
4.19.Hüttlin Germany
4.20.Hyperdrive UK
4.20.Greg Stevenson (left) and Gene Sheehan, Fueling Team GFC contender, with GSE Engines.
4.21.Block diagram of the Frank/Stevenson parallel hybrid system
4.21.Libralato UK
4.21.1.Libralato technology
4.21.2.Avoiding the problems of the Wankel engine
4.21.3.The company
4.22.Intelligent Energy UK
4.22.Libralato cycle
4.23.Fuel cell taxi trials
4.23.KSPG Germany
4.24.LiquidPiston USA
4.24.Fuel cell development
4.25.KSPG 30kW V2 range extender for small cars
4.25.Lotus Engineering UK
4.26.MAHLE Powertrain UK
4.26.The LiquidPiston engine
4.27.New two cylinder range extender from Lotus Engineering
4.27.Mazda Japan
4.28.Nissan Japan
4.28.Lotus hybrid powertrain and second generation range extender ICE
4.29.Lotus three and two cylinder range extenders
4.29.Peec-Power BV The Netherlands
4.30.Polaris Industries Switzerland
4.30.Proton EMAS
4.31.MAHLE range extenders
4.31.Powertrain Technologies UK
4.32.Proton Power Systems plc UK/Germany
4.32.MAHLE compact range extender
4.33.MAHLE range extender at EVS26 2012
4.33.Ricardo UK
4.34.Suzuki Japan
4.34.Polaris REX range extender left with generator, right with peripherals as well
4.35.Location of technical advances in Polaris range extender
4.35.Tacita Italy
4.36.Techrules China
4.36.Ricardo Wolverine engine for hybrid UAVs
4.37.Toyota FPEG options and piston geometry
4.37.Toyota Japan
4.38.Urbee Canada
4.38.Volkswagen XL1 hybrid concept
4.39.Volkswagen Germany
4.40.Volvo Sweden/China
4.40.1.Long term major work
4.40.2.Volvo V8 performance with four cylinders
4.41.Warsaw University of Technology, Poland
5.RANGE EXTENDER INTEGRATORS
5.1.ACAL Energy UK
5.1.Adura powertrain with microturbine.
5.2.Ashok Leyland CNG hybrid bus
5.2.Airbus (formerly EADS) Germany
5.3.Altria Controls USA
5.3.Azure Dynamics hybrid powertrain
5.4.Bus with BAE Systems hybrid power train
5.4.Ashok Leyland India
5.5.Audi Germany
5.5.Boeing fuel cell aircraft
5.6.ENFICA FC two seater fuel cell plane
5.6.AVL Austria
5.7.Azure Dynamics USA
5.7.Ford Lincoln hybrid car offered at no price premium over the conventional version
5.8.Frazer-Nash EREV powertrain
5.8.BAE Systems UK
5.9.BMW Germany
5.9.Namir EREV Supercar
5.10.Proton Exora
5.10.Boeing Dreamworks USA
5.11.Chrysler USA
5.11.Chevrolet Volt powertrain
5.12.Honda IMA
5.12.ENFICA-FC Italy
5.13.Ford USA
5.13.Hyundai Blue hybrid car
5.14.Hyundai fuel cell powered car
5.14.Frazer-Nash UK
5.15.General Motors including Opel
5.15.The LPE REEV concept car
5.16.Marion Hyper-Sub Submersible Powerboat
5.16.Honda Japan
5.17.Hyundai Korea
5.17.Skyspark in flight
5.18.Suzuki Burgman fuel cell scooter
5.18.Jaguar Land Rover UK
5.19.Langford Performance Engineering Ltd UK
5.19.Suzuki concept fuel cell motorcycle headed for production
5.20.Tata Motors roadmap for hybrid commercial vehicles
5.20.Marion HSPD USA
5.21.Pipistrel Slovenia
5.21.Toyota Prius hybrid car is the world's best selling electric car
5.22.Toyota hybrid forklift
5.22.SAIC China
5.23.Skyspark Italy
5.23.Hybrid quad bike
5.24.Hydrogenius
5.24.Suzuki Japan
5.25.Tata Motors India
5.25.Volvo hybrid bus
5.26.Volvo technical concept 1
5.26.Toyota Japan
5.27.Université de Sherbrooke Canada
5.27.Volvo technical concept 2
5.28.Volvo technical concept 3
5.28.University of Stuttgart Germany
5.29.Volvo Sweden/ China
5.30.Walkera China
5.31.Wrightspeed USA
5.32.Yo-Avto Russia
6.RECENT ADVANCES
6.1.Latest update on Taiwan Automotive International Forum and Exhibition October 2014
6.2.Electric vehicles set for 2014 MPG Marathon
6.3.Hydrogen fuel cell range extenders double the range of EV trucks
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