RFID Report

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Wireless Sensor Networks 2009-2019

The New Market for Ubiquitous Sensor Networks (USN)

Updated in Q4 2009

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Wireless Sensor Networks 2010-2020 is now available WSN 2010-2020
 
 
 
 
 
 
This report is about automatically monitoring forest fires, country wide utility equipment, aircraft, hospitals and much more over wide areas, something previously impossible. It is becoming possible thanks to the new Wireless Sensor Networks WSN otherwise known as Ubiquitous Sensor Networks USN. Uniquely, these employ so-called "mesh networking" of tags to provide massive scalability - a small system is easily made into a very large one. The new systems are also exceptionally fault tolerant, easy to install and they are increasingly affordable compared with previous forms of active RFID ie RFID where there is a battery in the tag to enhance performance. Indeed, they often subsume the functions of traditional active RFID and Real Time Locating Systems RTLS. The new WSN are even uniquely tolerant of the hardware being moved and some are remotely reconfigurable.
 
So what is a mesh network? Think of the electronic equivalent of party guests passing on the message that a child is missing until that child is found - many short range communications, in many directions - like a mesh - add up to finding the child further away. All those people were able to pass on a message in an ad hoc network that dissolved when its task is done. In the electronic equivalent, WSN can form ad hoc networks where many small ranges add up to a big one thus permitting the tags to be much smaller, lower cost and more reliable than would otherwise be the case. However, here the network operates without human intervention. It performs its tasks silently and automatically.
 
Many now refer to traditional active RFID as First Generation. Examples of this include the device that opens your car from a distance and the device in your car windshield that uses a battery to incur and record non-stop tolling charges. Another example is the widespread tracking of military supplies and assets by electronically recording when they have been near an electronic device that reads the tag using radio waves. Real Time Location Systems RTLS, that continuously interrogate the tag from a distance, are called Second Generation active RFID and WSN is called Third Generation because it works in yet another completely different manner to provide its unique benefits.
 
Most commonly, these three generations address different markets and use different frequencies and standards. First Generation has been around for about 60 years, RTLS for about 12 years and USN, in fully functional form, is only now becoming available. However, only Second Generation (RTLS) and Third Generation ( WSN) have the potential to become multibillion dollar businesses. While there are many academic texts about WSN dealing with the highly complex technical challenges of producing these systems, readable material putting such systems in context, including forecasting their rollout and commercial opportunity are few and far between, so the present report covers these aspects without being excessively technical. That said, some technical background would help the reader to more readily grasp the concepts.
 
Uniquely, this report new goes into depth on WSN from a global, commercial viewpoint. We examine a large number of potential applications of WSN including intelligent buildings, military deployments, body monitoring and the ultimate supply chain where the location and condition of everything is known all the time. (RTLS will eventually be affordable and technically appropriate for use in major supply chains where it will locate things from a distance in real time but, unlike WSN, they will not comprehensively monitor condition or have the other advantages that attributed to WSN)
 
In this report, we show how, for the more demanding potential applications, sensing, information theory, transmission and detection, networking, control theory, system theory, enterprise software and middleware all need to be improved and that is why countries such as Japan and Korea have very broad ranging WSN programs (often referred to as USN), involving both government and industry, to improve all these aspects. Only then will the market need of deployment of billions of tags in the larger applications become a reality. A wide variety of business opportunities are now becoming available.
 
We analyse the technologies, standards, development programs, impediments to rollout and other aspects of USN. Most of these companies are not involved in the earlier generations of active RFID or they are minimally involved, though some are using skills in RTLS to progress to WSN. Others are seeking to apply mass production skills in allied technologies. For example, in late 2008, Toppan Forms in Japan, part of the $12 billion Toppan Printing, told us that its strategic plan now involved USN/WSN. It can leverage its skills in printed electronics and data management. Others wish to leverage their skills in software and hardware for sensing. IDTechEx notes that it is largely completely different companies that are in the lead in the three generations of active RFID and this may continue.
 
Progress is now rapid and the much smaller size of the latest WSN tags is one indication of this. While the original concept was for billions or even trillions of tags the size of dust, the first ten years of development of USN has more often seen expensive tags, some the size of a videotape or, more recently, palm sized. However, further miniaturisation and cost reduction are now imminent.
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Table of Contents
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS
1.INTRODUCTION
1.1.Active vs passive RFID
1.1.Defining features of the three generations of active RFID
1.1.Typical RTLS tags with 3-10 years battery life. Top left and right WiFi 2.45GHz. Bottom left UWB. Bottom right 2.45GHz. Center ultrasound.
1.2.MicroStrain WSN node with 55 day battery life
1.2.Three generations of active RFID
1.3.Second Generation is RTLS
1.3.WSN compared with Bluetooth and WiFi in respect of power and data rate.
1.4.WSN compared with other short range radio in respect of range and data rate typically available
1.4.Third Generation is WSN
1.4.1.Managing chaos and imperfection
1.4.2.The whole is much greater than the parts
1.4.3.Achilles heel - power
1.4.4.View from UCLA
1.4.5.View of Institute of Electronics, Information and Communication Engineers
1.4.6.View of the International Telecommunications Union
1.4.7.View of the Kelvin Institute
1.4.8.Contrast with other short range radio
1.4.9.A practical proposition
1.4.10.Mobile phones
1.4.11.Wireless mesh network structure
1.5.Three waves of adoption
1.5.Detailed view of range vs data rate
1.5.2.Subsuming earlier forms of active RFID?
1.6.Ubiquitous Sensor Networks (USN) and TIP
1.6.A basic wireless mesh network
1.7.WSN backhaul
1.7.Defining features of the three generations
1.8.WSN paybacks
1.8.Diagrammatic illustration of the three waves of adoption of active RFID.
1.9.Possible area of deployment vs system cost
1.9.Supply chain of the future
1.10.Tolerance of faults and unauthorised repositioning vs system cost
1.11.Tag cost today vs system cost
1.12.Number of tags per interrogator vs system cost
1.13.Infrastructure cost vs system cost
1.14.RTLS progress towards the ultimate supply chain
2.PHYSICAL STRUCTURE, SOFTWARE AND PROTOCOLS
2.1.Physical network structure
2.1.WirelessHART Board of Directors
2.1.WSN with conventional star network at outside edge to save power
2.2.More complex networks that are only partially meshed
2.2.Power management
2.2.1.Power Management of mesh networks
2.3.Operating systems and signalling protocols
2.3.Protocol structure of ZigBee
2.3.1.802.15.4 ZigBee
2.3.2.Protocol structure of ZigBee
2.3.3.WirelessHART, 6lowplan, ISA100
2.3.4.IEEE 802.15.4a
2.3.5.DecaWave - a new 802.15.4a chip
2.3.6.TinyOS
2.3.7.Associated technologies and protocols
2.3.8.Potential ANSI specification Wireless Systems for Automation
2.4.Dedicated database systems
2.4.WirelessHART supports both new wireless field devices and also retrofit of existing HART devices with WirelessHART adapters
2.5.Two distinct communication paths in the WirelessHART mesh
2.5.Programming language nesC
2.6.JAVA
2.6.DecaWave ScenSor product brief
3.ACTUAL AND POTENTIAL WSN APPLICATIONS
3.1.General
3.1.RFID meets sensor network
3.2.Some possibilities for WSN in buildings
3.2.Precursors of WSN
3.3.Intelligent buildings
3.3.Mesh network in military applications
3.4.Requirements for sensor networks in health management of missiles
3.4.Military and Homeland Security
3.5.Oil and gas
3.5.Future fundamental technology development areas for "Health Management of Munitions" in the US Navy
3.6.In-body WSN for healthcare
3.6.Healthcare
3.7.Farming
3.7.Environment monitoring.
3.8.Intelligent container
3.8.Environment monitoring
3.9.Transport and logistics
3.10.Aircraft
4.EXAMPLES OF DEVELOPERS AND THEIR PROJECTS
4.1.Geographical distribution of WSN practitioners and users
4.1.142 WSN suppliers and developers tabulated by country, website and activity
4.1.Geographical distribution of 141 profiled WSN practitioners
4.2.Ambient Wireless Infrastructure
4.2.Comparison of wireless sensor networks
4.2.Profiles of 142 WSN suppliers and developers
4.3.Ambient Systems
4.3.Comparison of traditional Active RFID and Ambient series 3
4.3.Ambient SmartPoints - Making objects intelligent
4.3.1.Introduction
4.3.2.How Ambient Product Series 3000 works
4.3.3.The power of local intelligence: Dynamic Event Reporting
4.3.4.How SmartPoints communicate with the Ambient wireless infrastructure
4.3.5.Ambient Wireless Infrastructure - The power of wireless mesh networks
4.3.6.Ambient network protocol stack
4.3.7.Rapid Reader for high-volume data communication
4.3.8.Ambient Studio: Managing Ambient wireless networks
4.3.9.Comparing Ambient to wireless sensor networks (including ZigBee)
4.3.10.Comparing Ambient to active RFID and Real Time Locating Systems
4.3.11.Summary and conclusion
4.4.Arch Rock
4.4.SmartPoints communicate with the Ambient wireless infrastructure
4.5.Ambient wireless mesh network
4.5.Auto-ID Labs Korea/ ITRI
4.6.Berkeley WEBS
4.6.Ambient network protocol stack
4.6.1.Epic
4.6.2.SPOT - Scalable Power Observation Tool
4.7.Chungbuk National University Korea
4.7.Ambient Studio: Managing Ambient wireless networks
4.8.Active RFID and RTLS compared to Ambient
4.8.Dust Networks
4.8.1.Smart Dust components
4.8.2.Examples of benefits
4.8.3.KV Pharmaceuticals
4.8.4.Milford Power
4.8.5.Fisher BioServices
4.8.6.PPG
4.8.7.Wheeling Pittsburgh Steel
4.8.8.SmartMesh Standards
4.8.9.US DOE project
4.9.Crossbow Technology
4.9.Organisation for promoting USN
4.10.Research focus at Auto-ID Labs Korea
4.10.Emerson Process Management
4.10.1.Grane offshore oil platform
4.11.GE Global Research
4.11.Related work on sensors
4.12.A Framework of In-situ Sensor Data Processing System for Context Awareness
4.12.Holst Research Centre
4.12.1.Body area networks for healthcare
4.13.Intel
4.13.Smart Dust components
4.14.Controlled environment
4.14.Kelvin Institute
4.15.Laboratory for Assisted Cognition Environments LACE
4.15.SmartMesh IA-500™
4.16.Smart Dust Intelligent Networking System
4.16.Millennial Net
4.17.Motorola
4.17.Holst Centre body area network node
4.18.New logos of Intel
4.18.National Information Society Agency
4.18.1.The vision for Korea
4.18.2.First trials
4.18.3.Seawater - oxygen, temperature
4.18.4.Setting concrete - temperature, humidity
4.18.5.Greenhouse microclimate - temperature, humidity
4.18.6.Hospital - blood temperature, drug temp and humidity
4.18.7.Recent trials
4.18.8.Program of future work
4.19.Newtrax Technologies
4.19.MeshScape® 5.0 "Best of Sensors" Award Winner!"
4.19.1.Canadian military
4.19.2.Decentralised architecture
4.19.3.Inexpensive and expendable sensors
4.20.Sensicast
4.20.IAP4300 - Intelligent Access Point for MOTOMESH Duo
4.21.IAP6300 - Intelligent Access Point for MOTOMESH Solo
4.21.ScatterWeb
4.21.1.Hardware modularity
4.21.2.Flexible routing
4.21.3.Documented software interfaces
4.21.4.Energy management
4.21.5.Structural health monitoring of bridges
4.22.TelepathX
4.22.IAP7300 - Intelligent Access Point for MOTOMESH Quattro
4.23.USN in Korea
4.23.University of California Los Angeles CENS
4.24.University of Virginia NEST
4.24.Concept of USN in Korea
4.24.1.NEST: Network of embedded systems
4.24.2.Technical overview
4.24.3.Programming paradigm
4.24.4.Feedback control resource management
4.24.5.Aggregate QoS management and local routing
4.24.6.Event/landmark addressable communication
4.24.7.Team formation
4.24.8.Microcell management
4.24.9.Local services
4.24.10.Information caching
4.24.11.Clock synchronization and group membership
4.24.12.Distributed control and location services
4.24.13.Testing tools and monitoring services
4.24.14.Software release: VigilNet
4.25.Wavenis and Essensium
4.25.Timeline of USN development in Korea
4.25.1.Essensium's WSN product vision
4.25.2.Fusion of WSN, conventional RFID, RTLS and low power System on Chip integration
4.25.3.Concurrent skill sets to be applied
4.25.4.Integration with end customer.
4.26.Marine environment data collection using USN
4.27.Fishery monitoring test
4.28.Marine environment data collection system
4.29.Concrete structure and sensor installation for field test.
4.30.Concrete curing history management
4.31.Microclimate in industrial greenhouses.
4.32.Field test of monitoring blood and anti-cancer agents
4.33.Development of the necessary software and hardware
4.34.SensiNet
4.35.ScatterWeb system diagram
4.36.Bridge monitoring
4.37.NEST node architecture
4.38.Essensium's WSN product vision
4.39.Wavenis view of its market for wireless sensing
4.40.Three skill sets to be applied.
4.41.Integration with end customer
5.POWER FOR TAGS
5.1.Batteries
5.1.Power supply options for WSN
5.1.Power requirements of small devices
5.2.Planar Energy Devices battery
5.2.Features of the new Planar Energy devices batteries
5.2.Energy Harvesting
5.2.1.Photovoltaics
5.2.2.Other options
5.3.The new photovoltaic options compared.
5.3.Field delivery of power
5.3.Field delivery of power demonstrated by Intel
6.IMPEDIMENTS TO ROLLOUT OF USN
6.1.Concerns about privacy and radiation
6.1.RTLS operational options using electromagnetic emissions or, more rarely, ultrasound.
6.2.Slowness
6.3.Competing standards and proprietary systems
6.4.Lack of education
6.5.Technology improvement and cost reduction needed
6.5.1.Error prone
6.5.2.Scalability
6.5.3.Sensors
6.5.4.Locating Position
6.5.5.Spectrum congestion and handling huge amounts of data
6.5.6.Optimal routing, global directories, service discovery
6.6.Niche markets lead to first success
7.MARKETS 2009-2019
7.1.Background
7.1.WSN and ZigBee node numbers million 2009, 2019, 2029 and market drivers
7.1.Number of projects by sector in the IDTechEx RFID Knowledgebase.
7.2.IDTechEx WSN Forecast 2009-2019 with RTLS for comparison
7.2.Average number of nodes per system 2009, 2019, 2029
7.2.Assessments
7.3.History and forecasts.
7.3.Number of systems
7.3.Meter reading nodes number million 2009-2019
7.3.1.IDTechEx forecasts 2009-2019
7.3.2.IDTechEx forecast for 2029
7.3.3.Market and technology roadmap to 2029
7.3.4.The overall markets for ZigBee and wireless sensing.
7.4.WSN node price dollars 2009, 2019, 2029 and cost reduction factors
7.4.Meter reading nodes unit value dollars 2009-2019
7.5.Meter reading nodes total value dollars 2009-2019
7.5.WSN node total value $ million 2009, 2019, 2029
7.6.Price-volume projections in 2009 for RF devices
7.6.Other nodes number million 2009-2019
7.7.Other nodes unit value dollars 2009-2019
7.7.WSN systems and software excluding nodes $ million 2009, 2019, 2029
7.8.Total WSN market value $ million 2009, 2019, 2029
7.8.Other nodes total value dollars 2009-2019
7.9.Total node value billion dollars 2009-2019
7.10.WSN systems and software excluding nodes billion dollars 2009-2019
7.11.Total WSN market million dollars 2009-2019
7.12.WSN and ZigBee node numbers million 2009, 2019, 2029
7.13.Average number of nodes per system 2009, 2019, 2029
7.14.Number of systems 2009, 2019, 2029
7.15.WSN node price dollars 2009, 2019, 2029
7.16.WSN node total value $ million 2009, 2019, 2029
7.17.Price sensitivity curve for RFID
7.18.WSN systems and software excluding nodes $ million 2009, 2019, 2029
7.19.Total WSN market value $ million 2009, 2019, 2029
7.20.WSN adoption roadmap by Crossbow Technologies in 2006
7.21.Dynamics of WSN market 2009 to 2029
7.22.ZigBee chipset shipment market share in 2009
APPENDIX 1: IDTECHEX PUBLICATIONS AND CONSULTANCY
APPENDIX 2: GLOSSARY
TABLES
FIGURES
 

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