導電性インク市場 2020-2030年:見通し、技術、有力企業: IDTechEx


導電性インク市場 2020-2030年:見通し、技術、有力企業

PV、5G、自動車、パワーエレクトロニクス、EMI シールド、インモールド・エレクトロニクス、電子テキスタイル、皮膚パッチ、プリンテッド・センサー、フレキシブル・ハイブリッド・エレクトロニクス、RFID、3D 金属膜形成、暖房、ハイブリッド/プリンテッド金属メッシュなど多数

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This report is based upon years of research. In the past eight years alone, our analysts have interviewed more than 150 industry players, visited numerous users/suppliers across the world, attended more than 35 relevant conferences/exhibitions globally, and worked with many industry players to help them with their strategy towards this market. Prior to this, our analysts played an active role in commercializing conductive pastes, particularly in the photovoltaic industry.
In parallel to this, IDTechEx has organised the leading global conferences and tradeshows on printed electronics for the past decade in Asia, Europe and the USA. These shows bring together the entire value chain on printed electronics, including all the conductive ink suppliers, printers, and end users. This has given us unrivalled access to the players and the latest market intelligence.
What does this report cover?
This report provides the most comprehensive and authoritative view of the conductive inks and paste market, giving detailed ten-year market forecasts segmented by application and material type. The market forecasts are given in tonnage and value at the ink level.
It includes critical reviews of all the competing conductive inks and paste technologies including firing-type pastes, sintering pastes, PTFs, laser-cut or photo-patterned pastes, nanoparticles, stretchable inks, In-Mold inks, copper, copper/silver alloys, nanocarbons, and more. Here, we outline the latest performance levels/progress, technology challenges, key suppliers, existing and emerging target market, and forecasts where appropriate.
It also provides a detailed assessment of more than 30 application sectors. Here, we analyse the market needs/requirements, discuss the business dynamics, market leadership and technology change trends, competing solutions, latest product/prototype launches, key players and market forecasts in tonnes and value.
The markets covered include 5G, automotive (sensors, electronics, heaters, etc.), photovoltaics, power electronics, package-level EMI shielding, In-Mold Electronics, electronic textile and wearable electronics, skin patches, RFID, flexible hybrid electronics (FHE), printed sensors (piezoresistive, capacitive, piezoelectric, other), 3D antennas and conformal printing, touch screen edge electrodes, heating, hybrid or fully-printed metal mesh (transparent electrodes, heaters, or antennas), printed PCBs (DIY/hobbyist, professional, seed-and-plate), printed TFT and memory, OLED and large-area LED lighting, flexible e-readers and reflective displays, large-area heaters (battery, plant, seat, etc.), conductive pens, digitizers and more.
In the report we also cover more than 130 companies. For most, we provide insights based on primary intelligence obtained through interviews, visits, conference exhibition interactions, personal communications, and so on.
Market overview (2020-2030)
In this section we provide a review of select markets. To learn more about the rest or for further details please see the report itself.
5G: We are receiving many enquiries about conductive ink opportunity in 5G. There are several interesting opportunities here. First lies in the filter technology. Current filter technologies will need to stretch to meet requirements in sub-6GHz 5G and will fall short on mmwave 5G. A range of candidates are emerging such as microstrip on PCB or ceramic as well as multilayer LTCC filters. The latter offers reasonable filter properties at mmwave whilst maintaining a small footprint, which is vital for mmwave 5G implementation where large closely spaced antenna lattices will be used to increase gain and to beam form. It is early days but multilayer LTCC seems a potential front-runner candidate if tight tolerance can be achieved at high volume production. This would translate into significant paste opportunity.
Another important opportunity lies in highly thermally conductive die attach pastes, e.g., metal sinter or highly loaded epoxies. RF GaN power amplifiers (PAs) are likely to rise as current LDMOS technology will struggle at the required frequencies, even at sub-6GHz 5G. This trend will continue until the point where antenna arrays are large enough to allow Si-based technologies in. GaN is often attached using gold-based solders, i.e., AuSn, but sinter die attach or metal (e.g., Ag) filled epoxies can achieve excellent results at lower cost. Indeed, leading manufacturers have already qualified such AnSu alternative technologies. As such, this is a growth opportunity.
There are of course further opportunities. In particular, minimizing transmission loss at high frequencies calls for both low-loss materials and minimization of distances. To realize the latter, more functions are likely to be integrated within a package. This will boost the need for conformal EMI shielding and in-package compartmentalization. Spray- and inkjet-based approaches are emerging to unseat sputtering.
Automotive: The automotive sector has emerged as an important target market for conductive ink suppliers. The traditional applications include printed defrosters especially on rear-windows. This has been a mature and notable business. A key trend here is to implement transparent and efficient larger-area heating to eliminate the visible defroster lines. Here, printed metal mesh is an excellent candidate, and is already advancing through the qualification process. Furthermore, transparent heating can have other applications, especially in defrosting of perception sensors used in highly-automated and autonomous driving, e.g., cameras or lidar.
Furthermore, seat heaters are also a notable market with ample upside growth opportunity. Printed heating can further expand within the interior of vehicles. Printed occupancy seat sensors and other printed sensors are also existing opportunity with strong potential upsides.
Electric vehicles and power electronics: Furthermore, the emergence of electric vehicles is a growth opportunity. Printers are developing large-area battery pack heaters to help regulate battery temperatures, especially in cold environments. Importantly, metal sintering die attach pastes have already been commercialized in the EV power electronics. This trend will continue rapidly as higher power densities, partly boosted by the growing transition to wideband semiconductors, pushes the operating temperatures beyond the capabilities of many solders. Indeed, the competition here is intense and many metal sintering material supplies are innovating to offer drop-in form factors, lower sintering time, pressure-less sintering, higher thermal conductivity, etc. This is an interesting space which is analysed in great detail in the report.
There are of course other opportunities in vehicles. In-Mold Electronics (IME) is being used to develop both interior and exterior parts, but we will cover IME in a subsequent article. LTCC (low-temperature-cofired-ceramics) has long been a commonplace board technology especially for the ECU, gear control, ABS controller, steer by wire, etc. Last but not the least, there can be niche opportunities in electrochromic glass, even in battery EMI shielding, etc.
Forecasts excluding PV
Electronic Packaging and conformal metallization: There are multiple aspects to this trend. Aerosol printing had gained some popularity in mobile phone direct-on-part antenna production and similar. This opened a market for mono-disperse nanoparticles. The rise of 5G will likely put such designs at risk. Furthermore, some products have reached end of cycle. As such, the defining question will be whether aerosol can find new applications beyond mobile phone antennas.
Conformal EMI shielding is a megatrend which will accelerate in the coming years. Here, we see a transition from low-cost but bulky lid-based board-level shielding to thin conformal package-level shielding. This trend is not exactly new and one of the early adopters was the application processor on the 2015 Apple watch. Many components today in mobile phones have conformal EMI shielding. In general, the most common elements are WiFi, Bluetooth and other RF front end modules. Conformal coating on NAND memories is rarer but increasing.
Sputtering is the well-entrenched processes here. It benefits from being proven and from sunk capex investment. It, however, may not have the highest unit per hour (UPH) rate given that sputtering rates will need to be slowed to achieve good adhesion to the epoxy molding compounds. This approach uses a SUS-Cu-SUS structure and is thus light on bill of materials. Instead, it is heavy on machinery costs as multiple sputtering tools will be needed.
Multiple ink-based alternatives are now emerging. Spraying is one option. Here, the process is non-vacuum. The ink composition and particle morphology do matter. The thicknesses here are 3-6um and good side and top thickness uniformity is obtained. The ink-jet based approach is novel. It uses particle-free inks activated by light exposure. Here, there will be no nozzle clogging. The suppliers are suggesting that they can achieve sufficient shielding at just 1-2um thickness with UHP reaching 12k on 10mm2 packages. In both approaches, Capex is low, making the technology accessible to all manners of OSATs and to lower value ICs and applications. This can, in the longer term, boost volumes.
In general, ink-based approaches can only partly conformably cover the package, leaving some areas unexposed. Furthermore, jetting can also be used to fill in trenches created to isolate parts within a package, leading to in-package compartmentalization. This is a critical attribute especially when antenna-in-package designs, important for 5G, are considered.
Photovoltaics: This remains the largest market worldwide for firing-type pastes. This is an irreplaceable market volume-wise. Indeed, the PV market has been roaring ahead since 2014, more than doubling in size. Indeed, global installations are expected to have exceed 114GW in 2019. This is not an easy market for paste or powder suppliers, however. Here, price pressures are immense and performance advantages temporary and short-lived. Only those with large and well-established production lines can participate.
Non silicon wafer-based PV technology are now confined to very small niches in the market. These, nonetheless, represent important sales opportunity especially in forming the electrodes. This opportunity extends mainly to thin and highly conductive lines which cured at low temperatures. Such requirements match well with what nanoparticle inks seek to offer.
Flexible Hybrid Electronics (FHE): This emerging technology frontier allows printed electronics to be combined with, or hybridized with, rigid ICs and electronics, thus marrying the best of both worlds. Indeed, a limiting factor thus far for printed electronics has been that many components such as logic and memory are either non-existing and don't come close to matching the cost and performance of non-printed technologies.
FHE is of course not straightforward to implement. Thinned ICs are being developed to enable flexibility. Novel attachment techniques such as low-T solder or photonic sintering are being developed to enable the transition from the expensive PI to the low-cost and low-temperature PET. At the first instance, digital printing is likely to be employed, cutting turnaround times, allowing customization, and producing limited units. In the longer run, high-throughput roll-to-roll techniques will be required. This will require innovation on rapid pick-and-place on a roll able to handle thin ICs. This is indeed a major innovation opportunity.
All in all, in the long term, this technology will enable flexible, complex, and relatively large circuits to be rapidly produced. Imagine the multi-billion-unit RFID business but imagine more complex and larger area circuit lines as well as larger and more powerful ICs. This is the long-term transition.
Conductive inks will play a central role here. Rapid sinter/cure technologies will be needed to enable high-throughput production. Low-cost is also essential. To address this, new copper formulations are being offered that seek overcome the cost/performance trade-offs and to enable simple and rapid sintering. Narrow linewidth and high-throughput printing will also be needed to support complex ICs with many closely spaced I/O pins. This will be an increasingly important area. At first, the industry will be led by many well-funded research centres. However, the transition to commercial production will soon take place in earnest.
In-Mold Electronics: In-Mold Electronics is projected to exceed $1Bn by 2029 at the product level across automotive, consumer goods, wearables, and home appliance applications. The progress will start with smaller and simpler devices launching in areas where reliability and product lifetime requirements are more relaxed. It will then transition into more challenging markets. In other words, this time around, the industry will probably learn to walk before it runs. We expect the automotive market to adopt IME product starting from the 2022-2023 period.
IME is no longer a young field. The first products were launched more than five years ago. Conductive ink innovations have played a key role in enabling this method. Today, many inks are available. Suppliers are seeking to bridge the conductivity gap with standard conductive inks, to improve reliability individually and as part of a stack, and to extend the limits of stretchability. The innovations are mainly on the formulation step and the powder requirements are rather relaxed. The product development works have been undergoing as such the early pioneers are well placed to reap the rewards when the first generation of products launches. Once the requirements become more standard more suppliers can enter the business.
Skin Patches: This is already a major business. Indeed, IDTechEx estimates that skin patches generated $7.5Bn in 2018 and forecasts this to rise to over $20Bn by 2029. Several skin patch product areas, particularly in diabetes management and cardiovascular monitoring, have superseded incumbent options in established markets to create billions of dollars of new revenue each year for the companies at the forefront of this wave.
Whilst many people may imagine skin patches to be thin, highly conformable devices that sit close to the skin, the reality is that many of the most successful products today are still bulky devices. Future developments utilising flexible, stretchable and conformal electronic components seek to change this. This is important because skin patches offer continuous monitoring and are thus worn for extended period. As such, convenience is critical. Furthermore, stretchable electronics can allow more and/or longer electrodes to be integrated without compromising user comfort, boosting the locations the skin patch can sense.
Conductive inks are an enabling component of this long-term trend. Indeed, already fully or partly printed skin patches are commercially launched in cardiovascular, diabetic foot, temperature, respiration, blood oximetry, and humidity/moisture monitoring as well as muscle simulation and sensing. The printed element almost invariably includes conductive inks. The ink requirements here often extend beyond stretchability and include, for example, the ability to withstand harsh hydrogels, high conductivity to pick up weak signals, adhesion to stretchable substrates, and so on. Early close engagement with this field will bear fruits.
E-Textiles: This market is already expected to exceed $100M in 2020 across all application sectors at the textile level. The snapshot of the e-textile application readiness levels shows a robust pipeline. Applications such as elite sports biometric (chest straps or apparel), heated clothing, illuminated apparel, high-fashion e-textile apparel, carpet pressure sensors and similar extend from the early commercial sales to full market penetration. There are also many applications at early development phases, rendering the pipeline deep and robust.
Despite all these, there are many challenges. There is a lack of standards or even clearly defined product requirements. The supply chain is immature although efficiency is improving with co-located manufacturing. Critically, most works are in small volumes, which allows the small firms or project teams to survive. However, there are still only few consistent success stories demonstrating volume manufacturing. These challenges are not however showstoppers.
The technology options for conductivity in e-textile are multiple, but stretchable conductive inks are beginning to find their space. They can be added post-production, thus requiring little change to the manufacturing process. The device shape and properties can also be better controlled than with fibre-based solutions. Furthermore, the inks can also offer more stretchability than many alternative solutions.
The ink performance has improved over years with the elongation-induced conductivity changes becoming much more supressed and predictable. The relationship between substrate/encapsulant properties and the inks are better known and optimized. A range of formulations now exist to address varying needs. The washability figures however also improved although this is largely dictated by the encapsulant.
Overall, the supplier numbers mushroomed around 2015/2017. These supplies have been seeding the market, exploring the applications, and painstakingly findings case where there is a business case and ruling out the rest. As such, the business is likely to grow, although sustaining the growth is not easy because one requires a robust and continuous application pipeline since consumption per part is low.
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アイディーテックエックス株式会社 (IDTechEx日本法人)
担当: 村越美和子 m.murakoshi@idtechex.com
Table of Contents
1.1.Ten-year market forecasts in USD for all conductive inks and pastes split by 30 application areas
1.2.Ten-year market forecasts in USD for all conductive inks and pastes split by application. PV excluded.
1.3.Ten-year market forecasts in tonnes for all conductive inks and pastes split by application. PV included.
1.4.Ten-year market forecasts in tonnes for all conductive inks and pastes split by application. PV excluded.
1.5.Ten-year market forecast for micron-sized (non nano) conductive inks and pastes split by application
1.6.Ten-year market forecasts for silver nanoparticle conductive inks and pastes split by application
1.7.Ten-year market forecasts printed sensors (piezoresistive, glucose, capacitive, touch edge electrode, ITO replacement, etc.)
1.8.Ten-year market forecasts printed sensors (In-Mold Electronics)
1.9.Ten-year market forecasts automotive (exterior, seat heaters, occupancy sensors, FHE, etc.)
1.10.Ten-year market forecasts RFID and flexible hybrid electronics
1.11.Ten-year market forecasts for power electronic in electronics vehicles (sintered Ag, nanoAg and Cu)
1.12.Ten-year market forecasts for conformal metallization (aerosol and package-level conformal EMI coating)
1.13.Ten-year market forecasts for other (3D printed electronics, desktop printing, professional PCB printing, wearable e-readers, etc.)
2.1.Powder morphologies in conductive paste
2.2.How cured conductive lines appear
2.3.Changing the morphology of particles: from spherical to flat flakes
2.4.Elements of a paste: resin, solvent, milling, etc.
2.5.Curing categories: PTF vs firing type
2.6.Firing type paste: key properties and considerations
2.7.Firing type paste: key properties and considerations
2.8.Performance level of fired and cured traditional pastes/inks across various applications
2.9.Typical oven and drying towers used in curing
2.10.Value chain for conductive pastes
3.1.Silver nanoparticle inks: key value propositions
3.2.Silver nanoparticle inks: higher conductivity
3.3.Silver nanoparticles: getting more with less
3.4.Performance of Ag nano inks and comparison with traditional inks
3.5.Ag nanoparticle inks: do they really cure fast and at lower temperatures?
3.6.Ag nanoparticle inks: why the curing takes time
3.7.Ag nanoparticle inks: roadmap towards reducing curing temperature
3.8.Other benefits of nanoparticle inks
3.9.Price competitiveness of silver nanoparticles
3.10.Performance and typical characteristics of various silver nanoparticle inks on the market
3.11.Value chain of silver nanoparticle inks
3.12.Silver nanoparticle production methods
3.13.Silver nanoparticle production methods
3.14.Benchmarking different nanoparticle production processes
4.1.Particle free conductive inks and pastes
5.1.Copper inks: how silver prices drove innovation
5.2.List of companies supplying or researching copper or silver alloy powders, inks or pastes
5.3.Methods of preventing copper oxidisation
5.4.Toyobo's Superheated steam: principle, status, merits and disadvantages
5.5.Toyobo's Superheated steam: potential application
5.6.Hitachi's Reactive agent metallization: principle, status, merits and disadvantages
5.7.Rapid photosintering: low-cost materials combined with rapid sintering
5.8.Photosintering: temperature profile as a function of thickness
5.9.Ag and even solder can also be photosintered
5.10.Photosintering: machines come in a variety of shapes and sizes
5.11.Air curable copper pastes
5.12.NOF: Screen printable air-curable copper paste
5.13.Copprint: Copper inks with in-situ oxidation prevention
5.14.Asahi Kasei: Reducing cuprous oxide by sintering
5.15.Pricing strategy and performance of copper inks and pastes
5.16.Performance and key characteristics of copper inks and pastes offered by different companies
5.17.Copper oxide nanoparticles
5.18.Silver-Coated Copper
6.1.Additive non-solution deposition of metals
7.1.Conductive inks: everything is changing
7.2.Photovoltaic market: overview of price and cumulative installation
7.3.Photovoltaic markets: the massive loans that drove Chinese expansion and eventual market consolidation
7.4.Photovoltaics: historical price evolution of silicon PV
7.5.Price learning curve of c-Si and thin film PV technologies
7.6.Latest PV prices at wafer, cell, and module levels
7.7.Photovoltaic market: overview of price and cumulative installation
7.8.Photovoltaics: evolution of production share by region
7.9.Photovoltaics: global annual production by region
7.10.Photovoltaics: top ten players
7.11.Photovoltaics: evolution of market share of thin film PV technologies
7.12.Photovoltaics: eroding margins and market valuations
7.13.The return of the boom and bust to the PV sector?
7.14.Photovoltaics: global installation and forecasts showing market is to breach 100GW/yr
7.15.Massive Chinese investments had buoyed the market
7.16.China takes markets to new heights but have the changes in FiTs finally cooled it down?
7.17.Did the market cool in 2019 or grow rapidly?
8.1.Conductive pastes in the PV sectors: introduction
8.2.Conductive pastes in the PV sectors: firing
8.3.Conductive ink: major cost driver for PVs
8.4.Reducing silver content per wafer: industry consensus
8.5.Reducing silver content per wafer: our projection
8.6.Reducing silver content per wafer: ink innovations
8.7.Photovoltaics: expected market share evolution between plating and screen printing of electrodes
8.8.Photovoltaics: roadmap towards ever thinner wafers
8.9.Photovoltaics: market share forecast for different metallization technologies
8.10.Silicon inks: made redundant before seeing daylight?
8.11.Copper metallization in solar cells
8.12.Trends and changes in solar cell architecture
8.13.Photovoltaics: evolution of different silicon solar cell architectures
8.14.Photovoltaics market dynamic: everything is changing
8.15.Silver nanoparticles are finally adopted in the thin film photovoltaic business?
8.16.PV and heater: digital printing comes of age?
9.1.What is an OPV?
9.2.Typical device architectures
9.3.R2R solution vs R2R evaporation
9.4.Progress in solution processing so far
9.5.OPV products and prototypes
9.6.OPV installations
9.7.Latest progress update
9.8.Where is silver used in printed OPVs?
10.1.1.Automotive industry: a large and growing consumer of conductive ink/paste
10.1.2.Automotive de-foggers: established business?
10.1.3.Automotive de-foggers: transition from glass to PC
10.1.4.Printed on-glass heater: digital printing comes of age?
10.1.5.Laser transfer printing as a new process?
10.1.6.Metal mesh transparent conductors as replacement for printed heaters?
10.1.7.Carbon nanotube transparent conductors as replacement for printed heaters?
10.1.8.Growing need for 3D shaped transparent heater in ADAS and autonomous driving perception sensors such as camera and lidars
10.2.Automotive Seat Heater
10.2.1.Automotive seat heaters
10.2.2.Automotive seat heaters: PTC inks
10.3.Occupancy and other sensors
10.3.1.Automotive occupancy and seat belt alarm sensors
10.3.2.Electric vehicle battery heaters
10.3.3.Electric vehicle battery heaters (GGI/e2ip technologies)
10.3.4.Electric vehicle battery heaters (IEE)
10.3.5.Where PTC inks can be used in vehicles?
10.4.Metal sintering die attach in electric vehicle power electronics
10.4.1.Power electronics in electric vehicles
10.4.2.Power switch technology: a generational shift towards SiC and GaN
10.4.3.Benchmarking Si vs SiC vs GaN
10.4.4.SiC and GaN still have substantial room to improve
10.4.5.Where will GaN and SiC win?
11.1.Mega trend in power modules: increasing power density
11.2.Operation temperature increasing
11.3.Roadmap towards lower thermal resistance
11.4.Traditional packaging technology
12.1.Toyota Prius (2004-2010): power module
12.2.2008 Lexus power module
12.3.Toyota Prius (2010-2015): power module
12.4.Toyota Prius (2016 onwards): power module
12.5.Chevrolet 2016 Power module (by Delphi)
12.6.Cadillac 2016 power module (by Hitachi)
12.7.Nissan Leaf power module (2012)
12.8.Honda Accord 2014 Power Module
12.9.Honda Fit (by Mitsubishi)
12.10.BWM i3 (by Infineon)
12.11.Infineon: evolution of HybridPack and beyond
12.12.Infineon's HybridPack is used by multiple producers (SAIC, Hyundai, etc.)
12.13.Tesla Mode S (discreet IGBT) and Model 3 (SiC module)
13.1.Die and substrate attach are common failure modes in power devices
13.2.Die attach technology trend
13.3.The choice of solder technology
13.4.Why metal sintering?
13.5.Sintering can be used at multiple levels (die-to-substrate, substrate-baseplate or heat sink, die pad to interconnect, etc)
13.6.Transition towards Ag sintering (Tesla 3 with ST SiC modules)
14.1.Pressured Ag sintered pastes: key characteristics
14.2.Sintering and pick-and-place machines
14.3.ASM SilverSAM: integrating sintering machine
14.4.Process steps for applying Ag sintered paste
14.5.Using film or preform vs paste
14.6.Using IR oven to speed up the process
14.7.Effect of time, pressure, and temperature on joint strength
14.8.Pressure-less Ag sintered pastes: key characteristics
14.9.Effect of substrate metallization on sintered joint shear strength
14.10.Suppliers of Ag sintered paste
14.11.Alpha: commercializing Ag nano sintering die attach paste
14.12.Heraeus: sintered Ag die attach paste
14.13.Dowa: nano Ag sintered die attach paste
14.14.Namics: Low temperature die attach Ag conductive paste
14.15.Namics: a variety of Ag die attach paste
14.16.Kyocera: mixed nano/micro pressure-less sintering die attach paste
14.17.Mitsubishi Materials: low temperature die attach Ag conductive paste
14.18.Henkel: Ag sintering paste
14.19.Toyo Chem: Sintered die attach paste
14.20.Bando Chemical: pressure-less nano Ag sintering paste
14.21.Amo Green: pressure-less nano Ag sintering paste
14.22.Other Ag nanoparticle sintered die attach paste suppliers (e.g., Bando and NBE Tech)
14.23.Nihon Hanada: Pressureless sintering
14.24.Heraeus and Nihon Handa cross license
14.25.Indium Corp: nano Ag pressureless sinter paste
14.26.Nihon Superior: nano silver for sintering
14.27.Hitachi: Cu sintering paste
14.28.Cu sintering: characteristics
14.29.Reliability of Cu sintered joints
14.30.Mitsui Mining: Nano copper pressured and pressure-less sintering under N2 environment
14.31.Transient liquid phase sintering: mid-level performance alternative?
14.32.SMIC: incumbent solder supplier
14.33.Some price info on Ag sintering, solder and TLPB
15.1.1.LTCC: introduction and process details
15.1.2.LTCC: application examples in automotive electronics
15.1.3.Properties of main LTCC substrates
15.1.4.Sintering profile of typical LTCC pastes
15.1.5.EMI shielding in electric vehicle plastic or composite battery housings
15.1.6.Electrochromic mirrors in vehicles
15.2.Towards mmwave 5G filters: will LTCC win the race?
15.2.1.Evolution of filters towards sub-6GHz 5G and mmWave
15.2.2.Performance requirements
15.2.3.Size requirements
16.1.SAW and BAW filters
16.2.More on BAW filters
16.3.SAW and BAW: fit for 5G and beyond?
17.1.Metallic waveguide technology: high performance but too big
17.2.Waveguide filters
18.1.Substrate integrated waveguide filters (SIW)
19.1.Transmission-line filters: single-layer microstrip PCB
19.2.Single-layer microstrip PCB: tolerance sensitivity
19.3.Transmission-line filters: single-layer stripline PCB
19.4.Single-layer stripline PCB: tolerance sensitivity
19.5.Transmission-line filters: single-layer thin film metallized ceramic filters as SMTs
19.6.High-k ceramics
19.7.Filters with thick film substrates
19.8.Glass: an excellent filter substrate?
19.9.Glass-based single-layer transmission-line filters
20.1.NGK: multi-layer LTTC-based filters
20.2.TDK: multi-layer 28GHz LTCC filter
20.3.Kyocera: multi-layer 28GHz LTCC filter
20.4.Minicircuits: multilayer LTCC filter
20.5.Multilayer LTCC: production challenge
21.1.Benchmarking different mmwave filters
22.1.1.Motivation of 5G: increasing the bandwidth station installation forecast by frequency
22.2.Overview of RF power amplifier technologies
22.2.1.The choice of the semiconductor technology
22.2.2.Key semiconductor properties
22.2.3.Key semiconductor technology benchmarking
22.2.4.The choice of the semiconductor technology
22.2.5.Power vs frequency map of power amplifier technologies
22.2.6.LDMOS dominates but will struggle to reach even sub-6GHz 5G
22.2.7.GaAs vs GaN for RF power amplifiers
22.2.8.GaN to win in sub-6GHz 5G
22.2.9.The situation at mmwave 5G can drastically different
22.2.10.Solving the power challenge: high antenna gain increases distance
22.2.11.Shift to higher frequencies shrinks the antenna
22.2.12.Major technological change: from broadcast to directional communication
22.2.13.Which power amplifier technology to win in mmwave 5G?
22.3.Current and future die attach: role of metal sintering or filled epoxy
22.3.1.Air cavity vs plastic overmold packages
22.3.2.Packaging LDMOS power amplifiers
22.3.3.Packaging GaN power amplifiers
22.3.4.Benchmarking CTE and thermal conductivity of various packaging materials
22.3.5.HTCC metal-ceramic package
22.3.6.LTCC RF transitions in packages
22.3.7.Current die attach technology choice for RF GaN PAs
22.3.8.Current die attach technology choice for RF GaN PAs
22.3.9.Emerging die attach technology choice for RF GaN PAs
22.3.10.Properties of Ag sintered or epoxy die attach materials
22.3.11.Automating the die attach for 5G power amplifiers
22.3.12.Board-level heat dissipation: thermal interface materials
22.3.13.Indium foils as a good board-level TIM option
22.3.14.Built-in Cu slugs in GaN packages
23.1.Product areas with body-worn electrodes
23.2.Printed electronics in cardiac skin patches
23.3.Cardiac skin patch types: Flexible patch with integrated electrodes
23.4.Skin patches for inpatient monitoring
23.5.General patient monitoring: a growing focus
23.6.Chemical sensing in sweat
23.8.DevInnova / Scaleo Medical
23.9.US Military head trauma patch / PARC
23.10.Wound monitoring and treatment
23.11.Nissha GSI Technologies
23.12.Printed wearable medical sensors (examples)
23.13.Opportunity for printed electronics by type of skin patch
23.14.Electrode types
23.15.Printed functionality in skin patches.
23.16.Blue Spark
23.17.DevInnova / Scaleo Medical
23.18.Novii: Wireless fetal heart rate monitoring
23.19.Wearable ECG sensor from VTT
23.20.Quad Industries - developing healthcare
24.1.1.Conformal coating: increasingly popular
24.1.2.Conformal printing in consumer electronics
24.1.3.Conformal electronics: rapid turn-around with little tooling costs
24.1.4.Laser Direct Structuring and MID: introduction
24.1.5.Laser Direct Structuring and MID: example in cosumer electronics
24.1.6.Examples of LDS products on the market
24.1.7.Observations on the MID market
24.2.Aerosol deposition
24.2.1.Aerosol deposition: introduction
24.2.2.What is aerosol deposition
24.2.3.Aerosol deposition can go 3D
24.2.4.Aerosol deposition: applications
24.2.5.Aerosol deposition is already in commercial use
24.2.6.Applications of aerosol beyond antennas
24.2.7.Aerosol deposition vs LDS (laser direct structuring)
24.2.8.Ink requirements for aerosol printing
24.2.9.Others ways of printing structurally-integrated antennas
24.3.Ink-based conformable package-level EMI shielding
24.3.1.What is package-level EMI shielding
24.3.2.Conformal coating: increasingly popular
24.3.3.EMI shielding
24.3.4.EMI shielding films: price and performance level
24.3.5.EMI shielding market: an approximate estimate
24.3.6.Why conformal EMI shielding?
24.3.7.What is package-level EMI shielding?
24.3.8.Has package-level shielding been adopted?
24.3.9.Which suppliers and elements have used EMI shielding?
24.3.10.What is the incumbent process?
24.3.11.Screen printed EMI shielding: process and merits
24.3.12.Spray-on EMI shielding: process and merits
24.3.13.Suppliers targeting ink-based conformal EMI shielding
24.3.14.Henkel: performance of EMI ink
24.3.15.Duksan: performance of EMI ink
24.3.16.Ntrium: performance of EMI ink
24.3.17.Clariant: performance of EMI ink
24.3.18.Fujikura Kasei: performance of EMI ink
24.3.19.Spray machines used in conformal EMI shielding
24.3.20.Particle size and morphology choice
24.3.21.Ink formulation challenges: thickness and Ag content
24.3.22.Ink formulation challenges: sedimentation prevention
24.3.23.Emi shielding: inkjet printed particle-free Ag inks
24.3.24.Agfa: EMI shielding prototype
24.3.25.Has there been commercial adoption of ink-based solutions?
24.3.26.Compartmentalization of complex packages is a key trend
24.3.27.The challenge of magnetic shielding at low frequencies
24.3.28.Value proposition for magnetic shielding using printed inks
25.1.1.Introduction to in-mold electronics (IME)?
25.1.2.Commercial advantages and challenges of IME
25.1.3.The route to commercialisation
25.1.4.Overview of key players across the supply chain
25.1.5.IME market forecast - application
25.1.6.Benchmarking competitive processes to 3D electronics
25.1.7.IME: 3D friendly process for circuit making
25.1.8.What is the in-mold electronic process?
25.1.9.In-Mold Electronics production: required equipment set
25.1.10.In-Mold Decoration production: required equipment set
25.2.Conductive ink requirements for IME
25.2.1.IME: value transfer from PCB board to ink
25.2.2.New ink requirements: stretchability
25.2.3.Stretchable conductive ink suppliers multiply
25.2.4.IME conductive ink suppliers multiply
25.2.5.Evolution and improvements in performance of stretchable conductive inks
25.2.6.Performance of stretchable conductive inks
25.2.7.Bridging the conductivity gap between printed electronics and IME inks
25.2.8.The role of particle size in stretchable inks
25.2.9.Elantas: selecting right fillers and binders to improve stretchability
25.2.10.E2IP Technologies/GGI Solutions: particle-free IME inks
25.2.11.The role of resin in stretchable inks
25.2.12.New ink requirements: portfolio approach
25.2.13.Diversity of material portfolio
25.2.14.All materials in the stack must be compatible: conductivity perspective
25.2.15.All materials in the stack must be compatible: forming perspective
25.2.16.New ink requirements: surviving heat stress
25.2.17.New ink requirements: stability
25.2.18.All materials in the stack must be reliable
25.2.19.Design: general observations
25.2.20.SMD assembly: before or after forming
25.2.21.The need for formable conductive adhesives
25.3.Overview of applications, commercialization progress, and prototypes
25.3.1.In-Mold electronic application: automotive
25.3.2.HMI: trend towards 3D touch surfaces
25.3.3.Addressable market in vehicle interiors in 2020 and 2025
25.3.4.Automotive: In-Mold Decoration product examples
25.3.5.White goods, medical and industrial control (HMI)
25.3.6.White goods: In-Mold Decoration product examples
25.3.7.Is IME commercial yet?
25.3.8.First (ALMOST) success story: overhead console in cars
25.3.9.Commercial products: wearable technology
25.3.10.Automotive: direct heating of headlamp plastic covers
25.3.11.System integrates electronics
25.3.12.Automotive: human machine interfaces
25.3.13.GEELY Seat Control
25.3.14.Faurecia concept: prototype to test functionality
25.3.15.Faurecia concept: traditional vs. IME design
25.3.16.Increasing number of research prototypes
25.3.17.Consumer electronics prototypes to products
25.3.18.White goods: human machine interfaces
25.3.20.Consumer electronics and home automation
25.3.21.Home automation becomes commercial
25.3.22.IME market forecast - application
25.3.23.Ten-year in-mold-electronics market forecast in area
25.3.24.Estimate of value capture by different elements in an IME product
25.3.25.Ten-year market forecasts for functional inks in IME
26.1.Introduction to the e-textile industry
26.1.1.Timeline: Historic context for e-textiles
26.1.2.Timeline: Commercial beginnings and early growth
26.1.3.Timeline: A boom in interest, funding and activity
26.1.4.Timeline: Challenges emerge from the optimism
26.1.5.Addressing industry challenges
26.1.6.Timeline: Present day and outlook
26.1.7.Commercial progress with e-textile projects
26.1.8.E-textile product types
26.1.9.Revenue in e-textiles, by market sector
26.1.10.Materials usage in e-textiles
26.1.11.Example suppliers for each material type
26.2.Stretchable conductive inks for e-textiles
26.2.1.Inks and Encapsulation
26.2.2.Stretchable e-textile conductive inks: introduction
26.2.3.Stretchable e-textile conductive inks: performance requirements
26.2.4.Performance characteristics of conductive by Panasonic, Nagase, Fujikura Kasei
26.2.5.Performance characteristics of conductive by Namics, Toyobo, Jujo Chemical, etc.
26.2.6.Performance characteristics of conductive by Polymatech, Cemedine, Henkel, DuPont, etc.
26.2.7.Stretchable conductive inks: continuous improvement in performance
26.2.8.Stretchable conductive inks: the role of particle size
26.2.9.Stretchable conductive inks: the role of particle size
26.2.10.Stretchable conductive inks: the role of pattern design
26.2.11.Washability of stretchable conductive inks
26.2.12.Stretchable conductive inks: the role of encapsulants
26.2.13.Other TPU alternatives: Showa Denko, Osaka Industry, Nikkan Industry, etc.
26.2.14.Stretchable conductive inks: the role of encapsulants
26.2.15.Stretchable conductive inks: the role of substrates
26.2.16.Stretchable conductive inks: the role of the resin
26.2.17.Graphene as a stretchable e-textile conductive ink
26.2.18.Graphene inks are not very conductive
26.2.19.PEDOT as a conductive e-textile material
26.2.20.Not limited to just Ag inks
26.3.Applications of stretchable conductive inks for e-textiles
26.3.1.An explosion in ink suppliers for e-textiles
26.3.2.E-textile products with conductive inks
26.3.5.Inks are not the only solution
26.4.Stretchable conductive inks in flexible and/or stretchable circuit boards
26.4.1.Stretchable circuit boards: limitations of FPCBs
26.4.2.Stretchable conductive inks in FPCBs
26.4.3.Stretchable circuit boards
26.4.4.Printed stretchable interconnects
27.1.1.Different varieties of RFID
27.1.2.RFID tags: unit sales forecast for LF, HF, and UHF
27.1.3.RFID Range versus cost
27.1.4.Passive RFID: Technologies by Operating Frequency
27.1.5.Anatomy of passive HF and UHF tags
27.1.6.Challenges in contacting HF/NFC coils
27.1.7.Antenna Technology Choices
27.1.8.Antenna Manufacturing Technologies: Comparison Table
27.1.9.Passive RFID price teardown, HF and UHF
27.1.10.RFID Antennas: New Technologies
27.2.Printed RFID antenna: progress, status, challenges, and innovation
27.2.1.Bill of material is high for printed RFID
27.2.2.But why are some RFID antennas already printed?
27.2.3.Example of printed RFID antenna
27.2.4.YFY: a major RFID antenna printer using high-speed flex printing
27.2.5.R2R direct printing with normal heat curing
27.2.6.Innovations to eliminate printed BoM and to speed up curing/sintering times
27.2.7.End user feedback about recent innovations
27.2.8.R2R direct printing with normal heat curing
27.2.9.High conductivity copper inks with rapid sintering
27.2.10.Direct physical pattering
27.2.11.Rapid sintering of copper ink
27.3.Transparent antenna
27.3.1.Printed or Printed-and-Plate high conductivity transparent antennas
27.3.2.Ten-year market projections for conductive inks in UHF and HF RFID antennas
28.1.1.Defining flexible hybrid electronics (FHE)
28.1.2.FHE Examples: Combing conventional components with flexible/printed electronics on flexible substrates
28.1.3.FHE: The best of both worlds?
28.1.4.Overcoming the flexibility/functionality compromise
28.1.5.Commonality with other electronics methodologies
28.1.6.Enabling technologies for FHE
28.1.7.Transition from PI to cheaper substrates
28.1.8.Low temperature component attachment
28.1.9.Development of flexible ICs
28.1.10.OFETs offer insufficient processing capability
28.1.11.Thinning silicon wafers for flexibility.
28.1.12.Silicon on polymer technology
28.1.13.Thin Si processing steps
28.1.14.Example flexible IC capabilities
28.1.15.Flexible silicon chip comparison
28.1.16.Assembling FHE circuits
28.1.17.Pick-and-place challenges
28.1.18.Multicomponent R2R line
28.2.Conductive ink-based attachment in flexible hybrid electronics (FHE)
28.2.1.Low temperature solder enables thermally fragile substrates
28.2.2.Substrate compatibility with existing infrastructure
28.2.3.Low temperature soldering
28.2.4.Photonic soldering: A step up from sintering
28.2.5.Photonic soldering: Substrate dependence.
28.2.6.Electrically conductive adhesives: Two different approaches
28.2.7.Conductive paste bumping on flexible substrates
28.2.8.Ag pasted for die attachment.
28.3.Conductive ink-based metallization in flexible hybrid electronics (FHE)
28.3.1.Ag pasted for die attachment.
28.3.2.Narrow linewidth metallization in flexible hybrid electronics
29.1.Touch screen: where and why pastes are used
29.2.Touch screen: narrow bezels change the market
29.3.Touch screen: adopting to narrow linewidth requirements
29.4.Laser cut paste: hybrid approach towards ultra narrow lines
29.5.Photopatternable paste: hybrid approach towards ultra narrow lines
29.6.Laser cut vs photopatternable inks
29.7.Other printing process towards narrow edge electrodes
29.8.Background to the PCB industry
29.9.Example of boards
29.10.Breakdown of the PCB market by the number of layers
29.11.Traditional PCBs are a mature technology
29.12.Production steps involved in manufacturing a multi-layer PCB.
29.13.PCB market by production territory
29.14.IP and turn-around time issues
29.15.CNC machine create double-sided rigid PCB.
29.16.'Printing' PCBs for the hobbyist and DIY market: examples
29.17.Integrated desktop PCB printer and pick-and-place machine
29.18.'Printing' professional multi-layer PCBs
29.19.Print seed and plate approach
29.20.Printing etch resists in PCB production
29.21.Progress on seed-and-plate PCBs
29.22.Comparison of different PCB techniques
30.1.ITO film assessment: performance, manufacture and market trends
30.2.ITO film shortcomings: flexibility
30.3.ITO film shortcomings: limited sheet conductivity
30.4.ITO film shortcomings: limited sheet resistance
30.5.ITO film shortcomings: index matching
30.6.ITO film shortcomings: thinness
30.7.ITO film shortcomings: price falls and commoditization
30.8.ITO films: current prices (2018)
30.9.Indium's single supply risk: real or exaggerated?
30.10.Recycling comes to the rescue?
30.11.Indium: price fluctuations drive innovation
30.12.Metal mesh: photolithography followed by etching
30.13.Fujifilm's photo-patterned metal mesh TCF
30.14.Toppan Printing's copper mesh transparent conductive films
30.15.Panasonic's Large Area Metal Mesh
30.16.GiS (integrator): Large area metal mesh displays
30.17.Panasonic's Large Area Metal Mesh
30.18.GiS (integrator): Large area metal mesh displays
31.1.1.Embossing/imprinting metal mesh TCFs
31.1.2.O-Film's metal mesh TCF technology: the basics
31.1.3.Will O-Film rejuvenate its metal mesh business after disappointing sales?
31.1.4.MNTech's metal mesh TCF technology (the incident)
31.1.5.J-Touch: substantial metal mesh capacity
31.1.6.Nanoimprinting metal mesh with 5um linewidth
31.1.7.Metal mesh TCF is flexible
31.2.Direct printing: finally making a comeback in metal mesh TCF as a viable ultrafine technology?
31.2.1.Direct printed metal mesh transparent conductive films: performance
31.2.2.Direct printed metal mesh transparent conductive films: major shortcomings
31.2.3.Komura Tech: improvement in gravure offset printed fine pattern (<5um) metal mesh TCF ?
31.2.4.Shashin Kagaku: offset printed metal mesh TCF
31.2.5.Komori: gravure offset all-printed metal mesh film?
31.2.6.Asahi Kasei: taking steps to commercialize its R2R ultrafine printing process
31.2.7.How is the ultrafine feature R2R mold fabricated?
31.2.8.Konica Minolta: inkjet printing large area fine pitch metal mesh TCFs with <10um linewidth?
31.2.9.Gunze: S2S screen printing finds a market fit?
31.2.10.Toray's photocurable screen printed paste for fine line metal mesh
31.2.11.Ishihara Chemical's gravure printed photo-sintered Cu paste
31.2.12.Toppan Forms: Ag salt inks to achieve 4um printed metal mesh?
32.1.Eastman Kodak: Transparent ultra low-resistivity RF antenna using printed Cu metal mesh technology
32.2.Kuroki/ITRI: printed seed layer and plate Cu metal mesh?
33.1.Replacing photolithography with photoresist printing for ultra fine metal mesh
33.2.LCY gravure printing photoresist then etching
33.3.Screen Holding: gravure printing photoresist then etching
33.4.Consistent Materials' photoresist for metal mesh
33.5.Tanaka Metal's metal mesh technology
34.1.OLED lighting: solid-state, efficient, cold, surface emission, flexible......?
34.2.Performance challenge set by the incumbent (inorganic LED)
34.3.Cost challenge set by the incumbent (inorganic LED)
34.4.Lighting is more challenging than display?
34.5.Status of performance of rigid and flexible sheet to sheet OLED lighting
34.6.OLED lighting: key avenues of differentiations vs LED
34.7.Will OLED lighting ever take off?
34.8.How are conductive inks to be used in OLED lighting
34.9.Light Emitting Electrochemical Cell (LEC): printed or air sprayed coating polymeric light
34.10.Light Emitting Electrochemical Cell (LEC): printed or air sprayed coating polymeric light
35.1.Force sensing resistors
35.2.Two constructions for force sensors
35.3.Printed piezoresistive sensors: anatomy
35.4.Printed piezoresistive sensor
35.5.Printed means various sizes possible
35.7.Complete Material Portfolio Approach is Common
35.8.Customizing Performance
35.9.Previous applications of FSR
35.10.Medical applications of printed FSR
35.11.Automotive applications of printed FSR
35.12.Consumer electronic applications of printed FSR
35.13.Textile-based applications of printed FSR
35.14.SOFTswitch: force sensor on fabric
35.15.Large-area pressure sensors
35.16.Printed foldable force sensing solution
35.17.Printed foldable force sensing solution
35.18.Ten-year market projections for piezoresistive sensors at the device level
36.1.Piezoelectric sensors
36.2.PVDF and related materials
36.3.PVDF-based polymer options for sensing and haptic actuators
36.4.Low temperature piezoelectric inks
36.5.Piezoelectric Polymers
36.6.Printed piezoelectric sensor
36.7.Printed piezoelectric sensors: prototypes
36.8.Applications: Loudspeaker
36.9.Applications: Haptic actuators
36.10.Example application: Haptic gloves
36.11.Printed Piezoelectric Sensors: Market Forecasts
36.12.High-strain sensors (capacitive)
36.13.Use of dielectric electroactive polymers (EAPs)
36.14.Printed capacitive stretch sensors
36.15.Players with EAPs: Parker Hannifin
36.16.Applications: Strain sensor
36.17.Players with EAPs: Stretchsense
36.18.Players with EAPs: Bando Chemical
36.19.C Stretch Bando: Progress on stretchable sensors
36.20.Other force sensors (capacitive & resistive)
36.21.Force sensor examples: Polymatech
36.22.Force sensor examples: Sensing Tex
36.23.Force sensor examples: Vista Medical
36.24.Force sensor examples: InnovationLab
36.25.Force sensor examples: Tacterion
36.26.Force sensor example: Yamaha and Kureha
36.27.Force sensor examples: BeBop Sensors
37.1.1.Diabetes on the rise
37.1.2.Managing side effects accounts for 90% of the total cost of diabetes
37.1.3.Diabetes management process
37.1.4.Diabetes management device roadmap: Glucose sensors
37.2.Incumbent technology for glucose testing: the test strip
37.2.1.Anatomy of a typical glucose test strip
37.2.2.Benchmarking printing vs. sputtering in glucose test strip product
37.2.3.Manufacturing steps of a typical glucose test strip
37.2.4.Materials used in glucose test strips
37.2.5.Glucose test strips: price pressure
37.3.Emerging options: continuous monitoring of glucose levels
37.3.1.Connected and Smartphone-based Glucometers
37.3.2.The case for CGM
37.3.3.Skin patches are the form factor of choice
37.3.4.CGM: Overview of key players
37.3.5.Implantable glucose sensors: Introduction
37.3.6.Key Players in Implantable Glucose Monitoring
37.3.7.Focus shifts from test strips to CGM
37.3.8.Strategy comparison amongst the largest players
38.1.Printed TFTs aimed to enable simpler processing
38.2.Technical challenges in printing thin film transistors
38.3.Organic semiconductors for TFTs
38.4.Organic transistor materials
38.5.OTFT mobility overestimation
38.6.Merck's Organic TFT
38.7.Printed logic for RFID
38.8.S2S automatic printed OTFT
38.9.Roll-to-roll printed organic TFTs
38.10.Commercial difficulties with printed transistors
38.11.Fully printed ICs for RFID using CNTs.
38.12.MoOx semiconductors: Advantages and disadvantages
38.13.Metal oxide semiconductor production methods
38.14.Evonik's solution processible metal oxide
38.15.IGZO TFTs room temperature with deep UV annealing
39.1.Printed memory: a dead technology?
39.2.Applications of printed thin film memory
39.3.The structure of printed memory and the role of printed conductors
39.4.Challenges in rapid printing of polymeric memories
40.1.Printed wearable medical sensors (examples)
40.2.3D printed plastics: many materials are used
40.3.Progress in 3D printed electronics: company examples
40.4.Especially formulated inks for 3D printed electronics
40.5.Ink requirements for 3D printed electronics
40.6.Market forecasts
40.7.Why large-area LED array lighting
40.8.Examples of LED array lighting
40.9.Role of conductive inks in large-area LED arrays
40.10.Printed LED lighting
40.11.Nth Degree - Printed LEDs
40.12.Competitive non-printed approach to making the base for large-area LED arrays
41.1.Conductive pens based on particle-free inks
41.2.Conductive pens based on particle-based inks
42.1.Mobile phone digitizers
42.2.Value chain for printed digitizers
42.3.Using photo sintered Cu for digitizers?
43.1.Printed display back circuit for flexible e-readers


導電性インク市場 2020-2030年:見通し、技術、有力企業

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