6G 시장 (2023-2043년): 기술, 동향, 예측, 기업: IDTechEx

6G는 빠르면 2028년에 이루어질 것이다.

6G 시장 (2023-2043년): 기술, 동향, 예측, 기업

6G, sub-THz, 6G 기술 벤치마킹, NTN(Non-Terrestrial Networks, 비지상망), LEO, RIS(Reconfigurable Intelligent Surface, 재구성 가능한 지능형 표면), 셀 프리 대규모 MIMO, THz 구성요소, 저손실 재료, 패키징, 이기종 통합, 플레이어 환경


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IDTechEx는 수년 동안 통신 기술 관련 주제를 연구해 왔으며, 최신 버전의 6G 시장 조사 보고서 “6G 시장 (2023-2043년)" 기술, 동향, 예측, 기업"을 발표했다. 이 보고서는 최신 6G 기술 개발 동향, 주요 응용분야, 기업 활동 및 시장 전망을 다루는 당사의 전문 지식을 기반으로 한다. 이 보고서의 주요 측면에는 THz 기술 동향, THz 통신용 반도체, THz 위상 배열 안테나 모듈, 6G 무선 분석, 저손실 재료, 6G 패키징 동향, 재구성 가능한 지능형 표면(RIS), 메타물질, 비지상망, 통합 센싱과 통신, 6G 시장, 그리고 미래 전망이 포함된다.
5G mmWave is yet to take off, however, the 6G research already started long ago. But what is 6G exactly?
 
The frequency matters
Let's start from the most basic level - the frequency band. In 5G, we know that the sub-6 GHz (3.5-6 GHz) and millimetre wave (mmWave, 24-100 GHz) bands are the two new bands among the spectrum covered. In 6G, the frequency ranges under consideration include 7 to 20 GHz frequency band, W-band (above 75-110 GHz), D-band (110 GHz to 175 GHz), bands between 275 GHz and 300 GHz, and in the THz range (0.3-10 THz). The bands between 7 and 20 GHz are taken into consideration because of the need for coverage that will enable mobile and "on the go" applications for numerous 6G use cases. The W and D bands are of interest for both 6G access and Xhaul (e.g. fronthaul, backhaul) networks. A solution that meets the objectives of both services is to be considered. As of September 2022, worldwide spectrum allocations do not go beyond 275 GHz; nevertheless, frequency bands in the range 275-450 GHz have been identified for the implementation of land mobile and fixed service applications, as well as radio astronomy and Earth exploration-satellite service, and space research service in the range 275-1,000 GHz.
 
An overview of 6G spectrum deployment strategy is shown in the figure below. Note that even though by definition the THz band runs from 300 GHz to 10 THz, telecom professionals have found it simpler to classify beyond-100 GHz applications as THz communications.
 
 
Source: "6G Market 2023 - 2043: Technology, Trends, Forecasts, Players " from IDTechEx
 
What does 6G promise and what are the challenges?
By exploiting the large bandwidth in THz frequency band, 6G is expected to enable 1 Tbps data rate. However, this rate is very challenging to achieve as a large continuous bandwidth is required but in reality, bandwidths that are available for use are limited and split over different bands. Another aspect is that spectral efficiency makes a direct trade-off with the required Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) for detection. The higher the required SNR, the shorter the respective range becomes due to transmitted power limitations at high frequencies as well as added noise. As an example, Samsung's state-of-the-art D-band phase array transmitter prototype currently demonstrates the furthest travel distance of 120m but only achieving 2.3 Gbps. Other groups show higher data rate, but the over-the-air travel distance is only at centimetre level.
 
To further improve link range as well as enhance data rate, several requirements are needed to be considered when designing a 6G radio. For example, selecting appropriate semiconductors to boost link range is critical; as is picking low-loss materials with a small dielectric constant and tan loss to prevent substantial transmission loss. To further reduce transmission loss, a new packaging strategy that tightly integrates RF components with antennas is required. However, one must remember that as devices get increasingly compact, power and thermal management become even more critical.
 
In addition to device design, network deployment strategy is also a crucial area to research in order to address NLOS and power consumption challenges. Establishing a heterogeneous smart electromagnetic (EM) environment, for example, is being investigated utilising a wide range of technologies, such as reconfigurable intelligent surfaces (RIS) or repeaters.
 
6G applications
One significant change of 6G to previous communication generations is that it will now include non-terrestrial networks, which is a key development that enables conventional 2D network architectures to function in 3D space. Low Altitude Platforms (LAPs), High Altitude Platforms (HAPs), Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs), and satellites are examples of non-terrestrial networks (NTNs). We saw China send the world's first 6G satellite in November 2020. In 2022, Huawei tested the NTN 6G networks using LEO (Low Earth Orbit) satellites. More and more activities in this area show that NTN networks will be a key development trend.
 
Communications aside, 6G is expected to tap into the world of sensing, imaging, wireless cognition, and precise positioning. In 2021, Apple patented its THz sensor technology for gas sensing and imaging in iDevice. Huawei also tested several Integrated Sensing and Communication (ISAC) prototypes. Many more studies and trials are underway to fully leverage the potential of 6G THz frequency bands.
 
To learn more about 6G's technology, applications, market, please read IDTechEx's 6G market research report. "6G Market 2023-2043: Technology, Trends, Forecasts, Players". This 6G report is built on our expertise, covering the latest 6G technology development trends, key applications, player activities, and market outlook, aiming to provide the reader with a comprehensive understanding of 6G technology and market.
 
Key aspects in the report:
This report includes a comprehensive review of the technology, players, use case studies, and market for 6G.
 
1. 6G development and activities,
a. by five key regions (US, EU, China, Japan, South Korea
b. by key players (Ericsson, Nokia, Samsung, Huawei, Apple, NTT DOCOMO)
2. 6G Technology trends
a. 6G Radio system analysis
b. 6G Power consumption analysis
c. Semiconductor technologies for THz communication:
i. Si-based semiconductor (CMOS, SOI, SiGe),
ii. GaAs and GaN,
iii. InP
d. Phase array module design for 6G
e. Examples of state-of-the-art D-band (110 - 175 GHz) phase array modules
f. Packaging trend for 6G
g. Low-loss materials for mmWave and THz
h. Metamaterials
3. Network deployment strategy
a. Cell-free massive MIMO
b. Reconfigurable intelligent surfaces (RIS)
c. Non-terrestrial networks (NTN)
4. 6G use cases beyond mobile communication
a. Sensing
b. Imaging
c. Wireless cognition
5. Market Forecasts:
a. 6G base stations.
b. 5G base stations segmented by frequency (sub-6 vs mmWave)
c. Reconfigurable intelligent surfaces (RIS) forecast, segmented by three types of RIS (Active RIS, Semi-passive RIS, and Passive RIS)
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Table of Contents
1.EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
1.1.6G spectrum and network deployment strategy
1.2.6G performance with respect to 5G
1.3.Global 6G government-aided initiatives - an overview
1.4.Summary of key 6G activities and future roadmap
1.5.DoCoMo, NTT sign 6G pact with Fujitsu, NEC, Nokia
1.6.Overview of key technologies that enable THz communication
1.7.Challenges regarding semiconductor for THz communications
1.8.Overview of Si vs III-V semiconductors for 6G
1.9.Overview of transistor performance metrics of different semiconductor technologies
1.10.Overview of semiconductor technology choice for THz RF
1.11.Power amplifier benchmark in beyond 200 GHz frequency band
1.12.State-of-the-art InP power amplifiers - the performance and the players
1.13.Three approaches to integrate InP on CMOS to make a >100 GHz beamforming transmitter
1.14.Summary table of key THz Technologies
1.15.Technology benchmark of phase antenna array in 28, 90, and 140 GHz.
1.16.140 GHz THz prototype from Samsung and UCSB - IC and antenna fabrication details
1.17.D-Band (110 to 175 Hz) Phased-Array-on-Glass Modules from Nokia
1.18.Building a 140 GHz phase antenna array - what are the key factors?
1.19.An example of antenna processing unit designed for cell-free mMIMO
1.20.IDTechEx outlook of low-loss materials for 6G
1.21.Phased-array antenna module design trend for 6G
1.22.Benchmark of different types of non-terrestrial (NTN) technologies
1.23.Huawei test non-terrestrial 6G networking using LEO satellites
1.24.Metamaterials for RIS in telecommunication
1.25.6G - an overview of key applications
1.26.Apple's patents on THz sensor for gas sensing and imaging
1.27.Integrated Sensing and Communication (ISAC) prototype from Huawei
1.28.6G base stations market forecast
1.29.5G base stations market forecast
1.30.Reconfigurable intelligent surfaces in telecommunications: Forecasts segments
1.31.Summary: Global trends and new opportunities in 6G
2.6G INTRODUCTION
2.1.The evolution of mobile communications
2.2.Evolving mobile communication focus
2.3.6G visions
2.4.5G&6G development and standardization roadmap
2.5.6G spectrum - which bands are considered?
2.6.Bands vs Bandwidth
2.7.Spectrum characteristics from 2G to 6G
2.8.6G spectrum and network deployment strategy
2.9.6G performance with respect to 5G
2.10.Beyond 5G Wireless - the pros and the cons
2.11.6G - an overview of key applications
2.12.An overview of potential 6G services
2.13.6G - Overview of key enabling technologies (1)
2.14.6G - Overview of key enabling technologies (2)
2.15.Evolution of hardware components from 5G to 6G: technology benchmark of different communication frequencies
2.16.Summary: Global trends and new opportunities in 6G
2.17.DoCoMo, NTT sign 6G pact with Fujitsu, NEC, Nokia
2.18.Fujitsu teams with NTT and Docomo for 6G trials
3.6G DEVELOPMENT ROADMAP IN 5 KEY REGIONS (CHINA, US, EU, JAPAN, AND SOUTH KOREA)
3.1.Global 6G government-aided initiatives - an overview
3.2.6G development roadmap - South Korea
3.3.6G development roadmap - Japan
3.4.6G development roadmap - China
3.5.6G development roadmap - EU
3.6.6G development roadmap - US
3.7.Funding models to research the next mobile communication infrastructure
4.6G INDUSTRY KEY ACTIVITIES/KEY ANNOUNCEMENT
4.1.Nokia's 6G activity
4.2.Ericsson's 6G activity (1)
4.3.Ericsson's 6G activity (2)
4.4.Huawei's 6G activity
4.5.Samsung's 6G activity
4.6.Samsung's strategy to 6G
4.7.DoCoMo, NTT sign 6G pact with Fujitsu, NEC, Nokia
4.8.Fujitsu teams with NTT and Docomo for 6G trials
4.9.Apple is planning ahead for 6G
5.6G DEVICE TECHNOLOGY TREND
5.1.Overview of key technologies that enable THz communication
6.6G RADIO SYSTEM ANALYSIS
6.1.Short and long term technical targets for 6G radio
6.2.Potential 6G transceiver architecture
6.3.Overview of key technical elements in 6G radio system
6.4.Bandwidth and Modulation
6.5.Bandwidth requirements for supporting 100 Gbps - 1 Tbps radios
6.6.Bandwidth and MIMO - challenges and solutions
6.7.Key parameters that affect the 6G radio's performance
6.8.Proof of concepts - achieving beyond 100 Gbps
6.9.Radio link range vs system gain
6.10.Hardware Gap
6.11.The biggest bottleneck in THz region
6.12.Saturated output power vs frequency (all semiconductor technologies) - 1
6.13.Saturated output power vs frequency (all semiconductor technologies) - 1
6.14.Receiver noise - hardware challenges
6.15.Choices of semiconductor for low noise amplifiers (LNA) in 6G
6.16.Phase noise - hardware challenges
6.17.Digital signal processing
6.18.Summary table of key THz Technologies
6.19.Summary table - key THz Characteristics
7.POWER CONSUMPTION ANALYSIS OF 6G RADIO
7.1.Building blocks for sub-THz radio
7.2.Power consumption calculation
7.3.Power consumption of PA scale with frequency
7.4.Higher frequency poses significant challenges in transmission distance
7.5.Power consumption in the transceiver side (1)
7.6.Power consumption in the transceiver side (2)
7.7.Power consumption in the receiver side
7.8.Summary (1)
7.9.Summary (2)
8.SEMICONDUCTORS FOR 6G
8.1.Introduction
8.1.1.What to consider when choosing semiconductor technologies for 6G applications
8.1.2.State of the art RF transistors performance
8.2.Si-based semiconductor: CMOS, SOI, SiGe
8.2.1.CMOS - the performance limitation
8.2.2.CMOS technology - Bulk vs SOI
8.2.3.State-of-the-art RF CMOS technology in research and industry
8.2.4.FDSOI Ecosystem - key players
8.2.5.Summary - RF CMOS SOI Technology
8.2.6.SiGe
8.2.7.State-of-the-art RF SiGe technology in research and industry (1)
8.2.8.Europe's effort in SiGe development
8.2.9.Infineon and STMicroelectronics approaches to next generation SiGe BiCMOS
8.2.10.Summary - RF SiGe technology
8.3.GaAs and GaN
8.3.1.Wide Bandgap Semiconductor Basics
8.3.2.GaN's opportunity in 6G
8.3.3.GaN-on-Si, SiC or Diamond for RF
8.3.4.GaN-on-Si power amplifier for 100 GHz?
8.3.5.State of the art GaN power amplifier
8.3.6.Summary of RF GaN Suppliers
8.3.7.RF GaN Fabrication Lines
8.3.8.GaAs's opportunity for 6G
8.3.9.State-of-the-art GaAs based amplifier
8.3.10.Summary of GaAs suppliers
8.3.11.GaAs vs GaN for RF Power Amplifiers
8.3.12.Power amplifier technology benchmark
8.4.InP
8.4.1.State-of-the-art InP technology
8.4.2.InP HEMT vs InP HBT
8.4.3.InP opportunities for 6G
8.4.4.Heterogenous integration of InP with SiGe BiCMOS
8.4.5.State-of-the-art InP power amplifiers - the performance and the players
8.5.Summary of semiconductors for THz communication
8.5.1.Overview of Si vs III-V semiconductors for 6G
8.5.2.Challenges regarding semiconductor for THz communications
8.5.3.Overview of transistor performance metrics of different semiconductor technologies
8.5.4.Power amplifier benchmark in beyond 200 GHz frequency band
8.5.5.Power amplifier benchmark in beyond 200 GHz frequency band (2)
8.5.6.Power amplifier technology benchmark in D band (110 GHz - 170 GHz)
8.5.7.Overview of semiconductor technology choice for THz RF
8.5.8.Summary
9.PHASE ARRAY ANTENNAS FOR 6G
9.1.Antenna types in 6G
9.2.Antenna approaches
9.3.Challenges in 6G antennas
9.4.Antenna gain vs number of arrays
9.5.Trade off between power and antenna array size
9.6.5G phase array antenna
9.7.mmWave BFIC suppliers for 5G infrastructures
9.8.6G 90 GHz phase array antenna - demonstration from Nokia
9.9.Technology benchmark of phase array in 28, 90, and 140 GHz.
9.10.140 GHz phase array - transceiver analysis
9.11.140 GHz phase array - the choice of semiconductor
9.12.Considerations when building a 140 GHz phase array
10.EXAMPLES OF STATE-OF-THE-ART D-BAND (110 - 175 GHZ) PHASE ARRAY MODULES
10.1.Samsung's latest THz prototyping wireless Platform with Adaptive Transmit and Receive Beamforming
10.2.140 GHz THz prototype from Samsung - device architecture
10.3.140 GHz THz prototype from Samsung and UCSB - IC and antenna fabrication details
10.4.UCSB 135 GHz MIMO hub transmitter array tile module
10.5.Mounting InP PA to the LTCC Carrier
10.6.Fully Integrated 2D Scalable TX/RX Chipset for D-Band (110 to 170GHz) Phased-Array-on-Glass Modules from Nokia
10.7.A proof-of-concept 130 GHz wireless 2x2 line-of-sight (LoS) MIMO - 1
10.8.A proof-of-concept 130 GHz wireless 2x2 line-of-sight (LoS) MIMO - 2
10.9.A 136-147 GHz Wafer-Scale Phased-Array Transmitter demo from UCSD - 1
10.10.A 136-147 GHz Wafer-Scale Phased-Array Transmitter demo from UCSD - 2
10.11.State-of-the-art D-band transmitters benchmark
11.PACKAGING TREND FOR 6G
11.1.Overview
11.1.1.Phased-array antenna module design trend for 6G generations
11.1.2.Three approaches to integrate InP on CMOS to make a >100 GHz beamforming transmitter
11.1.3.Trade-off among different integration technologies
11.1.4.Multiple transmitter coexistence for 5G and 6G RF FEM (from Skyworks Solutions) (1)
11.1.5.Multiple transmitter coexistence for 5G and 6G RF FEM (from Skyworks Solutions) (2)
11.1.6.Evolution of hardware components from 5G to 6G: antenna module design
11.1.7.Packaging challenges for freq. > 100 GHz base stations
11.2.Choices of antenna packages
11.2.1.High frequency integration and packaging trend
11.2.2.Example: Qualcomm mmWave antenna module
11.2.3.High frequency integration and packaging: Requirements and challenges
11.2.4.Three ways of mmWave antenna integration
11.2.5.Technology benchmark of antenna packaging technologies
11.2.6.AiP development trend
11.2.7.Two types of AiP structures
11.2.8.Two types of IC-embedded technology
11.2.9.Two types of IC-embedded technology - Players
11.2.10.Two types of IC-embedded technology - Players
11.2.11.University of Technology, Sydney: AME antennas in packages for 5G wireless devices
11.2.12.Additively manufactured antenna-in-package
11.2.13.Novel antenna-in-package (AiP) for mmWave systems
11.2.14.Design concept of AiP and its benefits (1)
11.2.15.Design concept of AiP and its benefits (2)
11.2.16.Stack-up AiP module on a system board
11.2.17.PCB embedding process for AiP
11.2.18.Section summary and remarks
12.LOW-LOSS MATERIALS FOR MMWAVE AND THZ
12.1.IDTechEx outlook of low-loss materials for 6G
12.2.Research approaches for 6G low-loss materials by material category
12.3.Thermoplastics for 6G: Georgia Tech
12.4.PTFE for 6G: Yonsei University, GIST
12.5.Thermosets for 6G: ITEQ Corporation, INAOE
12.6.PPE for 6G: Taiyo Ink, Georgia Institute of Technology
12.7.Silica for 6G: University of Oulu, University of Szeged
12.8.Glass for 6G: Georgia Tech
12.9.LTCC for 6G: Fraunhofer IKTS
12.10.Sustainable materials for 6G: University of Oulu
12.11.Metal interposers for 6G: Cubic-Nuvotronics
12.12.Roadmap development for low-loss materials for 6G
12.13.More info about 5G and 6G Low Loss Materials
13.6G CELL-FREE MASSIVE MIMO
13.1.Considerations for 6G massive MIMO
13.2.Cell-free massive MIMO (Large-Scale Distributed MIMO)
13.3.Why cell-free mMIMO?
13.4.Benchmark of cellular mMIMO, network mMIMO, and cell-free mMIMO
13.5.Benefits and challenges of cell-free mMIMO implementation
13.6.An example of antenna processing unit designed for cell-free mMIMO
14.6G NON-TERRESTRIAL NETWORKS (NTN): HAPS, LEO, GEO
14.1.6G Non-Terrestrial networks (NTN) - An Overview
14.2.Benchmark of different types of NTN technologies
14.3.Features comparison: HAPS vs LEO vs GEO
14.4.Use cases of NTN
14.5.LEOS - Starlink
14.6.Airbus Zephyr HAPS
14.7.Apple spent $450M on SOS via LEO satellites from Globalstar for iPhone 14 models
14.8.China launches the "first 6G" test satellite into space
14.9.Huawei test non-terrestrial 6G networking using LEO satellites
14.10.South Korea's roadmap to launch LEO satellites
14.11.Overview of enabling technologies for non-terrestrial networks
15.HETEROGENEOUS SMART ELECTROMAGNETIC (EM) ENVIRONMENT
15.1.Heterogeneous smart electromagnetic (EM) environment
15.2.Overview of the main characteristics and parameters of smart EM devices
16.RECONFIGURABLE INTELLIGENT SURFACE (RIS)
16.1.Overview
16.1.1.Reconfigurable intelligent surface (RIS) for 6G
16.1.2.Reconfigurable intelligent surface (RIS) - an overview
16.1.3.RIS operation phases
16.1.4.Possible functionalities of RIS
16.1.5.Key drivers for reconfigurable intelligent surfaces
16.1.6.Challenges for fully functionalized RIS environments
16.2.Reconfigurable intelligent surface (RIS) - hardware
16.2.1.RIS Architecture
16.2.2.RIS vs traditional reflecting array antennas
16.2.3.Passive, semi-passive, and active RIS
16.2.4.Active, semi-passive, passive RIS - benchmark
16.2.5.RIS vs Relay
16.2.6.Technology benchmark of RIS with other smart EM devices
16.3.Reconfigurable intelligent surface (RIS) - applications
16.3.1.Where RIS can be used?
16.3.2.Typical RIS applications in wireless network
16.3.3.RISs can be applied in multiple locations
16.3.4.Examples of RIS prototypes
16.3.5.NANOWEB is an example of passive RIS
16.3.6.Major companies have shown interest in RIS
16.3.7.mmWave-based RIS technology for coverage challenge from ZTE
16.3.8.ZTE's RIS prototypes for outdoor coverage
16.3.9.ZTE's RIS prototypes for indoor
16.3.10.The current status of RIS
16.3.11.Huawei's 6G RIS prototype demo
16.3.12.Huawei's 6G RIS prototype demo results
16.4.RIS Forecast
16.4.1.Reconfigurable intelligent surfaces in telecommunications: Forecasts segments
17.METAMATERIALS
17.1.Metamaterials for RIS in telecommunication
17.2.Research history of metamaterials in RIS
17.3.Product segmentation: distinguishing between conductive and optical
17.4.Metamaterial tunability
17.5.Pivotal Commware: holographic beamforming in semi-active RIS
17.6.Materials and manufacturing for reconfigurable intelligent surfaces
17.7.Liquid crystal polymers (LCP) for RIS
17.8.Liquid crystal polymers (LCP) are a promising method for creating active metasurfaces
17.9.Alcan Systems develops transparent liquid crystal phased array antennas
17.10.Metamaterials in RIS: SWOT
17.11.Suitable materials for metamaterials in 5G and 6G RIS
17.12.Porter's five forces analysis of metamaterials in RIS
17.13.Multiple competing metamaterial manufacturing methods
17.14.RISE-6G investigates use of metamaterials in wireless communications
17.15.More info about Metamaterials
18.6G USE CASES BEYOND MOBILE COMMUNICATION
18.1.6G - an overview of key applications
18.2.Wireless cognition
18.3.THz Sensing - an overview
18.4.The principle of THz sensing and potential opportunities
18.5.Apple's patents on THz sensor for gas sensing and imaging
18.6.THz Imaging - an overview
18.7.THz sensing and imaging - examples from Terasense
18.8.THz precise positioning - an overview
18.9.Integrated Sensing and Communication (ISAC) prototype from Huawei (1)
18.10.Integrated Sensing and Communication (ISAC) prototype from Huawei (2)
18.11.Massive digital twinning for smart city
18.12.Overview of land-mobile service applications in the frequency range 275-450 GHz
18.13.Potential use cases in 275 - 450 GHz (1)
18.14.Potential use cases in 275 - 450 GHz (2)
19.MARKET FORECAST
19.1.6G base stations market forecast
19.2.5G base stations market forecast
19.3.More info about 5G
19.4.Reconfigurable intelligent surfaces in telecommunications: Forecasts segments
20.COMPANY PROFILES
20.1.Alcan systems
20.2.Ampleon
20.3.Atheraxon
20.4.Commscope
20.5.Ericsson (2020)
20.6.Ericsson (2021)
20.7.Freshwave
20.8.GaN Systems
20.9.Huawei
20.10.Kyocera
20.11.Metamaterials
20.12.Nokia
20.13.NXP Semiconductors
20.14.Omniflow
20.15.Picocom
20.16.Pivotal Commware
20.17.Renesas Electronics Corporation
20.18.Solvay
20.19.TMYTEK
20.20.ZTE
 

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보고서 통계

슬라이드 307
전망 2043
게시 Dec 2022
ISBN 9781915514400
 

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