Off Grid Report

A multi-billion dollar systems market for thermoelectric harvesting and sensing is emerging

Thermoelectric Energy Harvesting and Sensing 2020-2030

New principles, new applications, forecasts


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The new IDTechEx report, "Thermoelectric Energy Harvesting and Sensing 2020-2030" assesses a multi-billion dollar opportunity from major unsolved problems. The future is electric but 60% of the world's primary energy is wasted as heat. Turn that heat into electricity and the benefits are huge. The Internet of Things is nowhere near to reaching the predicted billions of nodes yearly monitoring everything from oil spills to forest fires and earthquakes. This is because batteries cannot be changed or charged in such deployments so you need to make the electricity at the node, typically in the dark where photovoltaics is not an option. Consequently, thermoelectric harvesting from heat differences is often a candidate. Another problem is smart watches expiring in hours. They have inadequate area for solar alone so how about electricity from heat now there is progress in viably exploiting small temperature differences? "
 
So far, thermoelectric energy generators TEGs are a small business because of cost and poor performance. Thermoelectrics is a poor third in energy harvester sales, well behind electrodynamics (wind and water turbines etc) and photovoltaics on everything. Nonetheless, 2019 was a bumper year for TEG research and new approaches to thermoelectrics and to thermoelectric sensing became active areas. For example, quantum and spin thermoelectrics now promise ten times the efficiency.
 
Yes, progress is poor in finding more efficient materials for conventional thermoelectrics at the temperatures where almost all the demand lies - up to 300C. However, taking a cue from other forms of energy harvesting, less efficient options with much more acceptable formats and costs are looking good. Welcome to wide area, stretchable, and biocompatible TEGs employing polymers and composites.
 
The Executive Summary and Conclusions of the report are sufficient for those in a hurry. Its new infograms explain the huge opportunities, impediments, patents, new materials, inventions and new approaches. There are ten year forecasts for different applications of thermoelectrics and wearables. The Introduction explains the basics, traditional manufacturing and formats and the trends. Go to Chapter 3 for New Principles: Quantum Dot and Spin-Driven. Chapter 4 closely examines Low Power: Flexible and Stretchable Thermoelectrics - the technology, new inventions, healthcare and wearables opportunities. Here is good news about viably harvesting electricity from small temperature differences with many examples. High power thermoelectric harvesting is very rare but Chapter 5 Status of High Power TEG examines latest approaches.
 
Chapter 6 assesses new manufacturing technologies, including the new polymer formulations, CNT, printing. The new Applications of Chapter 7 include building facades, roads, implants, wearables, internet of things, radiative cooling at night, gas turbines and military. The New Materials analysed in Chapter 8 include many polymers, silicon including within silicon chips and new heat sources. Chapter 9 Thermoelectric Sensing deals with using the Seebeck effect to do the actual sensing, a smaller market but now a vibrant one with fabrics, and flow, radiation and gas sensing involved. Indeed, the thermoelectric self-powered sensor using both effects is described. Finally Chapter 10 profiles relevant activity of 32 organisations.
 
Will market growth in thermoelectric energy harvesting primarily come from low or high power opportunities? Which researchers and manufacturers have the products with the most potential? Forecasts by industry? Significance of latest advances? Most active countries? It is all here in the new IDTechEx report, "Thermoelectric Energy Harvesting and Sensing 2020-2030"
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Table of Contents
1.EXECUTIVE SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS
1.1.Purpose of this report
1.2.Definition and status
1.2.1.Definition
1.2.2.Primary conclusions
1.2.3.Patent analysis
1.3.Impediments by power level
1.4.New focus
1.4.1.Overview
1.4.2.Unsatisfied needs for low power TEGs
1.4.3.Unsatisfied needs for high power TEGs
1.4.4.New focus: healthcare
1.4.5.Trend to flexible energy harvesting and sensing
1.5.New models predict higher efficiencies possible: Univ. Houston/ A*STAR Hong Kong
1.5.1.University of Houston
1.5.2.A*STAR Hong Kong
1.6.Market forecasts
1.6.1.Thermoelectric energy harvesting transducers by application 2019-2030 - number million
1.6.2.Thermoelectric energy harvesting transducers by application 2019-2030 - unit value dollars
1.6.3.Thermoelectric energy harvesting transducers by application 2019-2030 - dollars million
1.6.4.Thermoelectric sensors and actuators 2020-2030 $ billion
1.6.5.Wearable technology forecast
2.INTRODUCTION
2.1.The Seebeck and Peltier effects
2.2.Manufacturing of thermoelectric generators
2.2.1.Construction and materials
2.2.2.Design considerations
2.3.Thin film thermoelectric generators
2.4.Materials: chasing high ZT
3.NEW PRINCIPLES: QUANTUM DOT AND SPIN-DRIVEN
3.1.Quantum dot
3.2.Spin driven thermoelectric effect STE
4.LOW POWER: LOW DELTA T AND FLEXIBLE/ STRETCHABLE
4.1.Powering sensors with only a few degrees temperature difference
4.1.1.Japanese universities
4.1.2.Chinese universities
4.1.3.PNNL USA
4.1.4.GeorgiaTech USA
4.2.Flexible thermoelectric harvesters
4.2.1.Overview
4.2.2.Mxenes, CNT
4.2.3.Stretchable thermoelectric coils: miniature flexible wearable devices
4.3.Healthcare
4.3.1.Overview
4.3.2.University Massachusetts Amherst
5.STATUS OF HIGH POWER TEG
5.1.Overview
5.2.RGS Development, TEGnology, Komatsu KELK
5.3.Gentherm, Marlow
5.4.Alphabet Energy's E1 thermoelectric generator
6.NEW MANUFACTURING TECHNOLOGIES
6.1.Conventional beginnings TECA, former companies Tellurex, Micropelt
6.2.Manufacturing of flexible thermoelectric generators: Tyndall, AIST, ETH
6.3.Enhancing ZT of flexible TEGs
6.4.AIST flexible technology
6.5.Printed thermoelectrics - Otego
6.6.Enhancement by pressure: Osaka University
7.NEW APPLICATIONS
7.1.Building façades
7.2.Implantable thermoelectrics
7.3.Thermoelectrics in consumer electronics/wearables
7.3.1.Overview
7.3.2.Matrix PowerWatch
7.3.3.Matrix March 2019
7.3.4.Powering other wearables next
7.3.5.Academic research on wearables
7.4.Powering IoT
7.5.Waste heat
7.5.1.Mitsubishi Materials
7.5.2.Paderborn University
7.6.Radiative cooling at night
7.7.Military and aerospace
7.7.1.Military AETEG
7.7.2.Bi-functional generator/ pre-cooler: DC power from aircraft bleed air
7.7.3.Military waste heat
7.7.4.Gas turbine sensing
7.8.Other examples of thermoelectric progress
7.8.1.Better formats
7.8.2.Thermite powered thermoelectrics
7.9.Major structures
7.9.1.Smart roads
7.9.2.Radiative cooling outdoors: Univs Colorado, Wyoming, California
8.NEW MATERIALS
8.1.Organics
8.1.1.Bacterial nanocellulose
8.1.2.Fluoro-elastomer rubbers
8.1.3.PEDOT:PSS as a thermoelectric
8.2.Integration into silicon chips
8.2.1.Alloy films
8.2.2.Nanoblades
8.3.Other inorganics
8.4.e-textile integration
8.5.New materials for high temperatures
9.THERMOELECTRIC SENSING
9.1.Overview
9.2.MEMS thermoelectric infrared sensors
9.3.Micro-thermoelectric gas sensor: hydrogen and atomic oxygen
9.4.Transfer standards
9.5.Fabric sensors
9.6.Self-powered wireless sensor
9.7.Ultrasensitive heat sensor for healthcare
9.8.Three parameters from one sensor
10.ORGANISATION PROFILES
10.1.AIST Japan
10.2.Alphabet Energy, Inc. USA
10.3.Applied Thermoelectric Solutions USA
10.4.Citizen Watch Japan
10.5.e-ThermoGentech Japan
10.6.EVERREDtronics Ltd China
10.7.Ferrotec Corporation USA
10.8.Fujifilm Japan
10.9.Furukawa Japan
10.10.Gentherm USA
10.11.greenTEG Switzerland
10.12.Hi Z Technology, Inc USA
10.13.KELK Ltd
10.14.Kyocera Japan
10.15.Laird Technologies USA
10.16.Lintec Japan
10.17.Mahle O-Flexx Germany
10.18.Marlow Industries USA
10.19.mc10
10.20.Murata Japan
10.21.Novus USA
10.22.OTEGO Germany
10.23.Panasonic Japan
10.24.Perpetua
10.25.PL Engineering Russia
10.26.RGS Development Netherlands
10.27.RMT Russia
10.28.Romny Scientific USA
10.29.Showa Denko, Showa Holdings Japan
10.30.TECTEG Mfr Canada
10.31.TES New Energy Japan
10.32.Thermolife Energy Corporation
10.33.Toshiba Japan
10.34.Yamaha
10.35.Yasanuga Japan
 

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