Energy Harvesting Report

Battery Elimination in Electronics and Electrical Engineering 2018-2028

Technology and prospects for 'perpetual' devices and equipment. Achieving a much greater market for IoT, EVs and more with huge benefits to society.

Brand new for July 2017
New EH and other technology will lead to electronics and electrics lasting up to 100 years
 
This new report explains why we need to do this and why even partial success promises major benefits to society and new business opportunities. For example, Internet of Things nodes cannot be deployed in hundreds of billions if their batteries have to be replaced. At least 80% of the potential for IoT will be denied us since they need to be working decades from now despite being inaccessibly embedded in concrete of bridges and buildings, on billions of trees and so on. Think of remote communities and the emerging nations having electric vehicles that are virtually maintenance free and passed between generations to give travel almost free of charge. Return to a distant planet to find your robots still at work. The report analyses new breakthroughs promising to make all this possible and more.
 
It explains how batteries have serious limitations of cost, safety, performance and life. Learn how lithium-ion batteries will dominate the market for at least ten years and probably much longer yet no lithium-ion cell is inherently safe and no lithium-ion battery management system can ensure safety in all circumstances. Tesla says it will have solar bodywork on all its electric vehicles but, as this trend from "components in a box" to structural electronics and electrics progresses, the batteries are the problem because even solid state ones swell and shrink in use. They would destroy bodywork.
 
The report uniquely examines the many ways of eliminating batteries, confounding the skeptics with many examples currently operating, from electronics to buses and the power grid. Learn how batteries are needed less and less with the advent of energy harvesting with greatly improved continuity such as Airborne Wind Energy and multi-mode. It is noted that electronics and electrics need far less energy nowadays, making battery elimination more feasible: think ultra low power ARM chips, LEDs and high voltage, high speed traction motors for example.
 
The replacement of batteries with other energy storage is covered: some of these components have much longer life, better safety and suitability for use in planned smart materials. However, the much bigger potential is complete elimination of energy storage and that is the main focus.
 
This report has over 250 pages packed with new infograms, statistics and predictions. The Executive Summary and Conclusions is self-standing and sufficient for those in a hurry. The Introduction introduces the problems and solutions, including technologies to add to energy harvesting to provide the continuity of electricity supply that leads to less or no battery, such as dynamic charging of vehicles through roads.
 
The work was researched by PhD level analysts travelling worldwide and examination of IDTechEx databases, web research, recent conferences and other sources. The emphasis is on practicality, benchmarking and opportunity rather than theory so the third chapter looks at eliminating energy storage from sensors, building controls, cellphones and robot ships, sharing recent breakthroughs and predictions. Deliberately these examples expose very different challenges and solutions.
 
Chapter 4 is entirely devoted to the important topic of Internet of Things nodes without batteries - key to mass deployment. It reveals the exciting progress of EnOcean GmbH in this respect. This contrasts with Chapter 5 revealing the very different way in which electric vehicles and mobile e-cooking progress to no battery. This chapter also encompasses how to replace 700GW of diesel gensets across the world with transportable green sources with little or no battery and how the new Energy Independent Electric Vehicles EIV with quoted "perpetual" speed fit in with all this. Chapter 6 contemplates the grid without energy storage, currently a hot topic in that industry and finally, from Chapter 7 onwards, it looks very thoroughly at energy harvesting technologies for battery replacement.
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Table of Contents
1.EXECUTIVE SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS
1.1.The need for batteries
1.2.Batteries are a huge success
1.2.1.Addressable battery market by end user segment $ billion
1.2.2.Battery volume demand in GWh by end use segment 2016-2026
1.3.Problems with batteries
1.4.Ongoing lithium-ion fires and explosions
1.4.1.Computers, cars, aircraft
1.4.2.Hoverboards
1.4.3.Next Li-ion failures and production delays due to cutting corners
1.5.Impact of maintenance (battery change)
1.6.How to improve, shrink and eliminate batteries
1.7.Drivers and facilitators of battery elimination
1.7.1.How it becomes more necessary and easier
1.7.2.Rapid improvement in alternatives and more of them
1.7.3.Huge potential
1.7.4.Battery Eliminator Circuits: drones, eliminating PbA EV battery
1.8.Peak in car sales k - goodbye to most lead-acid batteries
1.9.Roadmap to elimination of energy storage and sales resulting
1.10.Best practice of energy storage elimination today
1.10.1.University of Washington USA microwatt phone
1.10.2.Triboelectric toys USA
1.10.3.CO sensor powered by ambient radio
1.10.4.EnOcean Germany microwatt to 3W
1.10.5.Battery elimination today at kW
1.10.6.IFEVS Italy electric restaurant van
1.10.7.Cargo Trike UK
1.10.8.Nuna8 Solar racer Netherlands
1.10.9.Stella Lux Netherlands energy positive car
1.10.10.Solar Ship Canada inflatable wing Canada 10kW
1.10.11.MARS UK autonomous boat
1.11.Dynamic charging from road Korea
1.12.Battery elimination from currently developed land-based technologies
1.13.Robot ships, off-grid power, diesel genset replacement: high power off-grid without batteries
1.14.Grid, microgrid, genset without batteries one day
1.15.Many more EH transducer options arriving
1.16.Market forecasts 2018-2028
2.INTRODUCTION
2.1.What is wrong with batteries, alternatives
2.2.Many solutions at low and high power, problems in between
2.3.Battery Eliminator Circuits BEC
2.4.Other uses and BEC development
2.5.Solar and wind power reinvented: latest news
3.ELIMINATING ENERGY STORAGE FROM BUILDING CONTROLS, CELLPHONES, ROBOT SHIPS
3.1.Building controls: EnOcean
3.2.Building controls without energy storage: EnOcean Alliance
3.3.Cell phone that requires no batteries
3.4.Robot ships: energy independent without batteries?
3.5.Microgrid progresses to no battery
4.INTERNET OF THINGS NODES WITHOUT ENERGY STORAGE: ENOCEAN
4.1.Easy to install
4.2.Fast Installation
4.3.Flexible Adaption
4.4.More than just the primary function
4.5.System
4.6.Protocol choice
4.7.Distance
4.8.Frequency
4.9.Protocol options
4.10.Bluetooth and Bluetooth Smart
4.11.Beacons and Sensor Nodes
4.12.Switches
4.13.Sensors
4.14.Power supply for wireless sensors and beacons
4.15.Energy Harvesting
4.16.Two way EnOcean: Dolphin Modules & White Label Products now IOT
4.17.EnOcean - Information for Intelligent Systems
4.18.Silvair partnership July 2017
5.ELECTRIC VEHICLES AND E-COOKING PROGRESS TO NO BATTERY
5.1.IFEVS electric restaurant van : cooks pasta without using battery.
5.2.Nanowinn Microbus China
5.3.Land water and air: low to high power
5.3.1.Aircraft
5.3.2.EV end game: Energy Independent Vehicles EIV
5.3.3.Immortus Australia
5.3.4.MARS UK 7kph solar unlimited or sail autonomous
5.4.EIV operational choices
5.4.1.Key EIV technologies
5.4.2.EIVs - more than adding something to a vehicle
5.4.3.New EIVs are being announced all the time: Inergy - Jan 2016 - 70kW safely from wind
5.5.Stella Lux passenger car Netherlands
5.6.Resolution and EVA solar racers University of Cambridge, UK
5.7.Vinerobot micro EIV France, Germany, Italy, Spain and a similar project in Australia Autonomous
5.8.Extreme lightweighting: Solar Ship EIV inflatable fixed wing aircraft Canada Autonomous, sun alone
5.9.Northrop Grumman surveillance airship up for 10 years
5.10.Vinerobot micro EV France, Germany, Italy, Spain, Australia
5.11.Sunnyclist Greece
5.12.Solar golf cars
6.GRID WITHOUT ENERGY STORAGE?
6.1.Overview
6.2.Conference comment
7.ENERGY HARVESTING TECHNOLOGIES FOR BATTERY REPLACEMENT
7.1.Overview
7.2.Definition
7.3.Features of EH
7.4.Low power vs high power off-grid
7.5.Types of EH energy source
7.6.Ford and EPA assessment of regeneration potential in a car
7.7.EH by power level
7.7.1.Needs by power level
7.7.2.Technologies by power level
7.7.3.Vibration and random movement harvesting
7.8.EH transducer options compared
7.9.Energy storage technologies in comparison
7.10.EH system architecture
7.11.Energy Harvesting Maturity
7.12.Popularity by technology 2017-2027
7.12.1.Overview
7.12.2.Typical vibration sources encountered
7.12.3.The vibration harvesting opportunity
7.13.Some energy harvesting highlights of "IDTechEx Show!" Berlin May 2017
7.14.Market drivers
7.15.History of energy harvesting
7.16.Problems that are opportunities
8.APPLICATIONS NOW AND IN FUTURE
8.1.Introduction
8.1.1.Energy harvesting is an immature industry
8.2.Where is EH used in general?
8.2.1.Examples of energy harvesting by power level
8.2.2.Hype and success: applications
8.2.3.Some EH applications by location
8.2.4.Power needs of electronic and electrical products
8.3.Regional differences
8.4.EH is sometimes introduced then abandoned
8.5.Lower power ICs and different design approach facilitate low power EH adoption
8.6.Building control, BIPV, IOT for communities, local grid
8.6.1.Introduction
8.6.2.Electrodynamically operated light switch
8.6.3.Building integrated photovoltaics BIPV
8.6.4.In communities: IOT
8.7.Uses in vehicles
8.7.1.Transitional options to EIV
8.8.Manufacturers
8.9.Toyota view in 2017 with image of the new Prius Prime solar roof
9.TECHNOLOGIES AND SYSTEMS
9.1.Overview
9.2.Comparison of options
9.2.1.Technology choice by intermittent power generated
9.2.2.Roadmap for low power EH: Bosch
9.2.3.EH transducer options compared
9.2.4.Potential efficiency
9.2.5.Hype and success - technology
9.2.6.Parameters
9.2.7.Multi-modal harvesting today
9.2.8.Integrated multi-modal:
9.2.9.Wi-Fi harvesting
10.TECHNOLOGY: ELECTRODYNAMIC
10.1.Overview
10.2.Choices of rotating electrical machine technology
10.3.Airborne Wind Energy AWE
10.3.1.TwingTec Switzerland 10 kW+, Ampyx Power
10.3.2.Google Makhani AWE 600kW trial, Enerkite
10.4.Typical powertrain components and regenerative braking
10.5.Trend to integration in vehicles
10.6.Human-powered electrodynamic harvesting
10.6.1.Knee Power
10.7.Electrodynamic vibration energy harvesting
10.7.1.Overview
10.8.Electrodynamic regenerative shock absorbers and self-powered active suspension
10.9.Flywheel KERS vs motor regen. braking
10.10.3D and 6D movement
10.11.Next generation motor generators, turbine EH in vehicles
11.TECHNOLOGY: PHOTOVOLTAICS
11.1.Overview
11.2.pn junction vs alternatives
11.3.Wafer vs thin film
11.4.Important photovoltaic parameters
11.5.Some choices beyond silicon compared
11.6.Tightly rollable, foldable, stretchable PV will come
11.7.OPV
12.TECHNOLOGY: THERMOELECTRICS
12.1.Basis and fabrication of thermoelectric generators TEG
12.2.Choice of active materials
12.3.Benefits of Thin Film TE
12.4.TEG systems
12.5.Automotive TEG
12.6.Powering sensor transceivers on bus bars and hot pipes
12.7.High power thermoelectrics: tens of watts
12.8.High power thermoelectrics: kilowatt
13.TECHNOLOGY: PIEZOELECTRICS
13.1.Overview
13.2.Active materials
13.2.1.Overview
13.2.2.Exceptional piezo performance announced 2016
13.3.Piezo Effect - Direct
13.4.Piezo Effect - Converse
13.5.Piezo Options Compared
13.6.Piezo in cars - potential
13.6.1.Piezo EH powered tyre sensor
13.7.Piezo EH in helicopter
13.8.Consumer Electronics
13.9.Benefits of Thin Film
13.10.Benefits of elastomer: KAIST Korea
13.11.Vibration energy harvester (Joule Thief)
13.12.Challenges with high power piezoelectrics
14.CAPACITIVE ELECTROSTATIC
14.1.Principle
14.2.Interdigitated to elastomer
14.3.Capacitive flexible
14.3.1.Dielectric elastomer generators
14.4.Creating electricity from ocean waves: best places West Coast of North America, UK, Japan
14.5.Creating electricity from ocean waves: the dilemma
14.6.High power DEG capacitive wave power trials
14.7.MEMS Electrostatic Scavengers
14.7.1.Advanced MEMS capacitive vibration harvester in 2016
15.MAGNETOSTRICTIVE, MICROBIAL, NANTENNA
15.1.Magnetostrictive
15.2.Microbial fuel cells
15.3.Nantenna-diode
16.TRIBOELECTRIC
16.1.Definition
16.2.Triboelectric dielectric series
16.3.Triboelectric dielectric series examples showing wide choice of properties
16.4.Triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG)
16.5.Achievement
16.6.Four ways to make a TENG
16.6.1.Overview
16.6.2.TENG modes with advantages, potential uses
16.6.3.Research focus on the four modes
16.6.4.Parametric advantages and challenges of triboelectric EH

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