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Electric Vehicle Charging Infrastructure 2014-2024: Forecasts, Technologies, Players

The full picture and opportunity assessment of how electric vehicles for land, water and air will be charged

Charger market value will increase more than fivefold over the next decade
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This report covers the full picture of how electric vehicles by land, water and air will be externally charged. They are hugely increasing in number - we give the forecasts by type - and most will have a plug in feature to save money and the planet. Charger market value will increase more than fivefold over the decade but car charging grows much faster and other vehicle charging peaks, for reasons we explain. In this new report with its comprehensive scope, we examine slow, fast and fastest charging stations, including contactless charging and battery swapping with a blunt appraisal of the pros and cons. Each option is illustrated by many supplier profiles.
Figure 1: Average unit price of the three levels of charging station hardware vehicle in US$ thousands*
*For the full forecast data please purchase this report
Source: IDTechEx
Energy harvesting to power up the charging station is analysed - solar is not the only option here. The standards situation is holding things up to a lesser or greater extent across the world and the content, timelines and issues involved are examined. Forecasts of charging station numbers, unit value and total value are given, detailed by charging speed and territory.
Analysis is the essence of this report with many figures and tables comparing the pros and cons and giving detailed new forecasts for 2014-2024. Uniquely comprehensive in scope, it appraises work from New Zealand to Canada and Japan. The charging issues and equipment employed with electric land, water and air vehicles are considered, both hybrid and pure electric, and the solutions now and in future. The recent opinions of many interested parties are quoted. The impact of alternatives is considered such as gas turbine and fuel cell charging of on-road vehicle batteries, with no roadside charging, and the declining percentage of hybrids that do not plug in.
The surprisingly large number of companies providing or about to provide solar powered roadside charging and inductive contactless charging, both resonant and conventional, is appraised. The very different standards situations are examined for North America, Europe and East Asia, for both charging stations and their interfaces, and the battle for the global standards.
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Table of Contents
1.1.Electrical categories
1.2.Physical categories - Mode, Case and Type
1.3.The most popular level of charging
1.4.Ten year forecasts
1.5.Relative sales by Level
1.6.Charging station sales exceed pure electric cars sales
1.7.Price trends
1.8.A vision for ubiquitous fast charging
1.9.Major impediments to the Level 3 people really want
1.10.Actual charger pricing
1.11.Price sensitivity and opportunity for cost reduction
1.12.Geographical trends
1.12.1.Toyota 2014 onwards
1.13.Primary market
1.14.Favoured locations
1.15.Alternative technologies
1.16.Market leaders
1.17.Market beyond cars
1.18.Vehicle projections by type
1.19.Charging infrastructure situation by category
1.20.Charging stations in Europe
2.1.Electric vehicle business by value
2.2.The car manufacturers' dilemma
2.2.1.Charging off-road land vehicles is usually easy
2.2.2.On road vehicles are troublesome
2.2.3.Many organisations interested
2.3.Potential setbacks and uncertainty
2.4.Some certainties
2.5.How many charging points are needed?
2.6.Will there be enough charging points?
2.6.3.Part of a coordinated effort
2.7.Can the grid cope?
2.8.Coping with local grid inadequacies - transportable, autonomous charging
2.9.Metering in the vehicle or cable
2.10.In-vehicle inverters become more capable
3.1.Global standards setting in this field
3.1.1.Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE)
3.1.2.International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC)
3.1.3.International Organisation for Standardisation (ISO)
3.1.5.Level 1,2,3
3.1.6.HomePlug Green Phy
3.3.1.Code of practice
3.4.Technical differences between countries
3.5.International strategies
3.5.3.North America
4.1.Fastest form of recharging
4.2.Battery swapping trials - China, Denmark, Israel, Japan, South Korea
4.3.20,000 EVs in a smart grid
4.4.Battery swapping alternatives
5.1.Energy harvesting
5.1.1.Solar powered charging stations
5.1.2.Alpha Energy USA
5.1.3.Beautiful Earth USA
5.1.4.E-Move Denmark
5.1.5.Envision Solar International USA
5.1.6.EVFuture India
5.1.7.Flight of the Century
5.1.8.OnStar / TimberRock
5.1.9.Pininfarina Italy
5.1.10.RRC Germany
5.1.11.Sanyo Japan
5.1.12.Solar Bullet train
5.1.13.Solar Unity Company USA
5.1.14.SunPods USA
5.1.15.Toyota Japan
5.2.Electricity from the road
5.2.1.James Dyson Award UK
5.2.2.Innowattech Israel
5.3.Wireless charging
5.3.1.Conductix-Wampfler Italy
5.3.2.Energy Dynamics Laboratory USA
5.3.3.Evatran USA
5.3.4.Korea Advanced Institute of Technology
5.3.5.Nissan Japan
5.3.6.Presidio Graduate School USA
5.3.7.Qualcomm (HaloIPT) New Zealand
5.3.9.Singapore A*STAR
5.3.10.Volvo and Flanders Drive Sweden, Belgium
5.3.11.WiTricity and Partners USA
6.1.ABB Switzerland
6.2.AeroVironment USA
6.3.APplugs Belgium
6.4.Chargemaster UK
6.5.Circontrol Spain
6.6.Coulomb Technologies USA
6.7.CT&T USA
6.8.Diamond Aircraft, Siemens, EADS
6.9.Eaton Corporation USA
6.10.Elektromotive UK
6.11.Epyon Netherlands
6.12.GE USA
6.13.Green Charge Networks USA
6.14.Hasetec Japan
6.15.Ingeteam Spain
6.16.JFE Engineering Corporation USA
6.17.Leviton USA
6.18.Liberty PlugIns USA
6.19.Mitsubishi Japan
6.20.Nation-E Switzerland
6.21.NEC Takasago Japan
6.22.Nexco Japan
6.23.Nissan Japan
6.24.PEP Stations USA
6.25.Robert Bosch Germany
6.26.Schneider Electric France
6.27.Siemens Germany
6.28.SwapPack USA
6.29.Tokyo Electric Power Company
6.30.Toyota Japan
6.31.Voltec USA
7.7.Republic of Ireland
7.10.United Kingdom
7.11.2.North Carolina
7.12.Fear of grid overload
7.13.Electric vehicles and the smart grid
7.13.1.Colliding with the needs of electric vehicles?
1.1.SAE six levels of charging
1.2.Car preferences for charging station
1.3.Global market value $millions ex-factory of Levels 1, 2 and 3 car charging stations and other vehicle charging stations sold worldwide 2014-2024
1.4.Numbers thousands of the three levels of residential car charging stations sold worldwide 2014-2024, in each case with the inverter on-board the car.
1.5.Numbers thousands of non-residential car charging stations sold worldwide 2014-2024
1.6.Numbers thousands rounded of residential, non-residential and total car charging stations sold globally 2014-2024
1.7.Number thousands of Levels 1.2 and 3 car charging stations sold worldwide 2014-2024
1.8.Split between Level 2 residential and Level 3 chargers in recent commitments with rounded percentage
1.9.Global sales of pure electric on-road cars and of car charging stations and the ratio between them 2014-2024
1.10.Average unit price ex-factory of the three levels of car charging stations 201-2024 in $ thousands
1.11.Typical hardware retail price of charging stations indoor/ residential vs outdoor in $ thousands
1.12.Global sales of electric cars number thousands 2013-2024, rounded
1.13.Examples of orders and commitments for car charging stations and our estimate of total numbers likely to be delivered
1.14.US league table of manufacturers of car and other charging stations
1.15.The charging infrastructure situation by category
1.16.Comparison table of Fast and Slow Charging Stations in Europe
3.1.SAE six levels of charging
4.1.The good and the bad of battery swapping
5.1.The good and the bad of inductive contactless charging of electric vehicles
7.1.Chinese cities restricting electric bikes
1.1.Example of a slow charging cable carried with an electric car
1.2.Cross section of delivery cable for a Kikusu fast charging station in Japan showing signal and power conductors
1.3.Global market value $millions ex-factory of Levels 1, 2 and 3 car charging stations and other vehicle charging stations sold worldwide 2014-2024
1.4.Numbers thousands of non-residential car charging stations sold worldwide 2014-2024
1.5.Numbers thousands rounded of residential, non-residential and total car charging stations sold globally 2014-2024
1.6.Number thousands of Levels 1.2 and 3 car charging stations sold worldwide 2014-2024
1.7.Average unit price ex-factory of the three levels of car charging stations 2014-2024 in $ thousands.
1.8.Global sales of electric cars number thousands, 2013-2024, rounded
1.9.Market for electric vehicles, both hybrid and pure electric, sold in the world 2013-2024 in thousands of units rounded
1.10.Market for electric vehicles, both hybrid and pure electric, sold in the world 2013-2024 in US$ billions
1.11.Number of Slow Charging Stations in Europe
1.12.Number of Fast Charging Stations in Europe
1.13.Comparison chart of Fast and Slow Charging Stations in Europe
2.1.Solar train concept and underwater docking chargers already in use, both involving lithium-ion traction batteries
2.2.Forklift Truck Battery Charger, charging up to 900 ampere-hour of batteries in about eight hours
2.3.PosiCharge charging station for fast charging of lead acid batteries in forklifts
2.4.Elegant charging station from Taiwan
2.5.Examples of on board solar power charging land electric vehicle batteries
2.6.Examples of on board solar power charging water borne electric vehicle batteries
2.7.Examples of on board solar power charging airborne electric vehicle batteries
2.8.CellCube with renewable energy sources
2.10.Breakaway demonstration of front of CellCube
2.11.Breakaway demonstration of rear of CellCube
2.12.Gildemeister Energy Solutions
2.13.The Ubricity system
3.1.Level 3 vehicle-side connector
3.2.Mennekes plug
3.3.The more rugged interface favoured by the French
3.4.VDE-AR-E 2623-2-2 electric vehicle charging socket
3.5.CHAdeMO plug: NEXCO EV Quick
3.6.TEPCO CHAdeMO Level 3 "Quick" fast charging plug
3.7.Yazaki's SAE J1772 compliant electric vehicle connector
4.1.Japanese taxi
4.2.20,000 EVs in a smart grid in China
5.1.Solar powered charging stations
5.2.Charging station at Rio de Janeiro
5.3.PC-Aero pure electric manned plane from Germany with solar charger
5.4.Solar recharging at Manheim New Jersey National Auto Dealers Exchange
5.5.Beautiful Earth Group's Brooklyn container-based charging station
5.6.E-Move solar charging station
5.7.EVFuture solar powered roadside charge 2008 model
5.8.EVFuture solar station detail
5.9.Planned flight of Flight of the Century pure electric aircraft
5.10.Test bed aircraft for design of Flight of the Century
5.11.OnStar and TimberRock EV solar charging
5.12.Wireless e-bike charger
5.13.Bicycle parking lot in Sakurashinmachi, Setagaya, with Sanyo's Smart Energy System "Solar Parking Lot"
5.14."Solar Parking Lot" based on Sanyo Electric's Smart Energy System
5.15.Sanyo Electric's Large-, Medium- and Small-Scale Smart Energy Systems
5.16.Solar powered train concept
5.17.Solar Unity solar powered charging installed in 2005
5.18.SunPods solar charging station
5.19.The 1.9kW Pure Electric Vehicle (PEV) and Plug In Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) charging station
5.20.Road surface electricity generator
5.21.Innowattech Piezo Electric Generator
5.22.Hino "no plug in" bus
5.23.In-road charging of small buses in Turin Italy
5.24.Evatran EV charging
5.25.Evatran Plugless Power EV charging station
5.26.Evatran company milestones
5.27.KAIST OLEVs in 2010
5.28.Proximity charged tram
5.29.HaloIPT 2010 launch of the first wireless charging in the UK
5.30.Operating principle of HaloIPT
5.31.Drayson racing car
5.32.Principle of the WiTricity Delphi wireless charging system
6.1.ABB DC fast charging station
6.2.ABB's Terra 51 direct current (DC) charger
6.3.AeroVironment chargers with Think EV
6.4.AeroVironment multiple charging system
6.5.Chargemaster FastCharge
6.6.Clipper Creek USA
6.7.Clipper Creek Level 2 residential charger
6.8.Coulomb Technologies charger
6.9.ChargePoint Level 3 fast charger shown left and residential/ light commercial charger shown right
6.10.CT&T charger
6.11.The world's first aircraft with a serial hybrid electric drive system
6.12.Eaton Level 2 charging station and Quick Charger
6.13.Elektromotive charging station
6.14.Epyon Terra charging station
6.15.GE WattStation
6.16.Green Charge Networks transportable charging station with grid upgrade
6.17.Hasetec charging station in action
6.18.Ingeteam roadside charger
6.19.JFE charging interface
6.20.Leviton residential EV chargers
6.21.Liberty PlugIns EV charging stations
6.22.Mitsubishi roadside charger
6.23.Mitsubishi car charging - home management system
6.24.The Angel car mobile charger for rescue
6.25.Angel car in action
6.26.Nation-E Hummer rescue charger car
6.27.Oregon Governor Ted Kulongoski plugs in the all-electric Nissan LEAF to the nation's first publicly available quick-charge station at Portland General Electric headquarters in Portland, Oregon
6.28.Nexco public charger in Hodogawa
6.29.Nissan home charging station
6.30.PEP charging station
6.31.Robert Bosch EV charging station
6.32.Schneider Electric EV charging stations
6.33.EVlink charging solutions
6.34.Tokyo Electric Power Company charge point
6.35.Toyota charging station
6.36.Potentially revolutionary solution for powering EVs
6.37.Voltec residential EV charger
7.1.EV charging phone booth in Austria
7.2.Folkwang Universität The Plug
7.3.EV charger in Japan
7.4.Spanish phone booth suitable for addition of charger
7.5.World's first Tesla charging station installed in 2009 in California
7.6.Solar charging of car in San Jose
7.7.Sign in Raleigh
7.8.Basic charging system
7.9.Feeding and using the smart grid
7.10.Smart grid simulation

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