Automotive & Electric Vehicles Report

Electric Vehicle Forecasts, Trends and Opportunities 2015-2025

Hybrid and pure electric vehicles for land, water and air

A $533 billion opportunity within a decade
This master report summarising and forecasting every sector of the EV industry remains unique. It adds new sectors as they become substantial, the latest being car-like microEVs homologated as quadricycles in Europe.
In the last year it has become a more closely integrated market - pure electric and hybrid whether on land, water or airborne. For example, Nissan has launched hybrid cars selling in tens of thousands yearly. The e-bike company Brammo took orders for 4,000 of its $20,000 record-breaking e-motorbike on its launch in the USA. Previously, e-motorbikes have been merely a curiosity.
Many profitable niches are emerging just as the largest major sectors are changing in importance; the industrial and commercial sector is now bigger and much more profitable than e-cars, and is set to remain so for at least eight more years.
Figure 1: Ex-factory value of EVs, in 2024, by applicational sector
Source: IDTechEx
All components are changing with supercapacitors sometimes replacing or partly replacing batteries and also new types of battery, energy harvesting, power electronics and structure powering growth in this already huge and prosperous business. It is comprehensively forecasted only in this master report and the subsidiary reports on the segments. Disruptive change is now the norm and Apple-like inspiration and technological innovation is at last being seen.
The fruits of all this are truly spectacular; including such things as the Marian fast surface boat that acts as a submarine when necessary, the fixed-wing plane that will stay aloft for five years on sunshine and the flying jet ski. An amphibious hybrid plane is also going into production with military robot jellyfish, bats and swarming flies. The race is on to make extremely short take-off and landing (ESTL) personal planes and air taxis, some that take-off and land vertically in your garden or from the "pocket airport" on top of a regular airport building.
10 year forecasts across all EV sectors
This report gives the unit numbers, average vehicle prices, and total value for ten years for the following vehicle types:
  • Hybrid cars
  • Pure electric cars
  • Heavy industrial
  • Buses
  • Lighting industrial/commercial
  • Micro EV/quadricycle
  • Golf car and motorized gold caddy
  • Mobility for the disabled
  • Two-wheel and allied
  • Military
  • Marine
  • Other
Figure 2: Sales forecast for some volume sectors of electric vehicles
Source: IDTechEx
Comprehensive applicational and geographic spread
This report is uniquely comprehensive in applicational and geographical spread. Primarily it presents statistics and forecasts including back up data such as conventional vehicle sales and market drivers. There is even comparative data such as statistics and forecasts by other analysts and by regional trade associations. There is some coverage of technology trends and considerable tabulation of manufacturers and by type of vehicle made and which are world leaders in value sales and why. There is little anecdotal text and information already available on the web, the illustrations and tables being largely original and deriving from IDTechEx analysis and private sources as well as extensive interviews.
Analyst access from IDTechEx
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Further information
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Table of Contents
1.1.The value market for electric vehicles EVs of all types
1.2.IDTechEx electric vehicles market forecasts 2015-2025
1.3.EV market 2015 and 2025 identifying hybrids
1.4.Batteries and motors numbers 2015-2025
1.5.League table of largest EV manufacturers
1.6.Market sectors and technology trends
1.7.Small and Medium Enterprises SME come to the fore
1.8.Numbers of manufacturers
1.9.Mark ups through the value chain
1.10.Electric "cars" - many very different types
1.10.1.Pure electric cars
1.10.1.Why there will be a tipping point for pure electric cars
1.10.2.Car-like vehicles not homologated as cars
1.10.3.Plug-in vehicle sales
1.11.Market by territory
1.12.Lessons from EV related events
1.13.Effect of 2015 oil price collapse on electric vehicles
2.1.Definitions and scope of this report
2.1.1.Organisations involved in the EV industry value chain
2.1.3.Key components and systems
2.2.Hybrid electric vehicles
2.2.1.Here come range extenders
2.2.2.Structural components
2.3.1.How green are electric vehicles really?
2.3.2.Contrast global automotive production 2012: major polluter
3.1.What is included
3.3.Listing of manufacturers
3.3.1.Statistics for all types of industrial lift truck
3.3.2.Manufacturers of heavy industrial EVs
3.4.Survey of expected powertrains including EV options
3.5.Market size
3.6.Conventional car with 48 V electric torque assist
4.1.What is included
4.1.1.Large and diverse sector
4.1.2.Mainly on-road
4.1.3.Move to cities
4.1.4.Hybrid and pure electric trend
4.1.5.Sub categories
4.2.1.Vans, pick-up trucks and larger on-road trucks
4.3.Market drivers
4.4.Airport EVs: Ground Support Equipment GSE
4.4.1.Airbus signs MoU to develop airliner electric taxi system
4.5.Small people-movers
4.6.Light industrial aids
4.7.Listing of manufacturers
5.1.Compelling and enduring need
5.2.The demographic time-bomb
5.2.1.Ageing population, obesity and the dependent elderly
5.2.2.Laws make mobility easier
5.3.Types of mobility vehicle
5.3.1.Interchina Industry Group China
5.4.Listing of manufacturers
5.4.1.Growth by creating new markets
6.1.What is included
6.1.1.China - unprecedented growth of electric two wheelers
6.1.2.Other countries
6.2.Prices and performances compared
6.2.1.Hybrid motorcycles
6.3.Market drivers
6.3.1.Bicycles and electric bicycles
6.3.2.The big winners in western markets
6.4.Statistics for all bicycles
6.5.Listing of manufacturers
7.1.Many names, common factors
7.2.Car-like vehicles that evade restrictions, taxes and other costs
7.3.Estrima Birò MicroEV Quadricycle removable battery
7.4.Philippines: big new commitments to e trikes
7.5.Listing of manufacturers beyond golf cars
7.6.Golf cars
7.6.1.What is included
7.6.2.Market drivers
7.6.3.Prices and profits
7.6.4.Listing of manufacturers
8.1.The market for electric cars
8.1.2.Cars as part of the big picture
8.1.3.Further details of e-car trends
8.1.4.League table of top 13 electric vehicle companies
8.1.5.Awkward tipping point
8.1.6.Forecasting challenges
8.2.Disruptive change and merging of all parts
8.3.Range extenders including fuel cells
8.5.Electric motors
8.6.Power electronics
8.6.1.Increased performance and complexity
8.7.Supercapacitors: more than meets the eye
8.7.1.Across batteries in cars
8.7.2.Completely replacing batteries in hybrid cars
8.7.3.Across fuel cells in cars
8.8.Progress of Toyota and Tesla
8.8.1.Market and technology priorities
8.8.2.Toyota simplifies priorities and Tesla lands Gigafactory partnership
9.1.Examples of military EVs
9.1.1.Hummer USA / China
9.1.2.Quantum Technologies USA Aggressor AMV
9.1.3.US Army trucks etc - ZAP, Columbia ParCar USA
9.1.4.Oshkosh Truck Corp USA
9.1.5.Electric robot vehicles USA
9.1.6.Autonomous vehicles for the military
9.2.Electric Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs)
9.2.1.Small electrical UAVs
9.2.2.The most successful electric UAV
9.2.3.Micro nano air vehicles
9.2.4.Large electrical UAVs
9.3.Examples of military EVs - in the water
9.3.1.US Naval Undersea Warfare Center
9.4.Manufacturers of military EVs
10.1.1.Hybrid and pure electric tugboats
10.2.Market segments
10.2.1.Total market
10.2.3.On the water
10.3.Market drivers
10.3.1.Pollution laws back electric boats - India, Europe, USA
10.3.2.Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUVs) - Europe, USA
10.4.Manufacturers by country and product
10.5.Selling prices
11.2.Market drivers
11.3.Listing of other manufacturers by country and product
11.4.Market size and trends
11.4.1.Non-military mobile robots - USA, UK, Japan
11.4.2.Research and hobbyist
11.4.3.Electric aircraft for civil use
11.4.4.Robotic lawn mowers
1.1.Forecast assumptions and market drivers by category of hybrid and pure electric EV 2015-2025
1.2.Numbers of electric vehicles, in thousands, sold globally, 2015-2025, by applicational sector
1.3.Ex-factory unit price of EVs, in thousands of US dollars, sold globally, 2015-2025, by applicational sector, rounded
1.4.Ex-factory value of EVs, in billions of US dollars, sold globally, 2015-2025, by applicational sector, rounded
1.5.Numbers of EVs, in thousands, sold globally, 2015-2025 by applicational sector
1.6.Number of hybrid vehicles sold globally (in thousands), this being approximately equal to the number of range extender sets in later years
1.7.Number of hybrid vehicles sold globally (in thousands), this being approximately equal to the number of range extender sets in later years
1.8.Range extender numbers (thousand), unit price (US$) and market value (US$ million) 2015-2025
1.9.Electric motor-generator sets and traction motors alone when they also act as generators market value $ billion paid by vehicle manufacturer 2014-2025
1.10.EV profitability by sector
1.11.Top 13 manufacturers of electric vehicles in 2014 showing rounded gross sales value of EVs ex factory by segment, % market share and trend of position. For 2013, first division in red, second division in blue and third division in
1.12.Approximate number of manufacturers of electric vehicles worldwide in 2014 by application with numbers for China
1.13.Main market drivers
1.14.Monthly US electric vehicle sales for January to October2013 according to trade association EDTA
1.15.The value of the electric vehicle market by territory East Asia, Europe, North America, Other 2015 and 2025 percentage
1.16.NEV output in China for 2011 and 2012 including exports
2.1.143 manufacturers and putative manufacturers of lithium-based rechargeable batteries with country, cathode and anode chemistry, electrolyte morphology, case type, applicational priorities and customer relationships, if any, in sel
2.2.Energy, number of riders and energy per 100 kilometers per person for different on-road travel options
2.3.Global automotive production by country 2013
3.1.27 examples of manufacturers of heavy industrial EVs by country
3.2.Percentage split of global manufacture of heavy industrial trucks
3.3.Conventional car with 48 V electric torque assist as a new powertrain option shown yellow in powertrain options
4.1.150 manufacturers of light industrial and commercial EVs and drive trains by country and examples of their products
5.1.Statistics relevant to the challenge to society caused by ageing population
5.2.Features of mobility vehicles that may hold up the price by offering more in future
5.3.The percentage distribution of manufacture between Taiwan and Mainland China by value of vehicles for the disabled 2005, 2010 and 2015
5.4.83 examples of manufacturers of EVs for the disabled by country
6.1.Prices and performance of electric two wheelers
6.2.105 examples of manufacturers of electric motorcycles, two wheel EVs and electric quad bikes
6.3.Largest suppliers of electric bicycles by number (not in order)
6.4.34 sources of two wheelers in China by brand, region and battery chemistry
6.5.Listing of light electric scooter makers in China. Most use lead-acid battery chemistry but there is a move to lithium-ion batteries
7.1.85 examples of car and microEV manufacturers beyond golf car, by country
7.2.19 examples of golf EV manufacturers
8.1.The top electric vehicles manufacturers by ex factory gross sales value taken from the IDTechEx Electric Vehicle Market Portal (figures in US$ billion 2014)
8.2.Battery collaborations of selected companies
8.3.Examples of traditional limitations and market trends by type of basic design of traction motor Those used mainly on large vehicles but are also seen in cars shown in green. Those on smaller vehicles and high performance vehicles
9.1.Data for RQ-11A version of AeroVironment Raven
9.2.27 suppliers of military EVs
10.1.44 examples of manufacturers of EV electric water craft
10.2.Leading manufacturers of remotely operated and autonomous underwater vehicles for sale
10.3.Indicative prices for marine EVs in 2013
11.1.36 examples of manufacturers of mobile robots, toy, leisure, research or hobbyist EVs by country and product
1.1.Numbers of EVs, in thousands, sold globally, 2015-2025, by applicational sector
1.2.Ex-factory unit price of EVs, in thousands of US dollars, sold globally, 2015-2025, by applicational sector, rounded
1.3.Ex-factory value of EVs, in billions of US dollars, sold globally, 2015-2025 by applicational sector, rounded
1.4.Ex-factory value of EVs, in 2015, percentage by applicational sector
1.5.Ex-factory value of EVs, in 2025, percentage by applicational sector
1.6.Range extender numbers (thousand) 2015-2025
1.7.Range extender unit price (US$) 2015-2025
1.8.Range extender market value (US$ million) 2015-2025
1.9.Electric motor-generator sets and traction motors alone when they also act as generators market value $ billion paid by vehicle manufacturer 2014-2025
1.10.Basic schematic of pure EV power train
1.11.Size of vehicle, broadly indicated by price and battery kWh, related to when up-front cost becomes competitive with a conventional version
1.12.SMEs have more opportunity
1.13.The various types of car, the precise definitions, regulations and user preferences varying greatly between countries
1.14.kWh per passenger for conventional or electric on-road vehicles related to type of vehicle and showing cars to be uniquely inefficient
1.15.The Daimler Smart, left, is a mainstream car subject to tax, insurance, crash tests etc whereas the G-Whiz from India, right, is registered as a quadricycle and was the best-selling pure electric car in the UK for ten years with s
1.16.Renault Twizy quadricycle which is selling over ten thousand within two years from launch. The standard model has no windows
1.17.Chinese micro-EV cars in China. Most of them have three wheels
1.18.Cumulative and monthly plug-in on-road vehicle sales in the USA through 2013 according to trade association EDTA
1.19.The tiny sales of pure electric on-road vehicle sales in Europe showing carrier goods EVs/ light industrial and commercial vehicles outselling pure electric passenger EVs, according to trade association AVERE
1.20.Adoption of different car power trains past and present
1.21.Distribution of electric vehicles in circulation according to model to end of 2012
1.22.Number of electric 4-wheelers in Europe
1.23.Number of electric 2-wheelers in Europe
1.24.Unit sales in China 2008-2012: total autos, total passenger cars and buses and BEV and HEV/PHEV
1.25.Monthly new PHEV and AEV sales by model to August 2014
1.26.Yearly new HEV sales by model to August 2014
1.27.Electric Drive Vehicle Share of new vehicle sales to August 2014
1.28.Monthly new EDV sales and gasoline prices to December 2014
1.29.Brammo high performance motorbike
1.30.Apple-like innovation for the disabled- Omnichair
1.31.Mining vehicles for open mines (over 90% of all mines) will no longer have 2-3 MW diesel mega-trucks climbing the sides but electric mega-trucks at top and bottom
1.32.New vehicles with asynchronous traction motors
1.33.Electric cars are mainly series parallel hybrid today with two motors but otherwise very different, this Mitsubishi being very different in all other respects from market leader the Toyota Prius
1.34.Work on using pure electric and plug in hybrid small vehicles as farming power supplies
1.35.GaN inverter and components for EVs exhibited in Osaka Japan by GaN Systems of Canada September2014
1.36.BMW i8 hybrid car with three-cylinder range extender and gull wing doors launched 2013, deliveries 2015
1.37.The dream of photovoltaics in fields and Building Integrated Photovoltaics BIPV powering EVs
2.1.Electric vehicle value chain
2.2.Energy per 100 kilometers per person for different on-road travel options
2.3.Carbon Intensity CO2 kg/kWh and % Fossil fuel in power sector
2.4.LCA greenhouse emissions of a compact car with different drive trains
2.5.Carbon emissions, in grams CO2 per km, of a selection of cars for sale in the UK
3.1.Caterpillar CAT series hybrid diesel electric bulldozer
3.2.Mitsubishi diesel electric hybrid lifter
3.3.Top 20 industrial lift truck suppliers in 2013
3.4.Lift truck market demand in 2013
3.5.World industrial truck statistics/orders and shipments
3.6.Survey of expected powertrains
4.1.Increase in urban delivery 2010-2025
4.2.Electric bus in Nepal
4.3.Mobile electric scissor lift by Wuhan Chancay Machinery and Electronics
4.4.Garbage collecting electric car
5.1.Percentage of dependent elderly 1970 to 2040
5.2.New Pihsiang Shoprider pure electric mobility vehicle for the disabled
5.3.The Electric Car (INEC-KARO) for the disabled from Interchina Industry Group
6.1.Gasoline two wheelers G2W and electric two wheelers E2W sales compared to passenger vehicles 1991-2006 in China
6.2.Suzuki Burgman Fuel Cell Scooter powered by Intelligent Energy
6.3.e-bikes parked in Yangzhou China
6.4.Electric mopeds parked in Cheghdu China
6.5.World bicycle and automoblie production, 1950-2007
7.1.IMAs "Colibri" Micro EV presented at the Geneva Motorshow
7.2.Car-like vehicles not homologated as cars, in the context of two wheelers and Europe. Love them or hate them?
7.3.The Daimler Smart, left, is a mainstream car subject to tax, insurance, crash tests etc whereas the G-Whiz from India, right, is registered as a quadricycle and was the best-selling pure electric car in the UK for ten years with s
7.4.Renault Twizy quadricycle which is selling over ten thousand within two years from launch. The standard model has no windows
7.5.Chinese micro-EV cars in China. Most of them have three wheels
7.6.Estrima Birò microEV and battery removal
8.1.Homologated on-road electric cars at the awkward tipping point between pure electric and hybrid vehicles of other types
8.2.Primary electric traction motor criteria by type of hybrid or pure electric vehicle showing cars needing to be "all things to all men".
8.3.Technology: everything will change disruptively
8.4.Load-bearing supercapacitors as structural components. Top left: Volvo experimental car trunk lid that is a supercapacitor. Top right: Partner Imperial College London's supercapacitor textile being developed for load bearing compo
8.5.Example of integrated components coming in
8.6.Examples of 2015 hybrid cars
8.7.Mazda pure electric car in production with supercapacitor across battery (vertical device by nearside front wheel)
8.8.Toyota supercapacitor-only concept car and precedents
9.1.Oshkosh truck
9.2.Grizzly robot electric vehicle for the military
9.3.SPI electrical SUAV
9.4.AeroVironment Raven
9.5.AeroVironment Aqua Puma UAV completes Royal Australian Navy Sea trials in 2007
9.6.Aurora Flight Sciences solar plane that takes off in parts and self-assembles at altitude
9.7.Large autonomous robot jellyfish
10.1.Hybrid tugboat
10.2.Engine room of the hybrid tugboat
10.3.Bratt electric tugboat
10.4.Electric deck boat by Leisure Life
10.5.Electric launch
10.6.Solar powered boats for tourism cruising at 12 kph on Lake Geneva
11.1.The Dyson robot vacuum cleaner

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Report Statistics

-Forecasts to2025
-Last updateFeb 2015


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