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Hybrid and Electric Vehicles for Land, Water and Air 2012-2022: Forecasts, Technologies, Players

Cars, buses, two wheelers, industrial, commercial, mobility for disabled, military, marine, mircraft, other

"The 35 million EVs sold in 2012 will rise 3.6 times to nearly 129 million in 2022"
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Description

Electric Vehicles - Seeing the Big Picture
The burgeoning electric vehicle EV industry cannot be understood by simply looking at cars. Indeed, in the last year, only the electric car sector of EVs has lost a year due to the Japanese tsunami and badly delayed model launches and it has been particularly sensitive to troubled economies as well. IDTechEx has adjusted its forecasts accordingly and now sees cars as less than half the EV business by value for the coming decade.
The EV leaders such as Toyota, Honda and Nissan make electric vehicles for many applicational sectors. Indeed, many of them also control the manufacture of the component that most affects price and performance - the battery - and many make the electric motors and other key components. This is therefore a curious industry where component manufacturers often compete with their customers and customer-supplier joint ventures are commonplace. For example, Nissan has a major program to put next generation lithium batteries from its battery joint venture into its forklifts as well as its cars. Toyota makes heavy and light industrial EVs from forklifts to buses and mobility for the disabled, not just electric cars, and the knowledge in these different divisions is shared between them all. Much is written about hybrid cars but there are substantial sales of hybrid military trucks, buses, boats now plus hybrid aircraft, airships and even motorcycles coming along. Meanwhile there are many varieties of pure electric on-road, off-road, on water, underwater and air vehicles with similar technology and challenges.
IDTechEx has substantially rewritten its annual Electric Vehicles report for 2012. It is based on ten years of researching the subject, intensive desk research, visits and interviews. There are chapters on Heavy Industrial, Light Industrial and Commercial, Mobility for the Disabled, Two Wheelers, Golf Cars, on-road Cars, Military, Marine and Other vehicles. That even extends to electric mobile robots, surveillance jellyfish and other Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUVs), bats and electric aircraft. After all, they can all be a target for component and system suppliers and, increasingly, the vehicle manufacturers themselves are diversifying horizontally. Detailed forecasts for these vehicle categories by numbers and value and the key components are provided for 2012-2022, with total market value. The trends, technology and planned vehicles are clarified in 146 figures and 52 tables including the historical context. Winning and losing strategies are evaluated. Timelines are given of events to come.
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Table of Contents
1.EXECUTIVE SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS
1.1.The whole picture
1.1.1.Synergies
1.1.2.What is excluded?
1.2.Largest sectors
1.3.Numbers of manufacturers
1.4.Goodbye to the 100 mile range of affordable pure electric vehicles
1.5.Heavy industrial sector
1.6.Buses
1.7.The light industrial and commercial sector
1.8.Two wheel and allied vehicles
1.9.Cars
1.10.Golf
1.11.Military
1.12.Marine
1.13.Other
1.14.Market for EV components
1.15.Timelines
2.INTRODUCTION
2.1.Definitions and scope of this report
2.1.1.Learning from the past
2.1.2.The EV value chain
2.1.3.Key components
2.2.Pure electric vehicles
2.3.Hybrid electric vehicles
2.3.1.Largest sector by value
2.3.2.Here come range extenders
2.3.3.Second or third generation?
2.3.4.Second generation success
2.3.5.Third generation range extenders in the marketplace
2.3.6.Hybrids at no price penalty
2.4.Born electric - In-Wheel Electric Motors
2.5.Born Electric - Smart skin
2.6.Objectives
2.7.Benefits
2.8.Range extenders fuel cell, mini turbine
3.HEAVY INDUSTRIAL EVS
3.1.What is included
3.2.Future opportunities Caterpillar USA, JC Bamford UK
3.3.Nissan and Mitsubishi electric forklifts Japan
3.4.New Toyota forklifts Japan
3.5.Zheijang Goodsense Forklift China
3.6.Linde Germany, Komatsu Japan
3.7.Listing of manufacturers
3.8.Market size
3.9.Market forecasts 2012-2022
4.LIGHT INDUSTRIAL AND COMMERCIAL EVS
4.1.What is included
4.1.1.Sub categories
4.1.2.Buses
4.1.3.Trucks
4.1.4.Odyne hybrid truck propulsion
4.1.5.Balqon Pure Electric Trucks and Bus Drive
4.2.Market drivers
4.2.1.Governments get involved
4.3.Important initiatives
4.3.1.Paccar with Eaton
4.3.2.Peugeot Citroën and Mitsubishi Motors
4.3.3.Freightliner, Enova Daimler and Wal-Mart USA
4.3.4.EVI and Valence USA
4.3.5.China Vehicles Company
4.3.6.Nano-Optonics Energy Inc Japan - Commercial vehicles and cars
4.3.7.Azure Dynamics
4.4.EVs for local services
4.5.Airport EVs
4.6.Small people-movers
4.7.Light industrial aids
4.8.Heavy duty on-road trucks will now become hybrids
4.9.Listing of manufacturers
4.10.Market forecasts 2012-2022
5.MOBILITY FOR THE DISABLED
5.1.The sector with the most compelling and enduring need
5.2.The demographic time-bomb
5.2.1.Ageing population and the dependent elderly
5.2.2.Laws make mobility easier
5.3.Types of mobility vehicle
5.3.1.Growth by new market segments
5.3.2.Interchina Industry Group China
5.4.Market drivers
5.4.1.Geographical distribution
5.4.2.Needs creating new segments
5.4.3.What is driving regional differences?
5.4.4.Zhejiang R&P Industry China
5.4.5.Pride Mobility, USA
5.5.Listing of manufacturers
5.6.Market forecasts 2012-2022
5.6.1.Growth by creating new markets
6.TWO WHEELED EVS AND ALLIED VEHICLES
6.1.What is included
6.1.1.Copenhagen bicycle USA, Italy
6.1.2.Improved motors
6.2.Prices and performances compared
6.3.Electric two wheeler companies
6.3.1.Yamaha Japan
6.3.2.Eko Vehicles hybrid scooters India
6.3.3.Interchina Industry Group foldable electric bike China
6.3.4.Honda Japan
6.3.5.Suzuki fuel cell bike Japan
6.3.6.Peugeot E-Vivacity scooter France
6.3.7.Cytronex lightweight bicycle USA
6.3.8.Daymak Canada
6.4.Market drivers
6.4.1.Bicycles and electric bicycles
6.4.2.Hybrid motorcycles
6.4.3.YikeBike and other exotica - New Zealand, USA
6.5.Listing of manufacturers
6.5.2.China
6.6.Market forecasts 2012-2022
7.GOLF EVS
7.1.What is included
7.2.Market drivers
7.2.1.Golf course creation
7.2.2.Secondary market - golf cars not used for golf
7.2.3.No more growth
7.2.4.Change of leader? Ingersoll Rand and Textron USA
7.2.5.Suzhou Eagle and many others in China
7.3.Listing of manufacturers
7.4.Market forecasts 2012-2022
7.4.2.Statistics for all bicycles
8.CARS
8.1.Adoption of electric cars
8.2.US and Europe try to catch up
8.3.Rapid increase in number of manufacturers
8.4.Providing charging infrastructure
8.4.1.Recharging points
8.4.2.Battery changing points
8.4.3.Can the grid cope?
8.5.Market 2012-2022
9.PURE ELECTRIC CARS
9.1.Déjà Vu
9.1.2.Pure electric cars are a necessary part of the range?
9.2.Examples of pure EV cars
9.2.1.Nissan Japan - most ambitious of all?
9.2.2.Here come the Chinese - BYD, Brilliance, Geely, Chengfang
9.2.3.Jianghsu China
9.2.4.Interchina Industry Group China
9.2.5.High performance pure EVs - Tesla USA
9.2.6.Pininfarina Bolloré Bluecar France, Italy
9.2.7.Rinspeed UC Switzerland
9.2.8.REVA India
9.2.9.Club Car USA
9.2.10.Toyota Japan
9.2.11.Detroit Electric USA
9.2.12.Tara Tiny India
9.2.13.Kleenspeed Technologies goes mainstream
9.2.14.Mitsubishi Japan
10.HYBRID CARS
10.1.Construction and advantages of hybrids
10.2.Evolution
10.3.Chevrolet Volt USA
10.4.Ford plug-in hybrid USA
10.5.Bright Automotive SUV
10.6.Market drivers
10.6.1.Leading indicators
10.7.History of hybrids and planned models to 2013
11.MILITARY
11.1.Examples of military EVs
11.1.1.Hummer USA / China
11.1.2.Quantum Technologies USA Aggressor AMV
11.1.3.US Army trucks etc - ZAP, Columbia ParCar USA
11.1.4.Oshkosh Truck Corp USA
11.1.5.Plug-in trucks - BAE Systems UK
11.1.6.Electric robot vehicles USA
11.1.7.UQM unmanned combat vehicle USA
11.1.8.Balqon Corporation
11.2.Electric Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs)
11.2.1.Small electrical UAVs
11.2.2.SUAV batteries
11.2.3.The most successful electric UAV
11.2.4.Micro nano air vehicles
11.2.5.Large electrical UAVs
11.2.6.DARPA insects USA
11.2.7.COM-BAT robot bat USA
11.3.Examples of military EVs - in the water
11.3.1.Robot jellyfish USA and Germany
11.4.Manufacturers of military EVs
11.5.Market forecasts 2012-2022
12.MARINE
12.1.1.Hybrid and pure electric tugboats
12.2.Market segments
12.2.1.Total market
12.2.2.Underwater
12.2.3.On the water
12.3.Commonality with land EVs
12.3.1.Grants for land and water
12.3.2.Effect of land EV manufacturers entering marine
12.4.Market drivers
12.4.2.Pollution laws back electric boats - India, Europe, USA
12.4.3.Energy harvesting superyacht UK
12.4.4.Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUVs) - Europe, USA
12.5.Wave and sun powered sea gliders - Liquid Robotics USA
12.5.2.Other AUV gliders USA
12.6.Remote control rescue - Scorpio UK
12.7.AUVs serving underwater research stations and ocean monitoring USA
12.8.AUV swimmers USA
12.9.Swimmer AUVs, Florida Atlantic University USA
12.10.Mine Destruction AUV UK
12.11.Leisure and tourist submarines USA
12.12.Manufacturers by country and product
12.13.Selling prices
12.13.1.US Submarines Inc USA
12.13.2.Private submarines UK, Canada
12.14.Market forecasts 2012-2022
12.14.1.Surface and subsurface boat markets
13.OTHER EVS
13.1.Definition
13.2.Market drivers
13.3.Listing of manufacturers by country and product
13.4.Market size and trends
13.4.1.Aircraft - Renault, Piccard
13.4.2.Solar Impulse
13.4.3.Non-military mobile robots - USA, UK, Japan
13.4.4.The Electrolux Automower Sweden
13.4.5.Rescue robots in Germany
13.4.6.Robots on Mars
13.4.7.Leisure
13.4.8.Research and hobbyist
13.5.Market forecasts 2012-2022
14.WHAT LEVEL OF RECHARGING INFRASTRUCTURE IS NEEDED?
APPENDIX 1: GLOSSARY
APPENDIX 2: IDTECHEX PUBLICATIONS AND CONSULTANCY
TABLES
1.1.Main market drivers 2011-2021
1.2.Numbers of EVs, in thousands, sold globally, 2012-2022, by applicational sector
1.3.Ex factory unit price of EVs, in thousands of US dollars, sold globally, 2012-2022, by applicational sector, rounded
1.4.Ex factory value of EVs, in billions of US dollars, sold globally, 2012-2022, by applicational sector, rounded
1.5.Approximate number of manufacturers of electric vehicles worldwide in 2010 by application with numbers for China
1.6.Global electric car sales in thousands for 2011 and 2012 by manufacturer including neighbourhood electric vehicles NEV but not golf cars.
1.7.Global sales of heavy industrial EVs by numbers, ex factory unit price and total value 2012-2022, rounded
1.8.Global sales of buses, ex factory unit price and total value 2012-2022, rounded
1.9.Global sales of light industrial and commercial EVs by numbers thousands, ex factory unit price in thousands of dollars and total value in billions of dollars 2012-2022, rounded.
1.10.Global sales of EVs used as mobility aids for the disabled by number, ex factory unit price in thousands of dollars and total value in billions of dollars, 2012-2022, rounded
1.11.Global sales of two wheel and allied EVs number, ex factory unit price in thousands of dollars and total value in billions of dollars 2012-2022, rounded.
1.12.Global sales of electric cars number thousands, ex factory unit price in thousands of dollars and total value in billions of dollars 2012-2022, rounded.
1.13.Value of the hybrid, pure electric and total electric car market in billions of dollars 2010-2020
1.14.Number of hybrid and pure electric cars plugged in and the total number in thousands 2011-2021
1.15.Global sales of electric golf cars in number thousands, ex factory unit price in thousands of dollars and total value in billions of dollars 2012-2022, rounded
1.16.Global sales of electric military vehicles in number thousands, ex factory unit price in thousands of dollars and total value in billions of dollars 2012-2022, rounded.
1.17.Global sales of electric marine craft in number thousands, ex factory unit price in thousands of dollars and total value in billions of dollars 2012-2022, rounded.
1.18.Global sales of other electric vehicles (including civil aircraft and robot) in number thousands, ex factory unit price in thousands of dollars and total value in billions of dollars 2012-2022, rounded
1.19.Components and subsystems fitted in new electric vehicles 2010-2020 in thousands
1.20.Highlights 2010-2020
2.1.Energy, number of riders and energy per 100 kilometers per person for different on-road travel options.
2.2.Some reasons why ICE vehicles are replaced with EVs
3.1.Twenty examples of manufacturers of heavy industrial EVs by country
3.2.Percentage split of global manufacture of heavy industrial trucks
3.3.Distribution of trade volume for heavy industrial EVs
3.4.Global league table of powered industrial truck manufacturers 2010 by value of sales
3.5.Global sales of heavy industrial EVs by numbers, ex factory unit price and total value 2012-2022, rounded
3.6.Sales of heavy electric vehicles by region by percentage of units
4.1.150 manufacturers of light industrial and commercial EVs and drive trains by country and examples of their products
4.2.Global sales of light industrial and commercial EVs by numbers thousands, ex factory unit price in thousands of dollars and total value in billions of dollars 2012-2022, rounded
4.3.Breakdown of global market in 2010 for light industrial and commercial vehicles - global park, new vehicles, % electric, number electric, ex factory unit price and value for the subsections Full Size Buses, Other On Road, Airport
4.4.Sales of light electric/ commercial vehicles by region 2005, 2010, 2015, 2020 by percentage of units
5.1.Statistics relevant to the challenge to society caused by ageing population
5.2.Evolution of three families of powered vehicles for the disabled
5.3.Evolution of power chairs 1980 to 2010
5.4.Evolution of scooters for the disabled 1980 to 2010
5.5.The continental percentage split of markets for vehicles for the disabled by value in 2010
5.6.The percentage split of market for vehicles for the disabled by country within Europe
5.7.The numbers in thousands of scooters plus power chairs that were and will be sold in Europe 2005 to 2015
5.8.Features of mobility vehicles that may hold up the price by offering more in future
5.9.The percentage distribution of manufacture between Taiwan and Mainland China by value of vehicles for the disabled 2005, 2010 and 2015
5.10.Market for EVs for the disabled by geographical region, ex works pricing and percentage split in 2005, 2010 and 2020
5.11.82 examples of manufacturers of EVs for the disabled by country
5.12.Global sales of EVs used as mobility aids for the disabled by number, ex factory unit price in thousands of dollars and total value in billions of dollars, 2012-2022, rounded
6.1.Prices and performance of electric two wheelers
6.2.70 examples of manufacturers of two wheel EVs and electric quad bikes
6.3.Largest suppliers of electric bicycles by number (not in order)
6.4.34 sources of two wheelers in China by brand, region and battery chemistry
6.5.Listing of light electric scooter makers in China. Most use lead-acid battery chemistry but there is a move to lithium-ion batteries
6.6.Global sales of two wheel and allied EVs number, ex factory unit price in thousands of dollars and total value in billions of dollars 2012-2022, rounded
6.7.Sales of Light Electric Vehicles LEVs (two wheelers and allied eg electric quad bikes and on road three wheel micro cars) by region by percentage of units.
7.1.18 examples of golf EV manufacturers
7.2.Global sales of electric golf cars in number thousands, ex factory unit price in thousands of dollars and total value in billions of dollars 2012-2022, rounded
7.3.Geographical split of golf EV sales by value 2010, 2015 and 2020
8.1.Global stimulus for fuel efficient cars in 2009
8.2.121 examples of manufacturers of EV cars
8.3.Global sales of electric cars number thousands, ex factory unit price in thousands of dollars and total value in billions of dollars 2012-2022, rounded
8.4.Value of the hybrid, pure electric and total electric car market in billions of dollars 2010-2020
8.5.Number of hybrid and pure electric cars plugged in and the total number in thousands 2010-2020.
10.1.Major market drivers for growth in hybrid sales
10.2.Hybrid electric vehicles and associated events 1876-2013
11.1.Data for RQ-11A version of AeroVironment Raven
11.2.26 suppliers of military EVs
11.3.Global sales of electric military vehicles in number thousands, ex factory unit price in thousands of dollars and total value in billions of dollars 2012-2022, rounded
11.4.Military electric vehicle sales by region 2005, 2010, 2015 and 2020 in percentage units
12.1.44 examples of manufacturers of EV electric water craft
12.2.Leading manufacturers of remotely operated and autonomous underwater vehicles for sale
12.3.Indicative prices for marine EVs in 2010
12.4.Global sales of electric marine craft in number thousands, ex factory unit price in thousands of dollars and total value in billions of dollars 2012-2022, rounded
13.1.30 examples of manufacturers of mobile robots, toy, leisure, research or hobbyist EVs by country and product
13.2.Global sales of other electric vehicles (including civil aircraft and robot) in number thousands, ex factory unit price in thousands of dollars and total value in billions of dollars 2012-2021, rounded
14.1.Number of gas stations ("service stations") by region in 2010
FIGURES
1.1.Electric vehicle upfront cost vs their traction battery energy storage
1.2.Numbers of EVs, in thousands, sold globally, 2012-2022, by applicational sector
1.3.Ex factory unit price of EVs, in thousands of US dollars, sold globally, 2012-2022, by applicational sector, rounded
1.4.Ex factory value of EVs, in billions of US dollars, sold globally, 2012-2022, by applicational sector, rounded
1.5.Approximate number of manufacturers of electric vehicles worldwide by application in 2010
1.6.Number of manufacturers of electric vehicles in China by application in 2010
1.7.Energy per 100 kilometers per person for different on-road travel options.
1.8.The Mission Motors Mission One 150 mph, 150 mile range electric motorcycle
1.9.Possible evolution of affordable, mainstream electric cars and other electric vehicles
2.1.EV sectors with the largest gross sales value and profits over the years
2.2.Electric vehicle value chain
2.3.Increasing inefficiency of private vehicles with size, even when fully occupied
2.4.Increasing efficiency of buses with size when fully occupied
2.5.Energy per 100 kilometers per person for different on-road travel options
2.6.The Bladon Jets microturbine range extender is the size of two cans of beans
2.7.Planned Jaguar supercar with microturbine range extenders
2.8.Boeing fuel cell plane trial
2.9.Principle of a PEM fuel cell
2.10.Toyota hybrid fork lift for heavy outdoor duty
2.11.Tyrano Big Rig
2.12.Ford MKZ Hybrid
2.13.The Lohner-Porsche electric vehicle of 1898 showing its two in-wheel electric motors. Another version had four
2.14.Mitsubishi in-wheel motor
2.15.Mine resistant ambush protected - All Terrain Vehicle MATV
2.16.MATV structure
2.17.Volvo ReCharge concept hybrid
2.18.Fraunhofer in-wheel motor on an Artega GT
2.19.SIM Drive in wheel traction
2.20.EMRAX 222 Duplex Motor
2.21.The dream of smart skin for land, sea and air vehicles.
2.22.Competing electric drive train technologies and their targets by market sector
2.23.Proton Electron Membrane
2.24.Toyota hybrid outdoor forklift
3.1.Caterpillar CAT series hybrid diesel electric bulldozer
3.2.Nissan lithium forklift
3.3.Mitsubishi diesel electric hybrid lifter
3.4.Toyota Material Handling has launched the new Traigo 48 in 2010, a powerful electric forklift fitted into a compact and agile package
3.5.Forklift from one of the many Chinese manufacturers
4.1.Orion VII hybrid electric bus USA
4.2.Nova RTS hybrid electric bus USA
4.3.Gillig low floor hybrid bus in USA
4.4.Two buses in Brazil using the locally made Eletra hybrid power trains
4.5.Kent electric city bus from China
4.6.Hino Blue Ribbon hybrid diesel electric bus in China
4.7.Lightning Motorcycle's Balqon-equipped superbike
4.8.Citroën Berlingo electric light commercial vehicle
4.9.Freightliner MT-45 step van uses 120kW Enova electric drive system
4.10.EVI truck powered by Valence lithium-ion batteries
4.11.Electric pick up truck from China Vehicles Company
4.12.SIM Drive car concept
4.13.SIM Drive in wheel traction
4.14.Electric bus in Nepal
4.15.Mobile electric scissor lift by Wuhan Chancay Machinery and Electronics
4.16.Garbage collecting electric car
4.17.Market for light industrial and commercial electric vehicles in 2010 in $ billion
4.18.Market for industrial and commercial electric vehicles in 2020
5.1.Percentage of dependent elderly 1970 to 2040
5.2.New Pihsiang Shoprider pure electric mobility vehicle for the disabled
5.3.The Electric Car (INEC-KARO) for the disabled from Interchina Industry Group
5.4.Zhejiang R&P Industry ES 413
5.5.Pride Jazzy - making new things possible
6.1.The Copenhagen bicycle
6.2.The Copenhagen Wheel
6.3.Yamaha EC-f and EC-fs concept electric scooters
6.4.Yamaha EC03
6.5.Eko Vehicles ET-120 hybrid scooter
6.6.Foldable Electric Bike (LNEB-9601
6.7.Honda EV Cub sports twin, front and rear electric drive motors.
6.8.Suzuki Burgman Fuel Cell Scooter powered by Intelligent Energy
6.9.Peugeot E-Vivacity electric scooter planned for 2010
6.10.Cytronex light-weight electric bike
6.11.Shadow eBike is powered by Daymak Drive
6.12.e-bikes parked in Yangzhou China
6.13.Electric mopeds parked in Cheghdu China
6.14.The YikeBike from New Zealand
6.15.YikeBike in action
7.1.Tonaro golf and general purpose vehicle from China
7.2.Suzhou Eagle two and four seat golf cars from China
7.3.Yongkang Fourstar golf vehicles from China
7.4.Shadong Wuzheng golf cars from China
7.5.Jinhua Ryder golf car from China
7.6.World bicycle and automoblie production, 1950-2007
8.1.Geographical distribution of 120 companies making or intending to make electric cars
9.1.Trouvé pure EV car in 1881
9.2.Red Bug pure EV in 1930
9.3.Sinclair C5
9.4.Aptera
9.5.Gemcars
9.6.The BYD E6 pure EV car
9.7.Jianghsu DHCLBC EF-1 car
9.8.Electric Car (INEC-BOBI)
9.9.Tesla Motors Roadster pure EV performance car
9.10.Pininfarina Bolloré Bluecar showing solar panels on roof and hood
9.11.Pininfarina Bolloré Bluecar cross section
9.12.Rinspeed urban commuter electric microcar
9.13.REVA pure EV car
9.14.The Club Car street legal car launched in 2009
9.15.Planned Toyota pure EV city car.
9.16.Detroit Electric
9.17.Tara Tiny
9.18.Mitsubishi pure EV car
10.1.Evolution of EV design for on-road and many non-road vehicles
10.2.Chevrolet Volt battery, generator and drive unit positioning
11.1.Oshkosh truck
11.2.Balqon Mule M150
11.3.SPI electrical SUAV
11.4.Examples of SUAV rechargeable lithium batteries. Top: Flight Power "EVO 20" Lithium Polymer battery. Bottom: Sion Power lithium sulfur
11.5.Rotomotion VTOL electrical UAV incorporating video camera, telemetry, auto takeoff and landing
11.6.Electric UAV, part of the British Antarctic Survey, over Antarctica
11.7.FlyingFish electrical UAV
11.8.AeroVironment Raven
11.9.AeroVironment Aqua Puma UAV completes Royal Australian Navy Sea trials in 2007
11.10.AeroVironment Helios
11.11.Aurora Flight Sciences solar plane
11.12.COM-BAT
11.13.Robotic Bat
11.14.AquaJelly
11.15.AirJelly
12.1.Hybrid tugboat
12.2.Engine room of the hybrid tugboat
12.3.Workmen weld on the bottom of a tug boat behind the Z-drive
12.4.Bratt electric tugboat
12.5.Electric deck boat by Leisure Life
12.6.Electric launch
12.7.Solar powered boats for tourism cruising at 12 kph on Lake Geneva
12.8.The rigid-wing superyacht concept called 'Soliloquy'
12.9.Head on view of the rigid-wing superyacht 'Soliloquy'
12.10.Wave and sun powered sea glider
12.11.Autonomous wave glider
12.12.The British Scorpio remote controlled rescue vehicle that released the trapped Russian submarine in August 2005
12.13.The Ocean Explorer AUV
12.14.Ocean Voyager II AUV
12.15.A British Remote Controlled Mine Destruction Vehicle being lowered into the water
12.16.Personal submarine
12.17.Wet submarine
12.18.Two-person SportSub submarine
12.19.Triton personal submarine
12.20.Deep Flight Aviator two-person leisure submarine
12.21.Seattle personal luxury submarine by US Submarines
12.22.US Submarine's main tourist submarine
12.23.Sea Scooter by Pro Audio Elite of Italy
12.24.Small electric boats for hire
13.1."Zep'lin"s
13.2."Zep'lin" photovoltaic sail adjustment
13.3.Solar Impulse
13.4.The new Electrolux Automower
13.5.Robots for Mars
13.6.Mission Scenario To Aid Technology Development
13.7.Robot Work Crew

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