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Energy Harvesting and Storage for Electronic Devices 2014-2024: Forecasts, Technologies, Players

Updated Q1 2014
"The total market for energy harvesting devices will rise to $2.6 billion in 2024"
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Description

Energy harvesting is the process by which ambient energy is captured and converted into electricity for small autonomous devices, such as satellites, laptops and nodes in sensor networks making them self-sufficient. Although energy harvesting applications reach from vehicles to the smart grid, the majority of the value this year is in consumer electronic applications, where energy harvesters have been used for some time.
 
Energy harvesting, otherwise known as power harvesting or energy scavenging includes photovoltaics, thermovoltaics, piezoelectrics and electrodynamics, among other options, which are now being used in a wide variety of applications. The technology has reached a tipping point, because the necessary lower power electronics and more efficient energy gathering and storage are now sufficiently affordable, reliable and longer lived for a huge number of applications to be practicable.
 
From wind-up laptops for Africa, wireless light switches working from the power of your finger and wireless sensors in oil fields monitoring equipment power by vibration - these are all in use now with many more applications emerging.
Market segments using Energy Harvesting
This report covers the following market segments with detailed ten year forecasts of each:
  • Wristwatches
  • Bicycle dynamo
  • Laptops, e-books
  • Mobile phones
  • Other portable consumer electronics - Calculators, toys, piezo gas lighters, electronic car keys, electronic apparel etc
  • Wireless sensor mesh networks
  • Other Industrial -Mainly buildings, machinery, engines, non-meshed wireless sensors and actuators
  • Military and aerospace excluding WSN
  • Healthcare - Implants, disposable testers and drug delivery etc
  • Other - Research, animals, farming etc
Energy harvesting by technology type
This year, most of the harvesters used in the above market segments are solar cells followed by electrodynamos, two relatively mature energy harvesting technologies. However, many new technologies are now taking some market share enabling power in areas not possible before. This includes thermoelectrics - generating power from heat - where organisations such as the Department of Energy in the US are working with BMW and GM to turn heat waste from engines and exhaust into power for the vehicle's electrical systems. NASA use thermoelectrics to power Mars rovers where they work without light, unlike solar cells. Piezoelectric energy harvesters are also of great interest due to their small form factor and high efficiency. In 2022, these four energy harvester types will have near similar market share for industrial sensing applications. However, even by then solar will continue to dominate for consumer applications.
 
For the first time, this unique report looks at the global situation. It covers the progress of more than 350 organizations in 22 countries and gives detailed case studies. Market forecasts are provided for everything from self-sufficient wristwatches to mobile phones that will never need a charger and light switches and controls that have no wiring and no batteries when fitted in buildings to wireless sensors power from the environment they are placed in.
 
However, there are further mountains to climb in order to achieve self-powered wireless sensors monitoring forest fires, pollution spillages and even inside the human body and in the concrete of buildings. These applications will become commonplace one day. Even devices with maintenance-free life of hundreds of years can now be envisaged. Meanwhile, bionic man containing maintenance free, self-powered devices for his lifetime is an objective for the next few years. IDTechEx find that the total market for energy harvesting devices, including everything from wristwatches to wireless sensors will rise to over $2.6 billion in 2024.
 
How do these things work? Which technologies have the most potential now and in the future? What are the advantages and disadvantages of each? Which countries have the most active programs and why? What are the leading universities, developers, manufacturers and other players up to? What alliances exist? What are the timelines for success? All these questions and more are answered in this report.
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Further information
If you have any questions about this report, please do not hesitate to contact our report team at or call one of our sales managers:
 
Europe, Middle East & Africa
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Americas, Asia Pacific, Oceania & Spain
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UK, Germany, Denmark & Japan
Robert Purser - UK: +44 (0)1223 812 300
Table of Contents
1.EXECUTIVE SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS
1.1.Market forecast 2014-2024
1.2.Technology sector forecasts for Energy Harvesting 2014-2024
1.3.Regenerative braking
2.INTRODUCTION
2.1.What is energy harvesting?
2.2.What it is not
2.3.Energy harvesting compared with alternatives
2.4.Power requirements of different devices
3.ENERGY HARVESTING TECHNOLOGIES AND THEIR APPLICATIONS
3.1.Thermoelectric energy harvesting
3.1.1.Technology and scientific principles
3.1.2.Designing for thermoelectric applications
3.1.3.Thin Film Thermoelectric Generators
3.1.4.Material choices
3.2.Applications
3.2.1.Automotive Applications
3.3.Wireless Sensing
3.3.1.TE-CORE
3.3.2.WiTemp
3.4.Other industrial applications
3.5.Aerospace
3.6.Wearable thermoelectrics
3.7.Consumer applications
3.7.2.PowerPot™
4.PIEZOELECTRIC ENERGY HARVESTING
4.1.Technology and scientific principles
4.1.1.What is piezoelectric energy harvesting?
4.1.2.How piezoelectricity works
4.1.3.How piezoelectric materials are made
4.1.4.PZT - leading piezoelectric material used today
4.1.5.Single Crystal Piezo
4.1.6.Piezo Fibre Composites PFCs and IDEPFC
4.2.Piezoelectrics as an energy harvester
4.3.Vibration harvesting
4.3.1.Wideband
4.3.2.Damping
4.3.3.Remote controllers
4.4.Movement harvesting options
4.5.Applications
4.5.1.Consumer Electronics
4.5.2.Energy harvesting for Vehicles
4.5.3.Application Case Study: Piezo Power Source for tyre pressure monitoring
4.5.4.Healthcare
4.5.5.Powering Wireless Sensors
4.5.6.Switching and Lighting: Piezoelectric Energy harvesting
5.SOLAR ENERGY HARVESTING
5.1.Technologies and scientific principles
5.1.1.Organic PV
5.2.Efficiency
5.2.1.Ways to improve the efficiency
5.3.DSSC (dye sensitized solar cells)
5.3.2.Solid State DSSCs
5.3.3.Applications
6.ELECTRODYNAMIC ENERGY HARVESTING
6.1.Technology and scientific principles
6.1.1.Applications
7.PROFILES OF PARTICIPANTS IN 22 COUNTRIES
7.1.3G Solar
7.2.Advanced Cerametrics
7.3.Agency for Defense Development
7.4.AIST Tsukuba
7.5.Algra
7.6.Ambient Research
7.7.AmbioSystems LLC
7.8.Amerigon-BSST
7.9.Applied Digital Solutions
7.10.Arveni
7.11.Australian National University - Department of Engineering
7.12.Boeing
7.13.California Institute of Technology/Jet Propulsion Laboratory
7.14.Cambrian Innovation (formerly IntAct)
7.15.Canova Tech
7.16.Carnegie Mellon University
7.17.Chinese University of Hong Kong
7.18.CSIRO
7.19.Cymtox Ltd
7.20.DisaSolar
7.21.Drexel University
7.22.Dyesol
7.23.East Japan Railway Company
7.24.EDF R&D
7.25.Eight19
7.26.Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute (ETRI)
7.27.Ember Corporation
7.28.Encrea srl
7.29.European Space Agency
7.30.EVERREDtronics
7.31.Fast Trak Ltd
7.32.Ferro Solutions, Inc.
7.33.Ferrotec
7.34.Fraunhofer IKTS
7.35.Fraunhofer Institut Integrierte Schaltungen
7.36.Freeplay Foundation
7.37.Fujikura
7.38.G24i Power
7.39.Ganssle Group
7.40.Gas Sensing Solution Ltd
7.41.General Electric Company
7.42.Georgia Institute of Technology
7.43.Global Thermoelectric
7.44.GreenPeak Technologies
7.45.greenTEG
7.46.Harvard University
7.47.Heliatek GmbH
7.48.Henkel
7.49.Hi-Tech Wealth
7.50.Holst Centre
7.51.Honeywell
7.52.Idaho National Laboratory
7.53.IMEC
7.54.Imperial College
7.55.Imperial College London
7.56.India Space Research Organisation
7.57.Intel
7.58.ITRI (Industrial Technology Research Institute)
7.59.ITT
7.60.Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency
7.61.JX Nippon Oil and Gas
7.62.Kanazawa University
7.63.KCF Technologies Inc
7.64.Kinergi Pty Ltd
7.65.Kinetron BV
7.66.Konarka
7.67.Kookmin University,
7.68.Korea Electronics Company
7.69.Korea Institute of Science and Technology and Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology
7.70.Laird / Nextreme
7.71.Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory
7.72.Lear Corporation
7.73.Lebônê Solutions
7.74.Lockheed Martin Corporation
7.75.LV Sensors, Inc.
7.76.Marlow
7.77.Massachusetts Institute of Technology
7.78.mc10
7.79.Meggitt Sensing Systems
7.80.Michigan Technological University
7.81.Microdul AG
7.82.Microgen
7.83.Micropelt GmbH
7.84.Microsemi
7.85.MicroStrain Inc.
7.86.Midé Technology Corporation
7.87.Mitsubishi Corporation
7.88.Nanosonic Inc
7.89.NASA
7.90.National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science & Technology (AIST)
7.91.National Renewable Energy Lab (USA)
7.92.National Semiconductor
7.93.Nextreme
7.94.Nissha Printing
7.95.NNL - Universita del Salento
7.96.Nokia Cambridge UK Research Centre
7.97.North Carolina State University
7.98.Northeastern University
7.99.Northwestern University
7.100.Nova Mems
7.101.NTT DOCOMO
7.102.Oak Ridge National Laboratory
7.103.Ohio State University
7.104.Omron Corporation
7.105.Oxford Photovoltaics
7.106.Pavegen
7.107.Perpetua
7.108.Perpetuum Ltd
7.109.Plextronics
7.110.Polatis Photonics
7.111.PowerFilm, Inc.
7.112.POWERLeap
7.113.PulseSwitch Systems
7.114.Rockwell Scientific
7.115.Romny Scientific
7.116.Rosemount, Inc.
7.117.Samsung SDI
7.118.Sandia National Laboratory
7.119.Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna
7.120.Seiko
7.121.Shanghai Jiao Tong University
7.122.SHARP
7.123.Siemens Power Generation
7.124.Simon Fraser University
7.125.Smart Material Corp.
7.126.SMH
7.127.Solarmer
7.128.Solaronix
7.129.SolarPress
7.130.SolarPrint
7.131.Solid State Research inc
7.132.Sony
7.133.SONY Technology Centre
7.134.Southampton University Hospital
7.135.SPAWAR
7.136.Spectrolab Inc
7.137.Syngenta Sensors UIC
7.138.Technical University of Denmark
7.139.Tellurex
7.140.Texas Micropower
7.141.The Technology Partnership
7.142.Thermolife Energy Corporation
7.143.TiSol
7.144.Tokyo Institute of Technology
7.145.Trophos Energy
7.146.TRW Conekt
7.147.TU ILmenau, Fachgebiet Experimantalphysik I
7.148.Tyndall National Institute
7.149.University of Bristol
7.150.University of California Berkeley
7.151.University of California Los Angeles
7.152.University of Edinburgh
7.153.University of Erlangen
7.154.University of Florida
7.155.University of Freiburg - IMTEK
7.156.University of Idaho
7.157.University of Manchester
7.158.University of Michigan
7.159.University of Pittsburgh
7.160.University of Princeton
7.161.University of Southampton
7.162.University of Surrey (UK)
7.163.University of Tokyo
7.164.Uppsala University
7.165.US Army Research Laboratory
7.166.Virginia Tech
7.167.Voltaic Systems Inc
7.168.Wireless Industrial Technologies
7.169.ZMD AG
8.THE ENOCEAN ALLIANCE
8.1.Promoters
8.1.1.BSC Computer GmbH - Germany
8.1.2.EnOcean -Germany
8.1.3.Leviton - United States
8.1.4.Masco - United States
8.1.5.MK Electric (a Honeywell Business) - United Kingdom
8.1.6.Omnio - Switzerland
8.1.7.OPUS greenNet - Germany
8.1.8.Texas Instruments - United States
8.1.9.Thermokon Sensortechnik - Germany
8.2.Participants
8.2.1.ACTE .PL
8.2.2.Ad Hoc Electronics - United States
8.2.3.Atlas Group
8.2.4.b.a.b technologie GmbH - Germany
8.2.5.Beckhoff - Germany
8.2.6.bk-electronic GmbH
8.2.7.BootUp GmbH - Switzerland
8.2.8.BSC Computer GmbH
8.2.9.Cozir - United Kindom
8.2.10.Denro - Germany
8.2.11.Distech Controls - Canada
8.2.12.DRSG
8.2.13.EchoFlex Solutions
8.2.14.EHRT
8.2.15.Elsner Elektronik - Germany
8.2.16.Eltako GmbH
8.2.17.Emerge Alliance
8.2.18.Ex-Or - United Kindom
8.2.19.Funk Technik - Germany
8.2.20.GE Energy - United States
8.2.21.GFR - Germany
8.2.22.Hansgrohe Group - Germany
8.2.23.Hautau - Germany
8.2.24.HESCH - Germany
8.2.25.Hoppe - Germany
8.2.26.Hotel Technology Next Generation - United States
8.2.27.IK Elektronik GmbH - Germany
8.2.28.ILLUMRA - United States
8.2.29.INSYS Electronics
8.2.30.Intesis Software SL - Spain
8.2.31.IP Controls - Germany
8.2.32.Jager Direkt GmbH & Co
8.2.33.Kieback&Peter GmbH & Co. KG - Germany
8.2.34.LonMark International
8.2.35.Lutuo - China
8.2.36.Magnum Energy Solutions LLC - United States
8.2.37.Murata Europe - Germany
8.2.38.Osram
8.2.39.Osram Silvania
8.2.40.OVERKIZ - Germany
8.2.41.PEHA
8.2.42.PEHA - Germany
8.2.43.PROBARE
8.2.44.Regulvar
8.2.45.Reliable Controls - Canada
8.2.46.S+S Regeltechnik
8.2.47.S4 Group - United States
8.2.48.Sauter
8.2.49.Schulte Elektrotechnik GmbH & Co. KG
8.2.50.SCL Elements Inc - Canada
8.2.51.SensorDynamics AG
8.2.52.Servodan A/S
8.2.53.Shaspa - United Kingdom
8.2.54.Siemens Building Technologies - Switzerland
8.2.55.Siemens Building Technologies GmbH & Co
8.2.56.SmartHome Initiative - Germany
8.2.57.SOMMER - Germany
8.2.58.Spartan Peripheral Devices - Canada
8.2.59.Spega - Germany
8.2.60.steute Schaltgeräte GmbH & Co. KG
8.2.61.Texas Instruments
8.2.62.Titus - United States
8.2.63.Unitronic AG Zentrale - Germany
8.2.64.Unotech A/S - Denmark
8.2.65.USNAP - United States
8.2.66.Vicos - Austria
8.2.67.Viessmann Group - Germany
8.2.68.Vossloh-Schwabe - Germany
8.2.69.WAGO Kontakttechnik GmbH & Co. KG - Germany
8.2.70.Wieland Electric GmbH - Germany
8.2.71.YTL Technologies - China
8.2.72.Zumtobel Lighting GmbH - Austria
8.3.Associates
8.3.1.A. & H. MEYER GmbH - Germany
8.3.2.ABC Shop 24 - Germany
8.3.3.Active Business Company GmbH
8.3.4.Akktor GmbH - Germany
8.3.5.Alvi Technologies
8.3.6.ASP Automação - Brazil
8.3.7.Axis Lighting - Canada
8.3.8.Biberach University of Applied Sciences
8.3.9.bmd AG -Switzerland
8.3.10.BMS Systems
8.3.11.Building Intelligence Group LLC - United States
8.3.12.CAO Group, Inc. - United States
8.3.13.Circuit Holding - Egypt
8.3.14.Com-Pacte - France
8.3.15.Cymbet - United States
8.3.16.Dauphin - Germany
8.3.17.DigiTower Cologne
8.3.18.DimOnOff - Canada
8.3.19.Distech Controls
8.3.20.Dogma Living Technology - Greece
8.3.21.Elektro-Systeme Matthias Friedl - Germany
8.3.22.Elka Hugo Krischke GmbH - Germany
8.3.23.Encelium Technologies - United States
8.3.24.Energie Agentur
8.3.25.enexoma AG - Germany
8.3.26.Engenuity Systems
8.3.27.Engenuity Systems - United States
8.3.28.Engineered Tax Services - United States
8.3.29.EnOcean GmbH
8.3.30.Enolzu - Spain
8.3.31.Enotech - Denmark
8.3.32.ESIC Technology & Sourcing Co., Ltd.
8.3.33.Functional Devices Inc. - United States
8.3.34.Gesteknik
8.3.35.Green Link Alliance
8.3.36.Gruppo Giordano - Italian
8.3.37.Hagemeyer - Germany
8.3.38.HBC Hochschule Biberach - Germany
8.3.39.Herbert Waldmann GmbH & Co. KG - Germany
8.3.40.Hermos - Germany
8.3.41.HK Instruments - Finland
8.3.42.Hochschule Luzern - Technik & Architektur - Switzerland
8.3.43.I.M. tecnics - Spain
8.3.44.Indie Energy - United States
8.3.45.Infinite Power Solutions, Inc. - United States
8.3.46.Ingenieurbüro Knab GmbH - Germany
8.3.47.Ingenieurbüro Zink GmbH
8.3.48.Ingenieurbüro Zink GmbH - Germany
8.3.49.INGLAS Innovative Glassysteme GmbH & Co. KG
8.3.50.Interior Automation - United Kingdom
8.3.51.Ivory Egg - United Kingdom
8.3.52.Kaga Electronics - Japan
8.3.53.KIB Projekt GmbH
8.3.54.Korea Electronics Technology Institute (KETI) - Korea
8.3.55.KVL Comp Ltd.
8.3.56.Ledalite - Canada
8.3.57.LessWire, LLC
8.3.58.Lighting Control & Design - United States
8.3.59.LogiCO2 International SARL. - Luxembourg
8.3.60.Masco
8.3.61.Mitsubishi Materials Corporation - United States
8.3.62.MK Electric (a Honeywell Business)
8.3.63.MONDIAL Electronic GmbH - Austria
8.3.64.Moritani - Japan
8.3.65.Moritani and Co Ltd
8.3.66.MW-Elektroanlagen - Germany
8.3.67.myDATA - Germany
8.3.68.Nibblewave - France
8.3.69.OBERMEYER Planen + Beraten GmbH - Germany
8.3.70.Omnio
8.3.71.Orkit Building Intelligence
8.3.72.Pohlmann Funkbussystems - Germany
8.3.73.PressFinish GmbH - Germany
8.3.74.Prulite Ltd - United States
8.3.75.Pyrecap - France
8.3.76.PYRECAP/HYCOSYS
8.3.77.R+S Group - Germany
8.3.78.SANYO Semiconductor LLC. - United States
8.3.79.SAT Herbert GmbH
8.3.80.SAT System- und Anlagentechnik Herbert GmbH
8.3.81.Seamless Sensing - United Kingdom
8.3.82.Selmoni - Switzerland
8.3.83.Sensocasa - Germany
8.3.84.Seven Line Control Systems - France
8.3.85.SIFRI, S.L. - Spain
8.3.86.SmartLiving Asia - Hong Kong
8.3.87.Spittler Lichttechnik GmbH - Germany
8.3.88.Spoon2 International Limited - United Kingdom
8.3.89.Steinbeis Transferzentrum für Embedded Design und Networking
8.3.90.StyliQ - Germany
8.3.91.STZEDN - Germany
8.3.92.Suffice Group - Hong Kong
8.3.93.Tambient
8.3.94.Tambient - United States
8.3.95.Technograph Microcircuits Ltd
8.3.96.Teleprofi-Verbindet - Germany
8.3.97.Thermokon - Danelko Elektronik AB - Sweden
8.3.98.ThermoKon Sensortechnik
8.3.99.t-mac Technologies Limited - United Kingdom
8.3.100.Tridum - United States
8.3.101.TRILUX GmbH & Co. KG - Germany
8.3.102.Unitronic AG Zentrale
8.3.103.Vicos
8.3.104.Vity Technology - Hong Kong
8.3.105.WAGO Kontakttechnik GmbH & Co. KG
8.3.106.WeberHaus - Germany
8.3.107.Web-IT - Germany
8.3.108.WelComm - United States
8.3.109.Wieland Electric GmbH
8.3.110.WIT - France
8.3.111.WM Ocean - Czech Republic
8.3.112.Yongfu - Singapore
8.3.113.Zurich University of Applied Science (ZHAW) - Switzerland
9.MARKET FORECASTS
9.1.Forecasts for energy harvesting markets
9.1.1.Addressable markets and price sensitivity
9.1.2.IDTechEx energy harvesting forecasts 2014-2024
9.2.Technology sector forecasts for energy harvesting 2014-2024
9.2.1.Timeline for widespread deployment of energy harvesting
9.2.2.Which technologies win?
9.3.Wireless Sensor Networks 2010-2022
9.4.IDTechEx forecast for 2032
9.5.Bicycle dynamo market
APPENDIX 1: IDTECHEX PUBLICATIONS AND CONSULTANCY
APPENDIX 2: WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS
APPENDIX 3: PERMANENT POWER FOR WIRELESS SENSORS - WHITE PAPER FROM CYMBET
TABLES
1.1.Global market for energy harvesting (units thousand) 2014-2024
1.2.Global market for energy harvesting (dollars thousand) 2014-2024
1.3.Piezoelectrics for Energy Harvesting units thousand 2014-2024
1.4.Piezoelectrics for Energy Harvesting unit value dollars 2014-2024
1.5.Piezoelectrics for Energy Harvesting total value thousands of dollars 2014-2024
1.6.Thermoelectrics for Energy Harvesting units thousand 2014-2024
1.7.Thermoelectrics for Energy Harvesting units value dollars 2014-2024
1.8.Thermoelectrics for Energy Harvesting total value thousands of dollars 2014-2024
1.9.Photovoltaics for Energy Harvesting unit thousands 2014-2024
1.10.Photovoltaics for Energy Harvesting unit value dollars 2014-2024
1.11.Photovoltaics for Energy Harvesting total value thousands of dollars 2014-2024
1.12.Electrodynamics for Energy Harvesting unit thousands 2014-2024
1.13.Electrodynamics for Energy Harvesting unit value dollars 2014-2024
1.14.Electrodynamics for Energy Harvesting total value thousands of dollars 2014-2024
1.15.Examples of the primary motivation to use energy harvesting by type of device
1.16.Microsensor power budget
1.17.Power density provided by different forms of energy harvesting
1.18.Some highlights of global effort on energy harvesting
1.19.Some types of energy to harvest with examples of harvesting technology, applications, developers and suppliers
1.20.Percentage of presentations and programs by energy harvesting technology showing increasing emphasis on piezoelectric motion harvesting 2008-2009
1.21.Efficiency and potential technology options
1.22.Timeline for widespread deployment of energy harvesting
2.1.Energy harvesting compared with alternatives
9.1.Some high volume addressable global markets for energy harvesting for small devices
9.2.Ambient power available for volume markets
9.3.Addressable market for high priced energy harvesting
9.4.Electronic products selling in billions yearly and their pricing
9.5.Global market for energy harvesting (units thousand) 2014-2024
9.6.Global market for energy harvesting (dollars thousand) 2014-2024
9.7.Piezoelectrics for Energy Harvesting units thousand 2014-2024
9.8.Piezoelectrics for Energy Harvesting unit value dollars 2014-2024
9.9.Piezoelectrics for Energy Harvesting total value thousands of dollars 2014-2024
9.10.Thermoelectrics for Energy Harvesting units thousand 2014-2024
9.11.Thermoelectrics for Energy Harvesting units value dollars 2014-2024
9.12.Thermoelectrics for Energy Harvesting total value thousands of dollars 2014-2024
9.13.Photovoltaics for Energy Harvesting unit thousands 2014-2024
9.14.Photovoltaics for Energy Harvesting unit value dollars 2014-2024
9.15.Photovoltaics for Energy Harvesting total value thousands of dollars 2014-2024
9.16.Electrodynamics for Energy Harvesting unit thousands 2014-2024
9.17.Electrodynamics for Energy Harvesting unit value dollars 2014-2024
9.18.Electrodynamics for Energy Harvesting total value thousands of dollars 2014-2024
9.19.Timeline for widespread deployment of energy harvesting
9.20.IDTechEx Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) Forecast 2010-2022 with Real Time Locating Systems RTLS for comparison
9.21.WSN and ZigBee node numbers million 2012, 2022, 2032 and market drivers
9.22.Average number of nodes per system 2012, 2022, 2032
9.23.WSN node price dollars 2012, 2022, 2032 and cost reduction factors
9.24.WSN node total value $ million 2012, 2022, 2032
9.25.WSN systems and software excluding nodes $ million 2012, 2022, 2032
9.26.Total WSN market value $ million 2012, 2022, 2032
FIGURES
1.1.Global market for energy harvesting (units thousand) 2014-2024
1.2.Global market for energy harvesting (dollars thousand) 2014-2024
1.3.Piezoelectrics for Energy Harvesting units thousand 2014-2024
1.4.Piezoelectrics for Energy Harvesting unit value dollars 2014-2024
1.5.Piezoelectrics for Energy Harvesting total value thousands of dollars 2014-2024
1.6.Thermoelectrics for Energy Harvesting units thousand 2014-2024
1.7.Thermoelectrics for Energy Harvesting unit value dollars 2014-2024
1.8.Thermoelectrics for Energy Harvesting total value thousands of dollars 2014-2024
1.9.Photovoltaics for Energy Harvesting unit thousands 2014-2024
1.10.Photovoltaics for Energy Harvesting unit value dollars 2014-2024
1.11.Photovoltaics for Energy Harvesting total value thousands of dollars 2014-2024
1.12.Electrodynamics for Energy Harvesting unit thousands 2014-2024
1.13.Electrodynamics for Energy Harvesting unit value dollars 2014-2024
1.14.Electrodynamics for Energy Harvesting total value thousands of dollars 2014-2024
1.15.Konarka vision of ubiquitous energy harvesting
1.16.Power requirements of small electronic products including Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) and GSM mobile phones and the types of battery employed
1.17.Comparison of the power density ranges of different energy technologies
1.18.The performance of the favourite energy harvesting technologies. Technologies with no moving parts are shown in red.
1.19.Energy harvesting organisations by continent
1.20.Organisations active in energy harvesting by country, numbers rounded
1.21.Rapid progress in the capabilities of small electronic devices and their photovoltaic energy harvesting contrasted with poor progress in improving the batteries they employ
1.22.Number of cases by type of harvesting as identified in IDTechEx survey of 200 participants
1.23.Simplest scheme for vehicle regenerative braking
2.1.Power requirements of small electronic products including Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) and the types of battery employed
3.1.Representation of the Peltier (left) and the Seebeck (right) effect
3.2.A general overview of the sequential manufacturing steps required in the construction of thermoelectric generators
3.3.Generic schematic of thermoelectric energy harvesting system
3.4.Figure of merit for some thermoelectric material systems
3.5.Power Density and Sensitivity plotted for a variety of TEGs at a ΔT=30K
3.6.% of Carnot efficiency for thermogenerators for different material systems
3.7.Experimental ZT values for PbSe
3.8.Ford Fusion, BMW X6 and Chevrolet Sburban. US Department of Energy thermoelectric generator programs
3.9.Pictures from the BMW thermogenerator developments, as part of EfficientDynamics
3.10.Ford's anticipate 500W power output from their thermogenerator
3.11.The complete TEG designed by Amerigon (Now Gentherm)
3.12.High and medium temperature TE engines
3.13.The Micropelt-Schneider TE-qNODE
3.14.The TE-qNODE in operation, attached to busbars
3.15.The TE Core from Micropelt
3.16.ABB's WiTemp wireless temperature transmitter
3.17.The EverGen PowerStrap from Marlow
3.18.EverGen exchangers can vary in sizes from a few cubic inches to several cubic feet. Pictured also, a schematic of a TEG exchanger's main components
3.19.A drawing of a general purpose heat source (GPHS)-RTG used for Galileo, Ulysses, Cassini-Huygens and New Horizons space probes
3.20.Power emanating from various parts of the human body
3.21.MSX-Micropelt cooking sensor
3.22.PowerPot with basic USB charger se
4.1.Piezoelectric buckled beams for random vibration energy harvesting
4.2.Tree-inspired piezoelectric energy harvesting (Georgiatech)
5.1.The OPV process
5.2.Schematic depiction of the photoinduced electron (e) -hole (h) generation and separation
5.3.Donor and acceptors are mixed in the active channel, increase interfacial area
5.4.Creations of 'islands' should be avoided because they trap photogenerated charges
5.5.Typical absorption characteristic of OPVs
5.6."Popcorn ball" nanostructured ZnO, studied at the university of Washington for its application on dye sensitized cells
5.7.Principle of operation of DSSCs
5.8.Cross-section micrograph of TiO2 film; A (compact layer), B (nanoporous layer),L (scattering layer)
5.9.Conventional liquid-electrolyte-based DSSC, with a cell thickness of around 10 μm. b. Oxford Photovoltaics' solid-state DSSC, with a cell thickness of around 2 μm. A compact underlayer is required to prevent direct contact between
5.10.Solar bag incorporating DSSCs
5.11.Solar powered blind & shade system
5.12.The Logitech® Foli
5.13.Further products envisaged, incorporating DSSC
5.14.Energy harvesting and wireless switches in the build environment
5.15.Detail of the DSSC powered wireless CO2, Temperature and Humidity sensor
5.16.Illustrations of organic photovoltaics
6.1.Perpetuum energy harvesting powered wireless sensor monitoring wheel wear in trains.
7.1.3G Solar DSSC cell
7.2.Transparent photovoltaic film
7.3.Arveni piezoelectric batteryless remote control
7.4.Dyesol's largest ever DSC on steel roofing material module
7.5.A solar bus shelter manufactured at the Shotton, North Wales facilities in 2011
7.6.Solar powered ESA satellites
7.7.Electrical lanterns, torches etc charged by hand cranking
7.8.Freeplay wind up radio in Africa
7.9.Module of dye-sensitized solar cells
7.10.Timeline of G24i Power' main developments
7.11.The three main parts of a Global Thermoelectric solid state generator: a burner, the thermopile and cooling fins
7.12.5000W for SCADA communications and cathodic protection of a gas pipeline - India
7.13.Small, flexible thermoelectric generators from greenTEG
7.14.Detail of fabricated gTEG™
7.15.A greenTEG micro thermoelectric generator
7.16.Light in Africa
7.17.Hi-Tech Wealth's S116 clamshell solar phone
7.18.Nantennas
7.19.Bulk nantennas
7.20.Human sensor networks
7.21.ISRO moon satellite
7.22.JAXA moon project
7.23."Ibuki" GOSAT greenhouse gas monitoring satellite
7.24.KCF Harvesting Sensor Demonstration Pack
7.25.Flux density of a microgenerator
7.26.3D drawing of the Pedal Light
7.27.WSN deployment
7.28.Nextreme's evaluation kit
7.29.TheaeTEG™ HV37 Power Generator
7.30.A stretchable array of inorganic LEDs
7.31.Micropelt thermoelectric harvester in action
7.32.Microsemi's ISM RF I
7.33.Z-Star WSN Evaluation Kit Using ZL70250
7.34.Wireless ECG sensor node
7.35.ULP Wireless Accelerometer Reference Design
7.36.ISM band radio in energy harvesting application
7.37.Helicopter vibration harvester
7.38.Bell model 412 helicopter
7.39.Solar-powered wireless G-Link seismic sensor on the Corinth Bridge in Greece
7.40.Multiple solar-powered nodes monitor strain and vibration at key locations on the Goldstar Bridge over the Thames River in New London, Conn
7.41.MicroStrain Wireless sensor and data acquisition system
7.42.Volture vibration harvester
7.43.Volture
7.44.International Space Station
7.45.Solar panels for the Hubble telescope
7.46.Thermoelectric conversion film devices fabricated by printing
7.47.Schematic representations of a PN-couple used as TEC (left) based on the Peltier effect or TEG (right) based on the Seebeck effect.
7.48.Nextreme thermoelectric generator
7.49.eTEC Module and Die
7.50.Different colour and semi-transparent DSSCs from Nissha Printing
7.51.Graph demonstrating that stable voltage can be obtained from DSSCs regardless of the incidence angle of the sun
7.52.Morph concept
7.53.Flexible & Changing Design
7.54.Concept device based on reduce, reuse recycle envisages many forms of energy harvesting
7.55.Carrying strap provides power to the sensor unit
7.56.An optical image of an electronic device in a complex deformation mode
7.57.NTT DOCOMO concept phone with energy harvesting
7.58.Pavegen Systems Limited is looking for ways to tap into the energy of moving crowds
7.59.Schematic of Perpetua's Flexible Thermoelectric Film™ technology
7.60.Heart energy harvesting
7.61.Perpetuum vibration harvester
7.62.PowerFilm literature
7.63.PulseSwitch Systems makes piezoelectric wireless switches that do not need a battery
7.64.n-type Mg2SixSny produced by Romny give ZT of ~ 0.83 at 300 °C
7.65.Mg-Silicide ingots, hot pressed by Romny Scientific
7.66.Comparison of stability during cycling: Cycle type: heating up to 350⁰C within 30 minutes, cooling down to ambient within 90 minutes
7.67.DSSCs and their classification by use
7.68.DSSC manufacturing process
7.69.Solid state DSSCs by Oxford Photovoltaics
7.70.Seiko Thermic wristwatch
7.71.Knee-Mounted Device Generates Electricity While You Walk
7.72.SolarPrint Beta Power management solution
7.73.Power output vs. Lux Level for a-Si and DSSC
7.74.Light levels in a typical office
7.75.Tissot Autoquartz
7.76.The combined performance of the two dyes was greater than the sum of their individual performance levels. Because the dyes seemed to resonate together to produce an enhanced effect, Sony dubbed this method the "Concerto Effect"
7.77.Demonstrated at Eco Product 2010, the beautifully designed solar panel by SONY uses screen printing to generate custom designs according to the consumer's preferences
7.78.As an exploration of the graphical potential of solar cells produced through printing technology, these prototype panels are brightened by marigold designs
7.79.Heart harvester developed at Southampton University Hospital
7.80.Compromise between power density and energy density
7.81.Thin film batteries with supercapacitors were efficient for energy storage
7.82.Two other battery formats
7.83.Syngenta sensor
7.84.Trophos BES Power Management & Application Architecture
7.85.Transmitter left and implanted receiver right for inductively powered implantable dropped foot stimulator for stroke victims
7.86.PicoBeacon, the first fully self-contained wireless transmitter powered solely by solar energy
7.87.Surveillance bat
7.88.Sensor head on COM-BAT
7.89.A solar bag that is powerful enough to charge a laptop
8.1.Self-powered Wireless Sensor Technology from EnOcean
8.2.Solar powered wireless sensor node
8.3.Sensor monitoring rock net using energy of net movement and solar cells
9.1.Energy harvesting for small devices, renewable energy replacing power stations and what comes between.
9.2.Global market for energy harvesting (units thousand) 2014-2024
9.3.Global market for energy harvesting (dollars thousand) 2014-2024
9.4.Piezoelectrics for Energy Harvesting units thousand 2014-2024
9.5.Piezoelectrics for Energy Harvesting unit value dollars 2014-2024
9.6.Piezoelectrics for Energy Harvesting total value thousands of dollars 2014-2024
9.7.Thermoelectrics for Energy Harvesting units thousand 2014-2024
9.8.Thermoelectrics for Energy Harvesting unit value dollars 2014-2024
9.9.Thermoelectrics for Energy Harvesting total value thousands of dollars 2014-2024
9.10.Photovoltaics for Energy Harvesting unit thousands 2014-2024
9.11.Photovoltaics for Energy Harvesting unit value dollars 2014-2024
9.12.Photovoltaics for Energy Harvesting total value thousands of dollars 2014-2024
9.13.Electrodynamics for Energy Harvesting unit thousands 2014-2024
9.14.Electrodynamics for Energy Harvesting unit value dollars 2014-2024
9.15.Electrodynamics for Energy Harvesting total value thousands of dollars 2014-2024
9.16.Meter reading nodes number million 2010-2022
9.17.Meter reading nodes unit value dollars 2010-2022
9.18.Meter reading nodes total value dollars 2010-2022
9.19.Other nodes number million 2010-2022
9.20.Other nodes unit value dollars 2010-2022
9.21.Other nodes total value dollars 2010-2022
9.22.Total node value billion dollars 2010-2022
9.23.WSN systems and software excluding nodes billion dollars 2010-2022
9.24.Total WSN market million dollars 2010-2022
9.25.WSN and ZigBee node numbers million 2012, 2022, 2032
9.26.Average number of nodes per system 2012, 2022, 2032
9.27.WSN node price dollars 2012, 2022, 2032
9.28.WSN node total value $ million 2012, 2022, 2032
9.29.WSN systems and software excluding nodes $ million 2012, 2022, 2032
9.30.Total WSN market value $ million 2012, 2022, 2032
9.31.Global bicycle and car production millions

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Organic Photovoltaics (OPV) 2013-2023: Technologies, Markets, Players
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