Energy Harvesting Report

High Power Energy Harvesting: Off-Grid 10W-1MW 2017-2027

High power energy harvesting options for microgrid, genset, EV etc.

Brand new for January 2017
The market for renewable off-grid energy harvesting will be over $7 billion in 2027.
 
This unique report reflects the new reality that energy harvesting - creation of off-grid electricity where it is needed, using ambient energy - is now widely deployable up to 100kW and beyond. This is resulting in dramatic new capabilities such as the rapidly growing number of land, water and air vehicles that operate entirely on sunshine and electricity becoming affordable and feasible in remote parts of Africa. It will result in the electric vehicle that has longer range than the vehicles it replaces. It makes autonomous vehicles more feasible and shipping much more efficient. Only a global up-to-date view makes sense in this fast-moving subject embracing Google airborne wind energy (AWE), Facebook solar robot aircraft, Siemens small wind turbines and regenerative braking. There are already autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) and navigation buoys that combine solar and wave power.
 
The multilingual PhD level IDTechEx analysts have travelled intensively in 2015 to report the latest research and expert opinions and to analyse how the markets and technologies will move over the coming decade. Many original IDTechEx tables and infographics pull together the analysis in easily understood form. The report comes with 30 minutes free consultancy.
 
Energy harvesting is now a booming business at the level of 10 watts to 100 kilowatts and beyond, off-grid. That includes making a vehicle, boat or plane more efficient such as energy harvesting shock absorbers and high speed flywheels, reversing alternators and motors for instance on the propeller of a boat under sail or moored in a tidestream and regeneratively soaring aircraft and braking cars and forklifts. Similar technology now harvests the energy of a swinging construction vehicle, dropping elevator and so on and soon the heat of engines will be harvested in kilowatts and off-grid wave power will become commonplace.
 
High power energy harvesting also embraces off-grid creation of electricity that will be used generally such as that harnessing photovoltaics, small wind turbines and what enhances or replaces them such as the new airborne wind energy (AWE). This is underwritten by both strong demand for today's forms of high power EH and a recent flood of important new inventions that increase the power capability and versatility of many of the basic technologies of energy harvesting. It all reads onto the megatrends of this century - reducing global warming and local air, water and noise pollution, relieving poverty and conserving resources.
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Table of Contents
1.EXECUTIVE SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS
1.1.Definition and characteristics
1.1.1.Definition
1.1.2.Overview of need
1.1.3.Characteristics
1.2.Market overview
1.2.1.Largest value market by power
1.3.Maturity of market by application
1.4.Hype curve for energy harvesting applications
1.5.EH systems
1.6.Multiple energy harvesting
1.7.Market forecast 2017-2027
1.7.1.The big picture
1.7.2.Forecasts by technology
1.7.3.Overall market for transducers
1.7.4.Market for power conditioning
1.8.Technology timeline 2016-2025
1.9.Detailed technology sector forecasts 2015-2025
1.9.1.Electrodynamic
1.9.2.Photovoltaic
1.9.3.Thermoelectrics
1.9.4.Territorial differences
2.INTRODUCTION
2.1.HPEH Technology
2.2.Technologies compared
2.2.1.Parametric
2.2.2.System design: transducer, power conditioning, energy storage
2.3.Mature technologies
2.3.1.Wind turbines, rotary blade
2.3.2.Portable wind turbine for clean energy anywhere
2.3.3.Conventional photovoltaics
2.3.4.Regenerative braking
2.3.5.Renewable energy is often turned off or wasted
2.4.A glimpse of the future: Lizard Electric Vehicles
2.5.Off-grid wave harvesting
2.5.1.Introduction
2.5.2.Dielectric Elastomer Generators DEG
2.5.3.CorPower Ocean Sweden
2.5.4.Levant Power USA
2.5.5.National Agency for New Energy Technologies (ENEA) Italy
2.5.6.Oscilla Power USA magnetorestrictive
2.6.HPEH in context: IRENA Roadmap to 27% Renewable
2.7.Electric vehicle end game: free non-stop road travel
2.8.Simpler, More Viable Off-grid Power in 2016
2.9.Tesla the Follower
2.10.Electricity Utilities Reinvented and Bypassed
3.ELECTRODYNAMIC HARVESTING
3.1.Definition and scope
3.2.Many modes and applications compared
3.2.1.Options by medium
3.2.2.Examples compared
3.3.Flywheel KERS
3.4.Active regenerative suspension: Levant Power USA
3.5.Audi regenerative suspension
3.6.Airborne Wind Energy AWE
3.6.1.Rotating dual kites the ultimate? Kite Power Solutions UK
3.6.2.Kite-surfing in the stratosphere
3.7.Favoured technologies
3.7.1.Billions in Change
3.7.2.EnerKite Germany
3.7.3.Google Makani USA
3.7.4.e-Wind USA
3.7.5.TwingTec Switzerland
3.7.6.Ampyx Power Netherlands
3.7.7.Altaeros USA
3.7.8.Kitemill Norway
3.7.9.Kitegen Italy
3.7.10.Commercialisation targets
3.7.11.IDTechEx assessment
3.7.12.ABB assessment
3.8.Energy harvesting shock absorbers
3.8.1.Linear shock absorbers
3.8.2.Rotary shock absorbers
3.8.3.Tenneco Automotive Operating Company USA
3.9.Witt Energy UK
4.PHOTOVOLTAIC HARVESTING
4.1.Photovoltaic
4.1.1.Flexible, conformal, transparent, UV, IR
4.1.2.Technological options
4.1.3.Principles of operation
4.1.4.Options for flexible PV
4.1.5.Many types of photovoltaics needed for harvesting
4.1.6.Spray on power for electric vehicles and more
4.1.7.New world record for both sides-contacted silicon solar cells
4.2.Powerweave harvesting and storage e-fiber/ e-textile
4.3.Solar roads find many uses
4.4.Non-toxic and cheap thin-film solar cells
5.THERMOELECTRIC HARVESTING
5.1.The Seebeck and Peltier effects
5.2.Highest power thermoelectrics
5.3.Designing for thermoelectric applications
5.4.Material choices
5.5.Other processing techniques
5.6.Manufacturing of flexible thermoelectric generators
5.7.AIST technology details
5.8.Automotive applications
5.8.1.BMW Germany
5.8.2.Ford USA
5.8.3.Volkswagen Germany
5.8.4.Challenges of Thermoelectrics for Vehicles
5.8.5.Marlow Industries USA
5.8.6.Yamaha Japan DLR Germany in 2017
5.9.Building and home automation
5.10.Solar TEG
6.GEOTHERMAL AND OTHER
6.1.Geothermal
6.1.1.World's largest ocean thermal plant
6.2.Magnetostrictive
6.3.Nantenna-diode rectenna arrays
6.3.1.Idaho State Laboratory, University of Missouri, University of Colorado, Microcontinuum
6.3.2.University of Maryland
6.4.Thermoacoustic
6.5.Electricity from car tires
6.5.1.Tire EH Goodyear concept 2016
6.6.Not quite energy harvesting: microbial fuel cells, directed RF, betavoltaics
7.MULTI-MODE ENERGY HARVESTING
8.EXAMPLES OF IDTECHEX INTERVIEWS AND EH RESEARCH
8.1.Agusta Westland Italy
8.2.Enerbee France
8.3.Eight19 UK
8.4.Faradair Aerospace UK
8.5.IFEVS Italy
8.6.Jabil USA
8.7.Komatsu KELK Japan
8.8.LG Chem Korea
8.9.Marlow USA
8.10.Pavegen UK
8.11.Piezotech France
8.12.RMT Russia and TEC Microsystems Germany
8.13.Examples of recent research
8.14.Examples of Interviews Concerning High Power Energy Harvesting on Marine Craft 2015
8.15.Examples of presentations at Electric and Hybrid Marine Amsterdam June 2015
PROFILES FROM SOME AIRBORNE WIND ENERGY COMPANIES
IDTECHEX RESEARCH REPORTS AND CONSULTING
TABLES
1.1.Examples of uses of HPEH expressed as duration of harvesting available with examples of companies using or developing these applications
1.2.Comparison of desirable features of the EH technologies. Good in colour. Others are poor or not yet clarified.
1.3.Transducer power range of the main technical options for HPEH transducer technologies Source IDTechEx
1.4.Potential for improving energy harvesting efficiency
1.5.Typical power needs increasingly addressed by high power energy harvesting
1.6.Power end game 2026 with winners shown in green. Areas with some activity but not dominant are shown clear
1.7.Power density provided by different forms of HPEH with exceptionally useful superlatives in yellow. Other parameters are optimal at different levels depending on system design.
1.8.Good features and challenges of the four most important EH technologies in order of importance
1.9.Proliferation of electrodynamic harvesting options
1.10.Global market for energy harvesting transducers at all power levels (units million) 2016-2027 rounded
1.11.Global market for energy harvesting transducers at all power levels (unit price dollars) 2016-2027
1.12.Global value market for energy harvesting transducers at all power levels (market value billion dollars) 2016-2027 rounded
1.13.Main contributors to EH transducer sales 2016-2027. The technologies supplied by many large companies taking substantial orders are highlighted in orange.
1.14.Timeline 2016-2025 with those advances most greatly impacting market size shown in yellow.
1.15.Electrodynamics for Energy Harvesting units millions 2017-2027, dominant numbers in 2027 in yellow.
1.16.Electrodynamic EH for regenerative braking in electric vehicles 2017-2027 number thousand
1.17.Electrodynamic EH for regenerative braking in electric vehicles 2017-2027 notional unit value dollars given that these motors and generators double as other functions
1.18.Notional total market value for electrodynamic EH for regenerative braking in electric vehicles 2017-2027 $ billion rounded
1.19.Electrodynamic harvesting alternators in conventional internal combustion engined vehicles, number, notional unit value $ and value market $ billion 2017-
1.20.Electrodynamic harvesting Other, mainly energy harvesting shock absorbers, number, notional unit value $ and value market $ billion 2017-2027
1.21.Photovoltaics for Energy Harvesting MW peak million 2017-2027
1.22.Thermoelectrics for Energy Harvesting units thousand 2017-2027
1.23.Thermoelectrics for Energy Harvesting units value dollars 2017-2027
1.24.Thermoelectrics for Energy Harvesting total value thousands of dollars 2017-2027
1.25.Some highlights of global effort on energy harvesting
2.1.Maturity of HPEH technologies in adoption and development not age. Off-grid only with electricity used where made.
2.2.Power density provided by different forms of high power energy harvesting. Best volumetric and gravimetric energy density.
2.3.Some classical applications with the type of transducer and energy storage typically chosen
3.1.Some modes of high power, 10 watts or more, electrodynamic energy harvesting with related processes highlighted in green
3.2.Examples of actual high power electrodynamic harvesting by type, sub type and manufacturer with comment. Those in volume production now are in yellow, within five years in grey, those with much development but no volume production
4.1.Comparison of pn junction and photoelectrochemical photovoltaics
4.2.The main options for photovoltaics beyond conventional silicon compared
FIGURES
1.1.Examples of photovoltaics providing total power requirements of a vehicle, including motive power
1.2.Examples of applications being developed 10W-100kW
1.3.Technology focus of 200 organisations developing the different leading energy harvesting technologies
1.4.Maturity of different forms of energy harvesting
1.5.Hype curve snapshot for high power energy harvesting applications in 2015-6
1.6.Hype curve snapshot for high power energy harvesting applications in 2026
1.7.Hype curve for HPEH technology 2016
1.8.Hype curve for HPEH technology 2026
1.9.Institutions involved in airborne wind energy in 2015
1.10.Proliferation of actual and potential energy harvesting in land vehicles
1.11.Proliferation of actual and potential energy harvesting in marine vehicles
1.12.Proliferation of actual and potential energy harvesting in airborne vehicles
1.13.EH system diagram
1.14.Multiple energy harvesting
1.15.HPP structure
1.16.HPP envisaged application in buildings
1.17.Envisaged marine application of HPP
1.18.HPEH including battery systems related to other off-grid and to on-grid harvesting market values
1.19.Global installed renewable energy GW cumulative, off-grid and on-grid by source
1.20.Global market for energy harvesting transducers at all power levels (units million) 2016-2027 rounded
1.21.Global market for energy harvesting transducers at all power levels (unit price dollars) 2016-2027
1.22.Global value market for energy harvesting transducers at all power levels (market value billion dollars) 2016-2027 rounded
1.23.Energy harvesting organisations by continent
1.24.Organisations active in energy harvesting by country, numbers rounded
1.25.Innovations continue for multi-mode harvesting. Solar wind turbine concepts.
2.1.The performance of the favourite energy harvesting technologies. Technologies with no moving parts are shown in red. Thermoelectric not so good when it needs fins or water cooling.
2.2.Typical energy harvesting system
2.3.The Trinity wind turbine is light and portable, for powering mobile devices and cars
2.4.Simplest scheme for vehicle regenerative braking
2.5.Nissan Lithium-ion forklift with regenerative braking
2.6.Mazda supercapacitor-based energy harvesting from reversing alternator during coasting and braking in a conventional car
2.7.Regen braking research
2.8.How EIVs relate to traditional mechanically energy independent vehicles and segment into sub-types.
2.9.Carboline honeycomb of ultra-lightweight carbon fiber construction without the planned integral photovoltaics taking sun reflected from wide angles by foil on the sloped surfaces
2.10.Poly-OWC
2.11.SBM water-filled WPG using roll to roll manufactured EAP
2.12.Energy harvesting from Levant Power
2.13.Pendulum Wave Energy Converter (PEWEC)
2.14.Triton
2.15.Annual share of annual variable renewable power generation on-grid and off-grid 2014 and 2030 if all Remap options are implemented
2.16.Hanergy Holding Group Ltd. is a multinational clean energy company
3.1.TIGER device and system diagram
3.2.Oshkosh hybrid truck
3.3.Electraflyer Trike
3.4.Electraflyer uncowled
3.5.Flywheels compared with other energy storage
3.6.GKN Gyrodrive breakdown
3.7.Flybrid parallel hybrid flywheel
3.8.Battery progress
3.9.Volvo Flywheel KERS components
3.10.Volvo flywheel KERS system layout
3.11.Magneto Marelli electrical KERS Motor Generator Unit
3.12.The Marelli system
3.13.Williams Formula One KERS flywheel
3.14.GenShock prototype held by Humvee coil spring where it is installed
3.15.Levant Power GenShock energy harvesting shock absorber
3.16.AWE conference
3.17.Tether drag solution
3.18.Two kite system. While one deploys (A) generating power, it pull in the other, which is in a non-flight status
3.19.View of AWE risks
3.20.E-kite ground station
3.21.EnerKite presentation
3.22.Google Makani M600 prototype
3.23.e-Wind proposition hiring land from farmers
3.24.TwingTec USP
3.25.Ampyx slides - examples
3.26.Altaeros presentation
3.27.Altaeros BAT airborne wind turbine compared
3.28.Kitemill presentation
3.29.Kitegen kite providing supplementary power to a ship
3.30.ABB assessment
3.31.Power potential of energy harvesting shock absorbers
3.32.Energy harvesting shock absorbers being progressed by the State University of New York
3.33.Tufts University and Electric Truck energy harvesting shock absorbers
3.34.Wattshocks electricity generating shock absorber
3.35.Wattshocks publicity
3.36.On-road test SUV
3.37.Witt presentation at IDTechEx event Berlin April 2015 - extracts
4.1.Kopf Solarshiff pure electric solar powered lake boats in Germany and the UK for up to 150 people
4.2.NREL adjudication of efficiencies under standard conditions
4.3.Powerweave
4.4.Solar roads
5.1.Representation of the Peltier (left) and the Seebeck (right) effect
5.2.1 kW ATEG
5.3.Anatomy of high power ATEG
5.4.A general overview of the sequential manufacturing steps required in the construction of thermoelectric generators
5.5.Generic schematic of thermoelectric energy harvesting system
5.6.Figure of merit for some thermoelectric material systems
5.7.Orientation map from a skutterudite sample
5.8.Power Density and Sensitivity plotted for a variety of TEGs at a ΔT=30K
5.9.% of Carnot efficiency for thermogenerators for different material systems
5.10.Schematic of the inside of a typical thermoelectric element
5.11.The fabrication method of the CNT-polymer composite material (top), and an electron microscope image of its surface (lower)
5.12.A flexible thermoelectric conversion film fabricated by using a printing process (left) and its electrical power-generation ability (right). A temperature difference created by placing a hand on the film installed on the 10 °C pla
5.13.Energy losses in a vehicle
5.14.Opportunities to harvest waste energy
5.15.Ford Fusion, BMW X6 and Chevrolet Suburban. US Department of Energy thermoelectric generator programs
5.16.Pictures from the BMW thermogenerator developments, as part of EfficientDynamics
5.17.Ford's anticipate 500W power output from their thermogenerator
5.18.The complete TEG designed by Amerigon
5.19.High and medium temperature TE engines
5.20.The EverGen PowerStrap from Marlow
5.21.EverGen exchangers can vary in sizes from a few cubic inches to several cubic feet. Pictured also, a schematic of a TEG exchanger's main components
5.22.The en:key products: A thermoelectric powered radiator valve and solar powered central control unit for home automation applications
5.23.Thermoelectric Energy harvesting on hot water/gas pipes
5.24.MIT solar TEG
6.1.Makai's Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) power plant
6.2.Villari effect
6.3.Rectenna, nantenna-diode pairs for energy harvesting of light
6.4.Infrared rectenna harvesting
6.5.BH03 EH concept tire
6.6.Microbial fuel cell concept for producing both electricity and hydrogen for fuel cell electric vehicles etc
7.1.Forms of multi-mode energy harvesting
8.1.BEHA aircraft
8.2.Solar facilities
8.3.IFEVS arguments
8.4.Uniques of thermoelectric harvesting
8.5.RMT range and positioning
8.6.Ground spikes as energy harvesting powered transmitters
8.7.Example given of multi-mode harvesting to come.
8.8.Torqeedo 50kW outboard
8.9.SoelCat
8.10.Milper Turkey
8.11.Rensea project for regenerative marine propeller
8.12.Opal conversion

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Report Statistics

-Pages241
-Tables32
-Figures125
-Forecasts to2027
 

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