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Hybrid and Electric Vehicles for Land, Water and Air 2012-2022: Forecasts, Technologies, Players

Cars, buses, two wheelers, industrial, commercial, mobility for disabled, military, marine, mircraft, other

"The 35 million EVs sold in 2012 will rise 3.6 times to nearly 129 million in 2022"
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Electric Vehicles - Seeing the Big Picture
The burgeoning electric vehicle (EV) industry cannot be understood by simply looking at cars. The EV leaders such as Toyota, Honda and Nissan make electric vehicles for many applicational sectors. Indeed, many of them also control the manufacture of the component that most affects price and performance - the battery - and many make the electric motors and other key components. This is therefore a curious industry where component manufacturers often compete with their customers and customer-supplier joint ventures are commonplace. For example, Nissan has a major program to put next generation lithium batteries from its battery joint venture into its forklifts as well as its cars. Toyota makes heavy and light industrial EVs from forklifts to buses and mobility for the disabled, not just electric cars, and the knowledge in these different divisions is shared between them all. Much is written about hybrid cars but there are substantial sales of hybrid military trucks, buses, boats now plus hybrid aircraft, airships and even motorcycles coming along. Meanwhile there are many varieties of pure electric on-road, off-road, on water, underwater and air vehicles with similar technology and challenges.
IDTechEx has substantially rewritten its annual Electric Vehicles report for 2012. It is based on ten years of researching the subject, intensive desk research, visits and interviews. There are chapters on Heavy Industrial, Light Industrial and Commercial, Mobility for the Disabled, Two Wheelers, Golf Cars, on-road Cars, Military, Marine and Other vehicles. That even extends to electric mobile robots, surveillance jellyfish and other Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUVs), bats and electric aircraft. After all, they can all be a target for component and system suppliers and, increasingly, the vehicle manufacturers themselves are diversifying horizontally. Detailed forecasts for these vehicle categories by numbers and value and the key components are provided for 2012-2022, with total market value. The trends, technology and planned vehicles are clarified in 146 figures and 52 tables including the historical context. Winning and losing strategies are evaluated. Timelines are given of events to come.
At last the full picture of China
IDTechEx does not make the common mistake of reporting primarily on vehicles from the well known Western and Japanese manufacturers. 66% of the manufacturers of electric vehicles in the world are in China. Over 90% of the world's electric vehicles are made in China, mainly for use in China. It has the largest potential market for electric vehicles. It mines and controls 95% of the World's rare earth reserves used in the hybrid car batteries, motors and other key components of today's electric vehicles. Of the 420 EV manufacturers covered in this new report, an appropriately high proportion are Chinese. This is particularly true of the chapters on Heavy Industrial, Buses, Light Industrial and Commercial, Mobility for the Disabled, Two Wheelers, Golf Cars and Cars, where the Chinese heavily participate, as yet with little publicity, because so much of it is for the domestic market.
Unique forecasts
New ten year forecasts for the whole EV market are only available from IDTechEx. This new report gives the detail, forecasting numbers, unit value and total market value for each applicational sector with many original tables giving subsets of the data and a large number of profiles of current and planned activities of the participants. Those participating in only one sector need to keep a wary eye on those with a broader vision: they must frequently review their strategy and avoid dangerous tunnel vision.
Ex factory value of EVs, in billions of US dollars
Source: IDTechEx
Good volume growth but greater value growth
The 35 million EVs sold in 2012 will rise 3.6 times to nearly 129 million in 2022, driven by e-bikes, but the value of the market will grow twice as much because larger and more expensive vehicles are now rapidly adopting the technology. Motorcycles, military vehicles, buses and earthmovers are among them. Hybrids will rise in their dominant share of the value market through the decade. In ten years from now, a far higher percentage of the global output of light industrial vehicles, commercial vehicles and cars will be EVs but for greatest elimination of conventional internal combustion engines vehicles, one must look elsewhere - this report explains and gives latest projections of penetration.
Global EV sales, in thousands
Source: IDTechEx
The new report gives the detail, forecasting numbers, unit value and total market value for each applicational sector with many original tables giving subsets of the data and a large number of profiles of current and planned activities of the participants. Many sectors now benefit from the many new government benefits and, in certain sectors, many technical innovations and new models are becoming available. We evaluate these aspects and the market drivers, including what users really need. Battery, motor and other technology is explained and forecasted as well.
This report "Electric Vehicles 2012-2022" is an overarching annual report in IDTechEx report series on the different types of electric vehicle, the subsidiary reports variously giving far more detail on electric cars, military, security, police, bus, taxi, Light Electric Vehicles (e-bikes etc), electric aircraft and marine electric vehicles and there is a report on electric vehicles in East Asia. Then there are reports specifically on key technologies. Each report comes with one hour of free telephone or email consultancy to fill in any information you still require after having read it.
Free Electric Vehicle Encyclopedia when you purchase this report
Electric Vehicle experts IDTechEx have encapsulated over ten years of research and analysis into an easy to digest electric vehicle encyclopedia. All the technologies are covered and supported with over 100 tables and illustrations and over 200 acronyms and terms are explained. This encyclopedia, worth $1,500, is given as a free PDF download when you buy this report.
Analyst access from IDTechEx
All report purchases include up to 30 minutes telephone time with an expert analyst who will help you link key findings in the report to the business issues you're addressing. This needs to be used within three months of purchasing the report.
Further information
If you have any questions about this report, please do not hesitate to contact our report team at or call Clare on +44 (0) 1223 813 703 if you are based in EMEA or Raoul on +1 617 577 7890 if you are based in the Americas, ROW or Spain.
Table of Contents
1.1.Strong numbers growth
1.1.1.Leading sectors
1.1.2.Market size at end user prices
1.1.4.Hybrid vs pure electric
1.1.5.What is excluded?
1.2.Market drivers
1.3.Numbers of manufacturers
1.4.Goodbye to the 100 mile range of affordable pure electric vehicles
1.5.The inefficiency of cars
1.6.Hybrid vs pure electric cars
1.6.1.Many manufacturers make profits now
1.6.2.Full circle back to pure EVs
1.6.3.Market by territory
1.6.4.How green are electric vehicles really?
2.1.Definitions and scope of this report
2.1.1.Learning from the past
2.1.2.The EV value chain
2.1.3.Key components
2.2.Pure electric vehicles
2.3.Hybrid electric vehicles
2.3.1.Largest sector by value
2.3.2.Here come range extenders
2.3.3.Second or third generation?
2.3.4.Second generation success
2.3.5.Third generation range extenders in the marketplace
2.3.6.Hybrids at no price penalty
2.4.Born electric - In-Wheel Electric Motors
2.5.Born Electric - Smart skin
2.8.Range extenders fuel cell, mini turbine
2.9.Electric vehicles become less poisonous
3.1.What is included
3.2.Future opportunities Caterpillar USA, JC Bamford UK
3.3.Nissan and Mitsubishi electric forklifts Japan
3.4.New Toyota forklifts Japan
3.5.Zheijang Goodsense Forklift China
3.6.Linde Germany, Komatsu Japan
3.7.Listing of manufacturers
3.8.Market size
3.9.Market forecasts 2012-2022
4.1.What is included
4.1.1.Sub categories
4.1.4.Odyne hybrid truck propulsion
4.1.5.Balqon Pure Electric Trucks and Bus Drive
4.2.Market drivers
4.2.1.Governments get involved
4.3.Important initiatives
4.3.1.Azure Dynamics
4.4.EVs for local services
4.5.Airport EVs
4.6.Small people-movers
4.7.Light industrial aids
4.8.Listing of manufacturers
4.9.Market forecasts 2012-2022
5.1.The sector with the most compelling and enduring need
5.2.The demographic time-bomb
5.2.1.Ageing population and the dependent elderly
5.2.2.Laws make mobility easier
5.3.Types of mobility vehicle
5.3.1.Growth by new market segments
5.3.2.Interchina Industry Group China
5.4.Market drivers
5.4.1.Geographical distribution
5.4.2.Needs creating new segments
5.4.3.What is driving regional differences?
5.4.4.Zhejiang R&P Industry China
5.4.5.Pride Mobility, USA
5.5.Listing of manufacturers
5.6.Market forecasts 2012-2022
5.6.1.Growth by creating new markets
6.1.What is included
6.2.Prices and performances compared
6.3.Electric two wheeler companies
6.3.1.Yamaha Japan
6.3.2.Eko Vehicles hybrid scooters India
6.3.3.Interchina Industry Group foldable electric bike China
6.3.4.Honda Japan
6.3.5.Suzuki fuel cell bike Japan
6.3.6.Peugeot E-Vivacity scooter France
6.3.7.Cytronex lightweight bicycle USA
6.3.8.Daymak Canada
6.4.Market drivers
6.4.1.Bicycles and electric bicycles
6.4.2.Hybrid motorcycles
6.5.Listing of manufacturers
6.6.Market forecasts 2012-2022
7.1.What is included
7.2.Market drivers
7.2.1.Golf course creation
7.2.2.Secondary market - golf cars not used for golf
7.2.3.No more growth
7.2.4.Change of leader: Ingersoll Rand beats Textron USA
7.2.5.Suzhou Eagle and many others in China
7.3.Listing of manufacturers
7.4.Market forecasts 2012-2022
7.4.2.Statistics for all bicycles
8.1.Adoption of electric cars
8.2.US and Europe try to catch up
8.3.Rapid increase in number of manufacturers
8.4.Providing charging infrastructure
8.4.1.Recharging points
8.4.2.Battery changing points
8.4.3.Can the grid cope?
8.5.Market 2012-2022
9.1.Déjà Vu
9.1.2.Pure electric cars are a necessary part of the range?
9.2.Examples of pure EV cars
9.2.1.Nissan Japan - most ambitious of all?
9.2.2.Here come the Chinese - BYD, Brilliance, Geely, Chengfang
9.2.3.Jianghsu China
9.2.4.Interchina Industry Group China
9.2.5.High performance pure EVs - Tesla USA
9.2.6.Pininfarina Bolloré Bluecar France, Italy
9.2.7.REVA India
9.2.8.Club Car USA
9.2.9.Toyota Japan
9.2.10.Detroit Electric USA
9.2.11.Tara Tiny India
9.2.12.Kleenspeed Technologies goes mainstream
9.2.13.Mitsubishi Japan
10.1.Construction and advantages of hybrids
10.3.Chevrolet Volt USA
10.4.Ford plug-in hybrid USA
10.5.Market drivers
10.5.1.Leading indicators
10.6.History of hybrids and planned models to 2013
11.1.Examples of military EVs
11.1.1.Hummer USA / China
11.1.2.Quantum Technologies USA Aggressor AMV
11.1.3.US Army trucks etc - ZAP, Columbia ParCar USA
11.1.4.Oshkosh Truck Corp USA
11.1.5.Plug-in trucks - BAE Systems UK
11.1.6.Electric robot vehicles USA
11.1.7.UQM unmanned combat vehicle USA
11.1.8.Balqon Corporation
11.2.Electric Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs)
11.2.1.Small electrical UAVs
11.2.2.SUAV batteries
11.2.3.The most successful electric UAV
11.2.4.Micro nano air vehicles
11.2.5.Large electrical UAVs
11.2.6.COM-BAT robot bat USA
11.3.Examples of military EVs - in the water
11.3.1.Robot jellyfish USA and Germany
11.4.Manufacturers of military EVs
11.5.Market forecasts 2012-2022
12.1.1.Hybrid and pure electric tugboats
12.2.Market segments
12.2.1.Total market
12.2.3.On the water
12.3.Commonality with land EVs
12.3.1.Grants for land and water
12.3.2.Effect of land EV manufacturers entering marine
12.4.Market drivers
12.4.1.Pollution laws back electric boats - India, Europe, USA
12.4.2.Energy harvesting superyacht UK
12.4.3.Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUVs) - Europe, USA
12.5.Manufacturers by country and product
12.6.Selling prices
12.7.Market forecasts 2012-2022
13.2.Market drivers
13.3.Listing of manufacturers by country and product
13.4.Market size and trends
13.4.1.Aircraft - Renault, Piccard
13.4.2.Solar Impulse
13.4.3.Non-military mobile robots - USA, UK, Japan
13.4.4.The Electrolux Automower Sweden
13.4.5.Rescue robots in Germany
13.4.6.Robots on Mars
13.4.8.Research and hobbyist
13.5.Market forecasts 2012-2022
1.1.Number of hybrid and pure electric cars sold and those that plug-in in thousands 2012-2022 with trend in battery capacity in kWh
1.2.Trend in battery type by application of vehicle 2012-2022
1.3.Main market drivers 2012-2022
1.4.Numbers of EVs, in thousands, sold globally, 2012-2022, by applicational sector
1.5.Ex factory unit price of EVs, in thousands of US dollars, sold globally, 2012-2022, by applicational sector, rounded
1.6.Ex factory value of EVs, in billions of US dollars, sold globally, 2012-2022, by applicational sector, rounded
1.7.Approximate number of manufacturers of electric vehicles worldwide in 2012 by application with numbers for China
1.8.Global electric car sales in thousands for 2011 and 2012 by manufacturer including neighbourhood electric vehicles NEV but not golf cars
1.9.Toyota Prius hybrid car sales 1997-2010 by region in thousands. In 2011, this remained the world's best selling on-road EV by a big margin
1.10.Global sales of electric cars number thousands, ex factory unit price in thousands of dollars and total value in billions of dollars 2012-2022, rounded.
1.11.Value of the hybrid, pure electric and total electric car market percentage 2012-2022
1.12.The value of the electric vehicle market by territory % East Asia, Europe, North America, Other 2012 and 2022 %
1.13.Leading user nations by application of electric vehicle whether hybrid or pure electric
2.1.Energy, number of riders and energy per 100 kilometers per person for different on-road travel options.
2.2.Some reasons why ICE vehicles are replaced with EVs
3.1.Twenty examples of manufacturers of heavy industrial EVs by country
3.2.Percentage split of global manufacture of heavy industrial trucks
3.3.Global sales of heavy industrial EVs by numbers, ex factory unit price and total value 2012-2022, rounded
3.4.Sales of heavy electric vehicles by region by percentage of units
4.1.150 manufacturers of light industrial and commercial EVs and drive trains by country and examples of their products
4.2.Global sales of buses, ex factory unit price and total value 2012-2022, rounded
4.3.Global sales of light industrial and commercial EVs excluding buses by numbers thousands, ex factory unit price in thousands of dollars and total value in billions of dollars 2012-2022, rounded
4.4.Sales of light electric/ commercial vehicles by region 2005, 2010, 2015, 2020 by percentage of units
5.1.Statistics relevant to the challenge to society caused by ageing population
5.2.Evolution of three families of powered vehicles for the disabled
5.3.Evolution of power chairs 1980 to 2010
5.4.Evolution of scooters for the disabled 1980 to 2010
5.5.The continental percentage split of markets for vehicles for the disabled by value in 2012
5.6.The percentage split of market for vehicles for the disabled by country within Europe
5.7.The numbers in thousands of scooters plus power chairs that were and will be sold in Europe 2005 to 2015
5.8.Features of mobility vehicles that may hold up the price by offering more in future
5.9.The percentage distribution of manufacture between Taiwan and Mainland China by value of vehicles for the disabled 2005, 2010 and 2015
5.10.Market for EVs for the disabled by geographical region, ex works pricing and percentage split in 2005, 2010 and 2020
5.11.82 examples of manufacturers of EVs for the disabled by country
5.12.Global sales of EVs used as mobility aids for the disabled by number, ex factory unit price in thousands of dollars and total value in billions of dollars, 2012-2022, rounded
6.1.Prices and performance of electric two wheelers
6.2.70 examples of manufacturers of two wheel EVs and electric quad bikes
6.3.Largest suppliers of electric bicycles by number (not in order)
6.4.34 sources of two wheelers in China by brand, region and battery chemistry
6.5.Listing of light electric scooter makers in China. Most use lead-acid battery chemistry but there is a move to lithium-ion batteries
6.6.Global sales of two wheel and allied EVs number, ex factory unit price in thousands of dollars and total value in billions of dollars 2012-2022, rounded
6.7.Sales of Light Electric Vehicles LEVs (two wheelers and allied eg electric quad bikes and on road three wheel micro cars) by region by percentage of units.
7.1.19 examples of golf EV manufacturers
7.2.Global sales of electric golf cars and motorised caddies in number thousands, ex factory unit price in thousands of dollars and total value in billions of dollars 2012-2022, rounded
7.3.Geographical split of golf EV sales by value 2010, 2015 and 2020
8.1.Global stimulus for fuel efficient cars in 2009
8.2.121 examples of manufacturers of EV cars
8.3.Global sales of electric cars number thousands, ex factory unit price in thousands of dollars and total value in billions of dollars 2012-2022, rounded
10.1.Major market drivers for growth in hybrid sales
10.2.Hybrid electric vehicles and associated events 1876-2013
11.1.Data for RQ-11A version of AeroVironment Raven
11.2.26 suppliers of military EVs
11.3.Global sales of electric military vehicles in number thousands, ex factory unit price in thousands of dollars and total value in billions of dollars 2012-2022, rounded
11.4.Military electric vehicle sales by region 2005, 2010, 2015 and 2020 in percentage units
12.1.44 examples of manufacturers of EV electric water craft
12.2.Leading manufacturers of remotely operated and autonomous underwater vehicles for sale
12.3.Indicative prices for marine EVs in 2010
12.4.Global sales of electric marine craft in number thousands, ex factory unit price in thousands of dollars and total value in billions of dollars 2012-2022, rounded
13.1.30 examples of manufacturers of mobile robots, toy, leisure, research or hobbyist EVs by country and product
13.2.Global sales of other electric vehicles (including civil aircraft and robot) in number thousands, ex factory unit price in thousands of dollars and total value in billions of dollars 2012-2022, rounded
14.1.Number of gas stations ("service stations") by region in 2010
1.1.2022 expenditure on EVs by sector $ billion ex factory
1.2.Electric vehicle upfront cost vs their traction battery energy storage
1.3.Numbers of EVs, in thousands, sold globally, 2012-2022, by applicational sector
1.4.Ex factory unit price of EVs, in thousands of US dollars, sold globally, 2012-2022, by applicational sector, rounded
1.5.Ex factory value of EVs, in billions of US dollars, sold globally, 2012-2022, by applicational sector, rounded
1.6.Approximate number of manufacturers of electric vehicles worldwide by application in 2012
1.7.Number of manufacturers of electric vehicles in China by application in 2012
1.8.GenESSys 40KWh Modular Smart Battery
1.9.KleenSpeed KAR Platform
1.10.KAR S 2+2 Concept
1.11.Energy per 100 kilometers per person for different on-road travel options
1.12.Possible evolution of affordable, mainstream electric cars and other electric vehicles
1.13.Carbon Intensity CO2 kg/kWh and % Fossil fuel in power sector
1.14.LCA greenhouse emissions of a compact car with different drive trains
1.15.Carbon emissions, in grams CO2 per km, of a selection of cars for sale in the UK
2.1.EV sectors with the largest gross sales value and profits over the years
2.2.Electric vehicle value chain
2.3.Increasing inefficiency of private vehicles with size, even when fully occupied
2.4.Increasing efficiency of buses with size when fully occupied
2.5.Energy per 100 kilometers per person for different on-road travel options
2.6.The Bladon Jets microturbine range extender is the size of two cans of beans
2.7.Planned Jaguar supercar with microturbine range extenders
2.8.Boeing fuel cell plane trial
2.9.Principle of a PEM fuel cell
2.10.Toyota hybrid fork lift for heavy outdoor duty
2.11.Tyrano Big Rig
2.12.Ford MKZ Hybrid
2.13.The Lohner-Porsche electric vehicle of 1898 showing its two in-wheel electric motors. Another version had four
2.14.Mitsubishi in-wheel motor
2.15.Mine resistant ambush protected - All Terrain Vehicle MATV
2.16.MATV structure
2.17.Volvo ReCharge concept hybrid
2.18.Fraunhofer in-wheel motor on an Artega GT
2.19.SIM Drive in wheel traction
2.20.EMRAX 222 Duplex Motor
2.21.The dream of smart skin for land, sea and air vehicles
2.22.Competing electric drive train technologies and their targets by market sector
2.23.Proton Electron Membrane
2.24.Toyota hybrid outdoor forklift
3.1.Caterpillar CAT series hybrid diesel electric bulldozer
3.2.Nissan lithium forklift
3.3.Mitsubishi diesel electric hybrid lifter
3.4.Toyota Material Handling has launched the new Traigo 48 in 2010, a powerful electric forklift fitted into a compact and agile package
3.5.Forklift from one of the many Chinese manufacturers
4.1.Orion VII hybrid electric bus USA
4.2.Nova RTS hybrid electric bus USA
4.3.Gillig low floor hybrid bus in USA
4.4.Two buses in Brazil using the locally made Eletra hybrid power trains
4.5.Kent electric city bus from China
4.6.Hino Blue Ribbon hybrid diesel electric bus in China
4.7.Lightning Motorcycle's Balqon-equipped superbike
4.8.Electric bus in Nepal
4.9.Mobile electric scissor lift by Wuhan Chancay Machinery and Electronics
4.10.Garbage collecting electric car
4.11.Market for light industrial and commercial electric vehicles in 2012 in $ billion
4.12.Market for industrial and commercial electric vehicles in 2022
5.1.Percentage of dependent elderly 1970 to 2040
5.2.New Pihsiang Shoprider pure electric mobility vehicle for the disabled
5.3.The Electric Car (INEC-KARO) for the disabled from Interchina Industry Group
5.4.Zhejiang R&P Industry ES 413
5.5.Pride Jazzy - making new things possible
6.1.Yamaha EC-f and EC-fs concept electric scooters
6.2.Yamaha EC03
6.3.Eko Vehicles ET-120 hybrid scooter
6.4.Foldable Electric Bike (LNEB-9601
6.5.Honda EV Cub sports twin, front and rear electric drive motors.
6.6.Suzuki Burgman Fuel Cell Scooter powered by Intelligent Energy
6.7.Peugeot E-Vivacity electric scooter planned for 2010
6.8.Cytronex light-weight electric bike
6.9.Shadow eBike is powered by Daymak Drive
6.10.e-bikes parked in Yangzhou China
6.11.Electric mopeds parked in Cheghdu China
7.1.Tonaro golf and general purpose vehicle from China
7.2.Suzhou Eagle two and four seat golf cars from China
7.3.Yongkang Fourstar golf vehicles from China
7.4.Shadong Wuzheng golf cars from China
7.5.Jinhua Ryder golf car from China
7.6.World bicycle and automoblie production, 1950-2007
8.1.Geographical distribution of 120 companies making or intending to make electric cars
9.1.Trouvé pure EV car in 1881
9.2.Red Bug pure EV in 1930
9.3.Sinclair C5
9.6.The BYD E6 pure EV car
9.7.Jianghsu DHCLBC EF-1 car
9.8.Electric Car (INEC-BOBI)
9.9.Tesla Motors Roadster pure EV performance car
9.10.Pininfarina Bolloré Bluecar showing solar panels on roof and hood
9.11.Pininfarina Bolloré Bluecar cross section
9.12.REVA pure EV car
9.13.The Club Car street legal car launched in 2009
9.14.Toyota pure EV city car
9.15.Detroit Electric
9.16.Tara Tiny
9.17.Mitsubishi pure EV car
10.1.Evolution of EV design for on-road and many non-road vehicles
10.2.Chevrolet Volt battery, generator and drive unit positioning
11.1.Oshkosh truck
11.2.Balqon Mule M150
11.3.SPI electrical SUAV
11.4.Examples of SUAV rechargeable lithium batteries. Top: Flight Power "EVO 20" Lithium Polymer battery. Bottom: Sion Power lithium sulfur
11.5.AeroVironment Raven
11.6.AeroVironment Aqua Puma UAV completes Royal Australian Navy Sea trials in 2007
11.7.AeroVironment Helios
11.8.Aurora Flight Sciences solar plane that takes off in parts and self-assembles at altitude
11.10.Robotic Bat
12.1.Hybrid tugboat
12.2.Engine room of the hybrid tugboat
12.3.Bratt electric tugboat
12.4.Electric deck boat by Leisure Life
12.5.Electric launch
12.6.Solar powered boats for tourism cruising at 12 kph on Lake Geneva
12.7.The rigid-wing superyacht concept called 'Soliloquy'
13.2."Zep'lin" photovoltaic sail adjustment
13.3.Solar Impulse
13.4.The Electrolux Automower
13.5.Robots for Mars

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Hybrid and Electric Vehicles for Military, Police & Security 2012-2022
Land, water and air: new profitable opportunities
Electric Vehicle Forecasts, Trends and Opportunities 2015-2025
Hybrid and pure electric vehicles for land, water and air


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