การทำเหมืองแร่ไฟฟ้า: ยานพาหนะ, Generation, Repurposing 2022-2042: IDTechEx

Mine zero-emission generation, storage, repurposing adds $31 billion of electric vehicles 2030

การทำเหมืองแร่ไฟฟ้า: ยานพาหนะ, Generation, Repurposing 2022-2042

แบตเตอรี่ไฟฟ้า, ไฮบริด, microgrid, การจัดเก็บพลังงาน, เหมืองหิน, หลุม, เหมืองลึก, พื้นมหาสมุทร, ไร้คนขับ, เหมืองแร่ค่อยๆ repurposed เป็นตารางการจัดเก็บและเครื่องกำเนิดไฟฟ้า

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IDTechEx report, "Mining Electrification: Vehicles, Generation, Repurposing 2022-2042" is unique in looking at these poorly-covered aspects for 20 years ahead so you can see what is really happening. The commercially-oriented 310-page analysis reveals many surprises and gaps in the market.
Electrification is inevitable, driven by cost, regulations, health, reputation and ever-tougher location and nature of remaining reserves. The unmanned mine has arrived and, to be optimal, it can only be electric. The report explains why faster adoption is possible, giving competitive advantage. Learn how mines often have stronger market drivers and options for electrification than other industries. For example, with emerging technologies described, pit sides, flooded pits, salt caverns, spare mineshafts, mountain quarries and the ocean above sea-floor mining can store or generate required electricity. Sometimes more, creating extra income.
Solar and wind power with energy independence is the mining trend but that means increased energy storage from hours to seasonal. See how mines will incorporate gravity storage, floating solar, caverns for compressed air storage all becoming electricity when needed. The report covers these and other mine-friendly options, with cited examples of excellence. Indeed, mines can transition to full repurposing when they are exhausted - to energy storage and production. Much of the cost of making-good becomes profit from these and other forms of repurposing covered.
The report answers these and other key questions:
  • Financial benefits of electrification being under-estimated, leading to wrong decisions?
  • Number, cost and market value of mining electric vehicles by type 2022-2042?
  • Critical appraisal of electrification activities of over 50 suppliers and mines?
  • Roadmap of initiatives, new options and technology progress 2022-2042?
  • Benchmarking best practice against other industries that are electrifying?
  • New battery vs hybrid vs fuel cell options: size, endurance, usefulness?
  • Solar doubles power, new wind power has less dead time: how, when?
  • Autonomy of vehicles and generation intimately linked to electrics?
  • Scope for consolidation of the mining supplier value chain?
  • Scope for vehicle standardisation even beyond mines?
Uniquely, it looks in detail at the next twenty years because many pivotal advances will occur after ten years that need to influence planning and viability calculations now. Think 6G in mines, diesel demise, fuel-cell end-game or doubling the electricity in mining vehicle batteries. Later change of course to incorporate such opportunities is expensive and sometimes even impossible with autonomy linked to electrics and in deep mining.
Sufficient in itself for those with limited time, the Executive Summary and Conclusions takes 47 pages to give the current and future mining situation with interpretation by PhD level, multilingual IDTechEx analysts worldwide. See new transition options - diesel to electric and how mines themselves can profitably transition to other functions well before end-of-life. Examples presented include acting as renewable power sources, grid storage without batteries, low-cost microgrids for chemical production and communities. New data includes industry opinions, patents, technology choices by year, best practice. Forecasts and detailed roadmap uniquely span 2022-2042.
The 42 page Introduction explains the mining mix, capex, valuation and other trends. Then see the choice of electric vehicle powertrains, microgrid architectures, threats to grid supply and escape routes. Learn how leading vehicle suppliers span the commonalities of the construction, agriculture, mining CAM sector. Here are examples of best practice in mining and its electrification with choices and technology maturity plus the emissions task ahead.
Chapter 3, "Mine electrification leading to end-of-life income instead of cost" takes 62 pages to explain options, most of which have never-before appeared in mining reports but represent important future contributions to profit and green credentials. We explain why batteries sit awkwardly in the provision of electricity to mine facilities but new battery-less storage options will excite. See battery-less storage leveraging mine infrastructure both during operation and after mine repurposing. Here are gravity storage in different forms relevant to everything from sea-floor mining to mountain quarries, deep mines and open pit. Here is delayed electricity from compressed or liquid air with the lesser place of supercapacitors and flywheels and how mines can serve in the global storage business quantified here.
Chapter 4, "New toolkit for energy-independent, zero-emission mine power", in 24 pages, explains mining power needs and current solutions. This is set against the full breadth of zero-emission generation options - solar, wind and water. Mining by use of self-produced zero-emission electricity is presented with examples and microgrid architecture explained. Here are new chemistries and formats for solar, wind and water power beating diesel on cost over future years. Diagrams and graphs make it clear.
Chapter 5. "Mining electric vehicle appraisal: 23 manufacturers" covers all sizes of vehicle and critical appraisal of suppliers from across the world. Emphasis is on battery electric vehicles because of their importance but coverage includes hybrids and fuel-cell, a special form of hybrid. It needs 69 pages because latest models, successes and intentions are included.
Chapter 6. "Autonomous and remotely operated mining vehicles in action" is there because electrics gives one tenth of the response time and is intimately compatible with autonomy technology. It takes only 14 pages to introduce everything from robotic giant trucks to remotely-operated underwater inspection robots in mines. IDTechEx has drill-down reports on vehicle autonomy giving technology and predictions in great detail.
Chapter 7 presents 29 pages on "Enabling technologies for mining electric vehicles". Motors, batteries and more are explained with future trends predicted. IDTechEx has deep-dive reports on all these topics.
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Table of Contents
1.1.Purpose and scope of this report
1.2.Primary conclusions in summary
1.3.Drivers and benefits of mining electrification
1.4.Views of mining executives
1.5.IDTechEx mines of the future infogram
1.6.Types of mine emerging
1.6.1.Deep mines, block caving and sea floor
1.6.2.Open pit (open cast) all-electric mine of the future
1.6.3.Electric land and air deep pit vehicles charging from zero emission microgrids
1.7.Making and storing the electricity
1.8.Repurposing with electricity
1.9.Industry trends: zero-emission vehicles and power generation
1.10.Some regional trends
1.11.Industry technical dynamics
1.12.Mining capex trends
1.13.Market forecasts number k electric mining vehicles 2022-2042
1.14.Market forecasts unit price $k mining electric land vehicles 2022-2042
1.15.Market forecasts mining electric land vehicles 2022-2042 - market value $ billion
1.16.Transition from diesel
1.16.1.When mining BEVs have lower up-front price than diesel 2022-2042
1.16.2.Facilitating transition
1.16.3.Evidence of the price parity/ size trend
1.17.Examples of excellence in actual and potential mine electrification
1.18.Mining vehicle market outlook
1.19.Adoption timeline for mining electrification 2022-2032
1.20.Adoption timeline for mining electrification 2032-2042
1.21.Patent analysis
2.1.Mining today
2.2.Mining basics
2.3.Mining gets more challenging
2.4.More mining needed
2.5.Threats, incentives, views of mining executives
2.6.Electric vehicles EV vs non-electric vehicles
2.7.Diesel vs battery-electric cost
2.8.Vehicles used in both construction and mining
2.9.Hybrids as interim stage
2.10.Powertrain trends by type of mining vehicle
2.11.Vehicle simplification
2.11.1.Reduce diesel mining vehicle parts by 90% with electrics: same as with cars
2.12.Pollution control
2.12.1.Carbon dioxide emissions from mobile machinery
2.12.2.Emission push for pure electric equipment
2.13.Major equipment manufacturers: 11 examples of CAM coverage
2.14.Dana Oerlikon
2.15.Here come mines electrified then unmanned
2.15.2.Goldcorp Chapleau unmanned electric mine 2020
2.16.Sustainable mining
2.17.Future of quarrying
2.18.Future of underground mining
2.19.Mining EV manufacturers by type and maturity 2020
2.20.EVs in operation by mine: examples
2.21.Examples of EVs for mines
2.22.Examples: load haul dump LHD
3.2.Energy storage classification
3.3.Batteries currently dominate mine stationary energy storage
3.4.Primary conclusions for stationary storage without batteries 2022-2042: big picture
3.5.Primary conclusions for stationary storage without batteries 2022-2042: technology
3.6.Growing energy storage market
3.7.Addressing the issues - technology evolution
3.8.Which technology will dominate the overall battery-less market including mining?
3.9.Gravity storage
3.9.1.Energy Vault
3.9.2.Gravitricity - piston-based energy storage
3.9.3.Mountain Gravity Energy Storage (MGES)
3.9.4.Underground - U-PHES Gravity Power and Heindl
3.10.Compressed air CAES storage
3.10.1.Principles and issues
3.10.2.Example of employing former mines
3.10.3.Drawbacks of CAES
3.10.4.Diabatic Compressed Energy Storage (D-CAES)
3.10.5.Adiabatic - Compressed Air Energy Storage (A-CAES)
3.10.6.Isothermal - Compressed Air Energy Storage (I-CAES)
3.10.7.Main players in CAES technologies
3.10.8.CAES players and projects to 2027
3.11.Liquid Air Energy Storage
3.11.2.LAES Companies and Projects
3.11.3.LAES Analyst analysis
3.12.Roundup: Different properties for different applications
3.13.Comparison of energy storage devices
3.14.Stationary energy storage without batteries MWh 2041
3.15.Repurposing mines as electricity generators
4.1.Progress to CAM electrics with off-grid zero emission
4.2.Making the electricity
4.3.Mining by use of self-produced zero-emission electricity
4.4.Zero emission microgrids: solar, water, wind reinvented
4.5.New options beyond solar: relocatable, much less intermittent
4.6.Open tide "tide stream" power options mimic wind power options
4.7.Comparison of off-grid technology options
4.8.New power generating technology kVA comparison
4.9.Airborne Wind Energy developers
4.10.Open sea wave power technologies
4.11.Green hydrogen from renewables
4.12.1.Rio Tinto solar mine
4.12.2.What is fitted on satellites appears on mining microgrids and vehicles later
4.12.3.Solar bodywork
4.12.4.Solar gensets
4.12.5.Envision Solar transportable solar tracks the sun
4.12.6.Floatovoltaics for coal mining and gravel pits
4.12.7.Anatomy of a typical solar + battery microgrid
4.12.8.Solar vs diesel cost analysis
5.1.Artisan Vehicle Systems (Sandvik)
5.4.Deere & Co
5.5.Energetique Mining Vehicles
5.7.ETF Mining
5.8.GE Mining
5.11.Komatsu including Joy Global, Le Tourneau
5.12.Liebherr Group
5.14.Maclean Engineering
5.16.Miller Technology
5.18.OJSC Belaz
5.19.Partisan Motors
5.20.RDH Scharf
5.23.Volvo Group
6.3.Built Robotics
6.4.Mine rescue Gemini Scout
6.5.Mine inspection AZO Robotics
6.6.Mine monitor Julius
6.7.Underwater UNEXMiN
6.8.Drilling rig Epiroc Simba W6-C
6.9.Giant dump trucks Komatsu
6.10.Quarries Volvo
6.11.GMG mining robot guidelines
7.1.Seven key EV enabling technologies for mining EVs
7.2.Overview of electrics in mining vehicles
7.3.Traction motors
7.3.2.Operating principles for EV use
7.3.3.Electric motor choices in EVs for CAM applications
7.3.4.Example: Le Tourneau and others
7.3.5.Choices of motor position
7.3.8.Motor trends: Protean Electric, Lightyear, YASA
7.3.9.Ziehl-Abegg in-wheel drive for trucks etc.
7.3.10.Possible long term trend of motor technology
7.4.Batteries and supercapacitors
7.4.2.Battery requirements for CAM electric vehicles
7.4.3.Example: JCB excavators
7.4.4.Future W/kg vs Wh/kg 2020-2030
7.4.5.Energy density 2020-2030
7.4.6.Disadvantages of Li-ion batteries
7.4.7.Forecast of Li-ion battery cost (industrial) $/kWh)
7.4.8.Battery packs
7.4.11.Lithium Storage GmbH
7.4.12.Battery Packs - Saminco

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Slides 311
Forecasts to 2042
ISBN 9781913899646

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