การจัดการระบายความร้อนสำหรับยานพาหนะไฟฟ้า 2023-2033: IDTechEx

3.4TWh of liquid cooled electric car batteries by 2033

การจัดการระบายความร้อนสำหรับยานพาหนะไฟฟ้า 2023-2033

การจัดการความร้อนของแบตเตอรี่ลิเธียมไอออน มอเตอร์ฉุดลาก และอุปกรณ์อิเล็กทรอนิกส์กำลังแนวโน้มและการคาดการณ์ตลาดสำหรับวัสดุ เทคโนโลยี และกลยุทธ์การจัดการระบายความร้อน


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Thermal management continues to be a key topic for electric vehicle (EV) design. Early trends in the market largely revolved around the adoption of active cooling for the battery pack, now this is the industry standard. However, batteries, motors, and power electronics in EVs continue to evolve with developments of cell-to-pack designs, directly oil-cooled motors, and silicon carbide power electronics being just a few of the key trends that will impact thermal management strategies across the key driveline components in an EV. As the thermal management market evolves, opportunities arise for materials companies, component suppliers, vehicle designers, and other players in the rapidly growing EV industry.
 
This report from IDTechEx analyses the EV market and the thermal management strategies adopted by OEMs and their suppliers, with a look to the future and how key EV technology trends will impact these methods for electric vehicle batteries, motors, power electronics, and charging infrastructure. This information is obtained from primary and secondary sources across the EV industry. The research also utilises IDTechEx's extensive electric car database that consists of over 450 model variants with their sales figures for 2015-2022H1 plus technical specifications such as battery capacity, battery thermal strategy, motor power, motor cooling strategy, and many others. Market shares are given for existing thermal management strategies (air, oil, water, immersion) for the battery, motor, and inverter in EVs along with market forecasts to 2033.
 
Battery: cell-to-pack, coolants, thermal interface materials, and fire protection
The key factors for EV battery development are increasing energy density and reducing costs. This has been made more difficult with supply chain shortages, but battery designs are becoming simpler as designers start to remove materials that are not the cells. This strategy culminates in cell-to-pack or cell-to-body designs. Cell-to-pack eliminates strict module housings in favour of having all of the cells stacked together. Cell-to-body makes the battery a structural part of the vehicle. Designs from BYD, Tesla, and others have made it on to the road, with further announced designs coming to market in the near future. With the removal of so much from the pack, how does this impact thermal management?
 
Some active cooling strategies will remain similar, with a large cold plate beneath or above the cells, albeit now in contact directly with cells rather than their module housing. This minor change has a severe impact on thermal interface material (TIM) utilisation pushing in favour of thermally conductive adhesives to make a structural connection rather than the typical gap filler seen in many existing designs. This report forecasts TIM demand for EV batteries to 2023 in terms of mass and revenue, segmented by gap pad, gap filler, and thermally conductive adhesive.
 
As materials are removed from the pack, one might ask how fire safety is impacted? Removing module housings also removes a potential containment opportunity and several surfaces for fire protection. Many material suppliers are now tailoring their materials to provide multiple functions, including fire protection. This enables fire protection to be included without severely impacting energy density of the pack. These include inter-cell materials that provide compression, thermal insulation, and fire protection as examples. This report gives an overview of some of the material options with a total forecast to 2033. For a segmented material forecast and deeper dive into fire protection, please see the Fire Protection Materials for EVs report by IDTechEx.
 
The transition to active liquid battery cooling has happened quicker than many, including IDTechEx, had originally predicted. In the first half of 2022, over 70% of the electric car market was using liquid cooling. The benefits of greater thermal performance and integration with the whole vehicle's thermal management system have outweighed the reduced complexity of air cooling. However, within this, we have seen a greater adoption of refrigerant cold plate cooling, gaining 6.5% greater market share in 2022 over 2021. Whilst typical automotive coolants and refrigerants have been used to date, there is gathering interest in tailoring these coolants to EVs, with lower electrical conductivity as one of the new features. This report forecasts the adoption of air, liquid, refrigerant, and immersion cooling for EV batteries in terms of kWh cooled by each method.
 
 
Thermal management trends vary by region. Liquid cooling gained dominance at the expense of air cooling. Source: IDTechEx
Motors
For electric motors, the magnets used in the rotor and the windings used in the stator must be kept in an optimal operating temperature window to avoid damage or inefficient operation. Water-glycol used in a jacket around the motor has been the standard thermal management strategy for electric motors in EVs. However, recent years have seen much greater adoption of directly oil cooling the motor to provide better thermal performance, and in some cases, eliminate the cooling jacket, reducing the overall motor size. Oil cooling became the dominant form of cooling for EV motors in the first half of 2022, but that's not to say that water-jackets are going away, they are often used in conjunction with oil cooling, and water-glycol coolant is typically used to remove heat from the oil and can be used to integrate with the vehicles thermal management strategy as a whole. IDTechEx provides a 10 year forecast of electric motors segmented by the use of air, oil, or water-glycol cooling.
 
 
Permanent magnet motors have remained the dominant motor type in 2022. Source: IDTechEx
Power electronics
The adoption of SiC is the largest trend in the news for EV power electronics and with good justification. The EV market provides a huge addressable market for adoption of the wide bandgap semiconductor to enable higher system efficiencies. This has had an impact on the construction of power electronics packages. Developments are happening for wire bonding, die-attach, and substrate materials, largely with the goal of improving package reliability, especially for wide bandgap semiconductor modules. Many inverter suppliers have now eliminated the TIM between the heatsink and baseplate to improve thermal resistance, although this does not mean there are no TIM opportunities within power electronics. Many components still require a TIM and TIMs are often still used to bond the module heat sink to the water-glycol cold plates. The report provides analysis of these trends and the drivers behind adoption.
 
Inverter IGBT or SiC MOSFET modules are mostly cooled using water-glycol. However, both single-side and double-sided cooling options are used, each with their own benefits. There has also been an increase in using oil to cool power electronics to eliminate much of the water-glycol componentry within the electric drive unit, using the same oil for the motors and inverter. Whilst there has not been adoption of this approach in the current market, IDTechEx sees promise for this approach and includes a 10-year forecast for EV inverters using air, water, or oil cooling.
 
 
Several components in a power electronics package present thermal management challenges/opportunities. Source: IDTechEx
 
New content in this report version
Every chapter and forecast has been updated to reflect new models, new trends, and announcements. Some specific highlights for new content are as below.
 
Battery
  • New models added to EV range comparison with ambient temperature.
  • Updated market shares of vehicles with a heat pump for 2015-2022H1 and forecast to 2033.
  • New chapter on coolant fluids and refrigerants specific for EVs. Some examples of EV thermal architectures are included.
  • Updated examples of OEMs utilizing each battery thermal management strategy (air, liquid, refrigerant, and immersion).
  • Analysis of thermal management strategy by battery capacity.
  • Regional market shares of air, liquid, and refrigerant cooling in China, EU, and the US updated for 2015-2022H1.
  • Market shares of air, liquid, and refrigerant cooling depending on cell format (cylindrical, pouch, or prismatic).
  • Updated global market share of air, liquid, and refrigerant cooling with forecast to 2033.
  • Updated immersion cooling players, applications, and fluid volume forecasts for electric cars, construction and agriculture EVs to 2033.
  • Updated overview of cold plate design.
  • New EV battery thermal management use-cases added.
  • Players, trends and use-cases for thermal interface materials updated.
  • Cell-to-pack designs and their impact on thermal interface materials.
  • Thermal interface material pricing analysis.
  • Thermal interface material forecast updated to 2033 and now segmented by gap pad, gap filler, and thermally conductive adhesive (in kg and US$).
  • Rewritten fire protection materials chapter. Includes forecast segmented by pack-level and inter-cell protection. Full material forecasts for this can be found in IDTechEx's Fire Protection Materials for EVs report.
 
Motors
  • Analysis of cooling strategy by motor power.
  • Market share of cooling strategy by motor type.
  • Updated motor thermal management strategies of OEMs.
  • Regional market shares of motor cooling strategy (air, oil, water) for China, EU, and the US.
  • Global forecast of motor cooling strategy (air, oil, water) until 2033.
  • Updated EV motor use-cases.
 
Power electronics
  • Updated power electronics packages from OEMs and inverter suppliers.
  • Further examples of single vs double-sided cooling and adoption.
  • Slides relating to TIM opportunities now that many have eliminated TIMs between heatsink and baseplate.
  • New chapter on liquid cooling power electronics and the drivers for direct oil cooling.
  • New market forecast for air, water, or oil cooled inverters for EVs until 2033.
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Further information
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Table of Contents
1.EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
1.1.What's new in this report?
1.2.Optimal temperatures for multiple components
1.3.Battery thermal management competition
1.4.Thermal system architecture
1.5.BEV cars with heat pumps forecast (units)
1.6.Battery thermal management strategy by OEM
1.7.Higher battery capacities and liquid cooling
1.8.Cooling methodologies by region
1.9.Battery thermal management strategy forecast (GWh)
1.10.Thermal management in cell-to-pack designs
1.11.Immersion fluids: thermal conductivity and specific heat
1.12.Immersion fluid volume forecast (passenger cars, liters)
1.13.Thermal conductivity comparison of suppliers
1.14.Thermal conductivity shift
1.15.TIM pricing by supplier
1.16.TIM forecast for EV batteries by TIM type (revenue, US$)
1.17.Fire protection materials: main categories
1.18.Fire protection material market shares
1.19.Fire protection materials forecast (kg)
1.20.Motor thermal management competition
1.21.Motor cooling strategy by power
1.22.Cooling technology: OEM strategies
1.23.Motor cooling strategy by region
1.24.Motor cooling strategy forecast (units)
1.25.Power electronics thermal management competition
1.26.The transition to SiC
1.27.Advanced wire bonding techniques for inverters
1.28.Why metal sintering for power electronics?
1.29.Drivers for direct oil cooling of inverters
1.30.Inverter cooling strategy forecast (units)
1.31.Company profiles
2.INTRODUCTION
2.1.The growing EV market and need for thermal management
2.2.Electric vehicle definitions
2.3.Optimal temperatures for multiple components
2.4.Battery thermal management competition
2.5.Motor thermal management competition
2.6.Power electronics thermal management competition
3.IMPACT OF TEMPERATURE AND THERMAL MANAGEMENT ON RANGE
3.1.Range calculations
3.2.Impact of ambient temperature and climate control
3.3.Impact of ambient temperature and climate control
3.4.Model comparison against ambient temperature
3.5.Model comparison with climate control
3.6.Model comparison with climate control
3.7.Summary
4.INNOVATIONS IN CABIN HEATING
4.1.Holistic vehicle thermal management
4.2.Technology timeline
4.3.What is a heat pump?
4.4.PTC vs heat pump
4.5.The impact on EV range
4.6.Recent EVs with heat pumps
4.7.BEV cars with heat pumps forecast (units)
4.8.Further innovations
4.9.Advantages of sophisticated thermal management
4.10.Thermal management advanced control: key players and technologies
4.11.Thermal system supplier announcements
4.12.General Motors - heat pump integration
4.13.Hanon Systems - heat pump systems
5.COOLANT FLUIDS, REFRIGERANTS, AND DIFFERENCES FOR EVS
5.1.Thermal system architecture
5.2.Thermal system architecture examples (1)
5.3.Thermal system architecture examples (2)
5.4.Coolant fluids in EVs
5.5.What's different about fluids used for EVs?
5.6.Electrical properties
5.7.Corrosion with fluids
5.8.Reducing viscosity
5.9.Lubrizol - oils for EVs
5.10.Arteco - Water-glycol coolants for EVs
5.11.Dober - water-glycol coolants for EVs
5.12.Refrigerant for EVs
5.13.Summary and outlook
6.THERMAL MANAGEMENT OF LI-ION BATTERIES IN ELECTRIC VEHICLES
6.1.Current technologies and OEM strategies
6.1.1.Introduction to EV battery thermal management
6.1.2.Active vs passive cooling
6.1.3.Passive battery cooling methods
6.1.4.Active battery cooling methods
6.1.5.Air cooling
6.1.6.Liquid cooling
6.1.7.Liquid cooling: design options
6.1.8.Liquid cooling: alternative fluids
6.1.9.Liquid cooling: large OEM announcements
6.1.10.Refrigerant cooling
6.1.11.Hyundai considering refrigerant cooling
6.1.12.Coolants: comparison
6.1.13.Cooling strategy thermal properties
6.1.14.Analysis of battery cooling methods
6.1.15.Battery thermal management strategy by OEM
6.1.16.OEMs are converging on liquid cooling
6.1.17.The emergence of fast charging
6.1.18.Higher battery capacities and liquid cooling
6.1.19.Why liquid cooling dominates
6.1.20.Cooling methodologies by region
6.1.21.Cooling methodologies by cell type
6.1.22.Future global trends in OEM cooling methodologies
6.1.23.Battery thermal management strategy forecast (GWh)
6.1.24.IDTechEx outlook
6.1.25.System changes moving to 800V
6.1.26.Thermal management in 800V systems
6.1.27.Thermal management in 800V systems
6.1.28.Thermal management in cell-to-pack designs
6.2.Immersion cooling for Li-ion batteries in EVs
6.2.1.Immersion cooling: introduction
6.2.2.Single-phase vs two-phase cooling
6.2.3.Immersion cooling fluids requirements
6.2.4.Immersion cooling architecture
6.2.5.Players: immersion fluids for EVs (1)
6.2.6.Players: immersion fluids for EVs (2)
6.2.7.Players: immersion fluids for EVs (3)
6.2.8.Engineered Fluids - dielectric immersion fluids
6.2.9.Immersion fluids: density and thermal conductivity
6.2.10.Immersion fluids: operating temperature
6.2.11.Immersion fluids: thermal conductivity and specific heat
6.2.12.Immersion fluids: viscosity
6.2.13.Immersion fluids: breakdown voltage
6.2.14.Immersion fluids: costs
6.2.15.Immersion fluids: summary
6.2.16.Players: XING Mobility, 3M and Castrol
6.2.17.Players: Rimac and Solvay
6.2.18.Players: Rimac ditching immersion?
6.2.19.Players: M&I Materials and Faraday Future
6.2.20.Players: Exoès, e-Mersiv and FUCHS Lubricants
6.2.21.Players: Kreisel and Shell
6.2.22.Players: Curtiss Motorcycles
6.2.23.LION Electric
6.2.24.McLaren Speedtail and Artura
6.2.25.Mercedes-AMG
6.2.26.SWOT analysis
6.2.27.IDTechEx outlook
6.2.28.Volume of immersion fluids in an EV
6.2.29.Immersion market adoption forecast
6.2.30.Immersion fluid volume forecast (passenger cars, liters)
6.2.31.Immersion fluid volume forecast (construction and agriculture EVs, liters)
6.3.Phase Change Materials (PCMs)
6.3.1.Phase change materials (PCMs)
6.3.2.Phase change materials as thermal energy storage
6.3.3.Fast charge of Li-ion batteries using integrated battery thermal management (iBTM) - AllCell
6.3.4.Calogy Solutions - heat pipe integration with PCMs
6.3.5.Phase change materials - players
6.3.6.PCM categories and pros and cons
6.3.7.PCM vs battery case study
6.3.8.Player: Sunamp
6.3.9.PCMs - players in EVs
6.3.10.Operating temperature range of commercial PCMs
6.3.11.AllCell (Beam Global)
6.3.12.PCMs - use-case and outlook
6.4.Heat spreaders and cooling plates
6.4.1.Inter-cell heat spreaders or cooling plates
6.4.2.Chevrolet Volt and Dana
6.4.3.Advanced cooling plates
6.4.4.Advanced cold plate design
6.4.5.Roll bond aluminium cold plates
6.4.6.Examples of cold plate design
6.4.7.DuPont - hybrid composite/metal cooling plate
6.4.8.L&L Products - structural adhesive to enable a new cold plate design
6.4.9.Senior Flexonics - battery cold plate materials choice
6.4.10.Graphite heat spreaders
6.4.11.NeoGraf - graphitic thermal materials
6.5.Other notable developments
6.5.1.Temperature monitoring for EV batteries
6.5.2.IEE: printed temperature sensor and heater
6.5.3.InnovationLab: Integrated pressure/temperature sensors and heaters for battery cells
6.5.4.Tab cooling rather than surface cooling
6.5.5.Thermoelectric cooling
6.5.6.Skin cooling: Aptera Solar EV
6.6.Thermal management of EV batteries: use-cases
6.6.1.Audi e-tron
6.6.2.Audi e-tron GT
6.6.3.BMW i3
6.6.4.BYD Blade
6.6.5.Chevrolet Bolt
6.6.6.Faraday Future FF 91
6.6.7.Ford Mustang Mach-E/Transit/F150 battery
6.6.8.Hyundai Kona
6.6.9.Hyundai E-GMP
6.6.10.Jaguar I-PACE
6.6.11.Mercedes EQS
6.6.12.MG ZS EV
6.6.13.MG cell-to-pack
6.6.14.Polestar
6.6.15.Rimac Technology
6.6.16.Rivian
6.6.17.Romeo Power
6.6.18.Tesla Model S P85D
6.6.19.Tesla Model 3/Y
6.6.20.Tesla Model 3/Y prismatic LFP pack
6.6.21.Tesla Model S Plaid
6.6.22.Tesla 4680 pack
6.6.23.Toyota Prius PHEV
6.6.24.Toyota RAV4 PHEV
6.6.25.Voltabox
6.6.26.VW MEB Platform
6.6.27.Xerotech
6.7.Thermal interface materials for EV battery packs
6.7.1.Introduction to thermal interface materials for EVs
6.7.2.TIM pack and module overview
6.7.3.TIM application - pack and modules
6.7.4.TIM application by cell format
6.7.5.Key properties for TIMs in EVs
6.7.6.Gap pads in EV batteries
6.7.7.Switching to gap fillers from pads
6.7.8.Dispensing TIMs introduction
6.7.9.Challenges for dispensing TIM
6.7.10.Thermally conductive adhesives in EV batteries
6.7.11.Material options and market comparison
6.7.12.TIM chemistry comparison
6.7.13.The silicone dilemma for the automotive market
6.7.14.Thermal interface material fillers for EV batteries
6.7.15.TIM filler comparison and adoption
6.7.16.Thermal conductivity comparison of suppliers
6.7.17.Factors impacting TIM pricing
6.7.18.TIM pricing by supplier
6.7.19.TIM in cell-to-pack designs
6.7.20.TIM players
6.7.21.TIM EV use cases
6.7.22.TIM forecasts
6.8.Fire protection materials
6.8.1.Thermal runaway and fires in EVs
6.8.2.Battery fires and related recalls (automotive)
6.8.3.Automotive fire incidents: OEMs and causes
6.8.4.EV fires compared to ICEs
6.8.5.Severity of EV fires
6.8.6.EV fires: when do they happen?
6.8.7.Regulations
6.8.8.What are fire protection materials?
6.8.9.Thermally conductive or thermally insulating?
6.8.10.Fire protection materials: main categories
6.8.11.Material comparison
6.8.12.Density vs thermal conductivity - thermally insulating
6.8.13.Material market shares
6.8.14.Fire protection materials forecast (kg)
6.8.15.Fire protection materials
7.THERMAL MANAGEMENT IN EV CHARGING STATIONS
7.1.Overview of charging levels
7.2.High power charging (HPC) will be the new premium public charging solution
7.3.Thermal considerations for fast charging
7.4.Liquid cooled charging stations
7.5.Cable cooling to achieve high power charging
7.6.Tesla adopts liquid-cooled cable for its Supercharger
7.7.Liquid-cooled connector for ultra fast charging
7.8.Brugg eConnect liquid cooled cables
7.9.ITT Cannon liquid cooled charging
7.10.Immersion cooled charging stations
7.11.Two-phase cooled charging cables
7.12.Commercial charger benchmark: cooling technology
7.13.Charging infrastructure for electric vehicles
8.THERMAL MANAGEMENT OF ELECTRIC MOTORS
8.1.Overview
8.1.1.Electric traction motor types
8.1.2.Electric motor type market share
8.1.3.Cooling electric motors
8.2.Motor cooling strategies
8.2.1.Air cooling
8.2.2.Water-glycol cooling
8.2.3.Oil cooling
8.2.4.Electric motor thermal management overview
8.2.5.Motor cooling strategy by power
8.2.6.Cooling strategy by motor type
8.2.7.Cooling technology: OEM strategies
8.2.8.Motor cooling strategy by region
8.2.9.Motor cooling strategy market share (2015-2022)
8.2.10.Motor cooling strategy forecast (units)
8.2.11.Alternate cooling structures
8.2.12.Refrigerant cooling
8.2.13.Immersion cooling
8.2.14.Phase change materials
8.3.Motor insulation and encapsulation
8.3.1.Impregnation and encapsulation
8.3.2.Potting and encapsulation: players
8.3.3.Axalta - motor insulation
8.3.4.Huntsman - epoxy encapsulation and impregnation
8.3.5.Sumitomo Bakelite - composite stator encapsulation
8.3.6.Elantas - insulation systems for 800V motors
8.4.Emerging motor technologies
8.4.1.Axial flux motors
8.4.2.Axial flux motors enter the EV market
8.4.3.Thermal management for axial flux motors
8.4.4.In-wheel motors
8.5.Thermal management of EV motors: OEM use-cases
8.5.1.Audi e-tron
8.5.2.Audi Q4 e-tron
8.5.3.BMW i3
8.5.4.BMW 5th gen drive
8.5.5.Bosch - commercial vehicle motors
8.5.6.Chevrolet Bolt (2017-2021)
8.5.7.Equipmake: spoke geometry
8.5.8.Ford Mustang Mach-E
8.5.9.GM Ultium Drive
8.5.10.Jaguar I-PACE
8.5.11.Huawei - intelligent oil cooling
8.5.12.Hyundai E-GMP
8.5.13.Koenigsegg - raxial flux
8.5.14.LiveWire (Harley Davidson)
8.5.15.MAHLE - magnet free oil cooled motor
8.5.16.Mercedes EQ
8.5.17.Nidec - Gen.2 drive
8.5.18.Nissan Leaf
8.5.19.Rivian
8.5.20.SAIC - oil cooling system
8.5.21.Schaeffler - truck motors
8.5.22.Tesla Model S (pre-2021)
8.5.23.Tesla Model 3
8.5.24.Toyota Prius
8.5.25.VW ID3/ID4
8.5.26.Yamaha - hypercar electric motor
8.5.27.ZF - commercial vehicle motors
9.THERMAL MANAGEMENT IN ELECTRIC VEHICLE POWER ELECTRONICS
9.1.Introduction and technology evolution
9.1.1.What is power electronics?
9.1.2.Power electronics in electric vehicles
9.1.3.Power electronics device power ranges
9.1.4.Power switches (transistors)
9.1.5.Power switch history
9.1.6.Wide-bandgap semiconductors
9.1.7.Benchmarking Silicon, Silicon Carbide & Gallium Nitride
9.1.8.Applications for SiC & GaN
9.1.9.Drivers for 800V platforms
9.1.10.The Transition to SiC
9.1.11.Inverter power modules
9.1.12.Inverter package designs
9.1.13.Traditional power module packaging
9.1.14.Module packaging material dimensions
9.1.15.Single side, double side, direct, and direct cooling
9.1.16.Double-sided cooling
9.1.17.Double-sided cooling examples
9.1.18.Baseplate, heat sink, and encapsulation materials
9.2.Wire bonds and alternatives
9.2.1.Wire bonds
9.2.2.Al wire bonds: a common failure point
9.2.3.Advanced wire bonding techniques
9.2.4.Tesla's novel bonding technique
9.2.5.Direct lead bonding (Mitsubishi)
9.2.6.Die top system - Heraeus
9.2.7.Wire bond technology by supplier
9.3.Die attach and future materials
9.3.1.Die and substrate attach are common failure modes
9.3.2.Which solder for wide bandgap?
9.3.3.Why metal sintering for power electronics?
9.3.4.Challenges with Ag sintering
9.3.5.Simplifications to the manufacturing process
9.3.6.Gamechanger? Threats to Ag - Cu sintering pastes
9.3.7.Sintering: die-to-substrate, substrate-baseplate or heat sink, die pad to interconnect, etc.)
9.3.8.Evolution of Tesla's power electronics
9.3.9.Die attach technology evolution
9.3.10.Die attach technology by supplier
9.4.Substrate materials and future alternatives
9.4.1.The choice of ceramic substrate technology
9.4.2.The choice of ceramic substrate technology
9.4.3.AlN: overcoming its mechanical weakness
9.4.4.Thermal conductivity vs thermal expansion
9.4.5.Ceramics: CTE mismatch
9.4.6.Approaches to metallisation: DPC, DBC, AMB and thick film metallisation
9.4.7.Direct plated copper (DPC): pros and cons
9.4.8.Double bonded copper (DBC): pros and cons
9.4.9.Active metal brazing (AMB): pros and cons
9.4.10.Thick film printing
9.4.11.Heraeus - materials for power electronics
9.4.12.ALMT - MgSiC baseplate
9.5.Removing thermal interface materials
9.5.1.Why TIM is used in power electronics
9.5.2.Why the drive to eliminate the TIM?
9.5.3.Thermal grease: other shortcomings
9.5.4.EV inverter modules where TIM has been eliminated (1)
9.5.5.EV inverter modules where TIM has been eliminated (2)
9.5.6.Infineon - pre-applied TIM
9.5.7.IGBTs and SiC are not the only TIM area in inverters
9.6.Power electronics packages: EV use-cases
9.7.Toyota Prius 2004-2010
9.8.2008 Lexus
9.9.Toyota Prius 2010-2015
9.10.Nissan Leaf 2012
9.11.Honda Accord 2014
9.12.Honda Fit (by Mitsubishi)
9.13.Toyota Prius 2016 onwards
9.14.Chevrolet Volt 2016 (by Delphi)
9.15.Cadillac 2016 (by Hitachi)
9.16.Audi e-tron 2018
9.17.BWM i3 (by Infineon)
9.18.Infineon
9.19.Delphi, Cree, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and Volvo
9.20.Tesla's SiC package
9.21.What does this mean for the MOSFET package?
9.22.STMicro
9.23.Continental / Jaguar Land Rover inverter
9.24.Nissan Leaf custom inverter design
9.25.Hyundai E-GMP (Infineon)
9.26.Danfoss
9.27.BorgWarner
9.28.onsemi
9.29.Cooling power electronics: water or oil
9.29.1.Inverter package cooling
9.29.2.Drivers for direct oil cooling of inverters
9.29.3.Advantages, disadvantages and drivers for oil cooled inverters
9.29.4.Direct oil cooling projects
9.29.5.Inverter cooling strategy forecast (units)
9.29.6.Liquid cooled inverter examples
10.SUMMARY OF FORECASTS
10.1.Forecast methodology
10.2.BEV cars with heat pumps forecast (units)
10.3.Battery thermal management strategy forecast (GWh)
10.4.Immersion fluid volume forecast (passenger cars, liters)
10.5.Immersion fluid volume forecast (construction and agriculture EVs, liters)
10.6.TIM Forecast for EV batteries by TIM type (kg)
10.7.TIM forecast for EV batteries by TIM type (revenue, US$)
10.8.TIM Forecast for EV batteries by vehicle type (kg and US$)
10.9.Fire protection materials forecast (kg)
10.10.Motor cooling strategy forecast (units)
10.11.Inverter cooling strategy forecast (units)
11.COMPANY PROFILES
11.1.ADA Technologies
11.2.Amphenol Advanced Sensors
11.3.Asahi Kasei
11.4.Aspen Aerogels
11.5.Axalta
11.6.Beam Global/AllCell
11.7.Bostik
11.8.Cadenza Innovation
11.9.CSM
11.10.DuPont
11.11.e-Mersiv
11.12.Elkem
11.13.Engineered Fluids
11.14.FUCHS
11.15.H.B. Fuller
11.16.Henkel
11.17.Huber Martinswerk
11.18.JIOS Aerogel
11.19.M&I Materials
11.20.NeoGraf
11.21.Nexperia
11.22.Parker Lord
11.23.PST Sensors
11.24.Rogers Corporation
11.25.Romeo Power
11.26.Solvay Specialty Polymers
11.27.Ultimate Transmissions
11.28.Voltabox
11.29.Von Roll
11.30.WACKER
11.31.Xerotech
11.32.XING Mobility
11.33.Zeon
 

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Report Statistics

Slides 476
Forecasts to 2033
Published Dec 2022
ISBN 9781915514370
 

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