Batteries for Stationary Energy Storage 2021-2031: IDTechEx

With a 38% CAGR 2021-2031, the stationary storage market value is expected to reach $56.6bn in 2031.

Batteries for Stationary Energy Storage 2021-2031

A global view on the Li-ion-dominated batteries for stationary energy storage market. Regional analysis for behind-the-meter (BTM) & front-of-meter (FTM) development, policies, and market players.

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Energy storage systems became an unavoidable asset along the different segments of the electricity supply chain, from generation, to transmission and distribution, to consumption. The stationary energy storage market is growing at a very high pace, and to better understand the future development, IDTechEx released an update of its report "Batteries for Stationary Energy Storage". The report addresses the latest adopted policies of the main countries adopting energy storage systems, together with the latest technical improvements, showing the possible future evolution of the battery market toward the next ten years.
Batteries for stationary storage applications are constantly growing, with announcement of new battery installation on a daily basis. The evolving grid infrastructure, driven by a constant adoption of renewable energies, is facilitating the adoption of storage systems currently dominated by the Li-ion battery.
The fast adoption of Li-ion battery (LiB) in automotive and portable devices has facilitated the cost decrease of this type of battery, fostering their adoption as stationary storage systems. Moreover, the short installation time, and (now) well regulated market, also due to the experience acquired in the past years, has placed this technology in a favourable position to be adopted on a large scale.
Although LiB is the most adopted and cited technology, other storage systems are approaching the market at different paces. The redox flow batteries (RFBs) are one of them. Based on the flow of electroactive species, this battery is characterised by smaller energy density, but higher cycle life. Moreover, RFBs employ safer active materials than LiBs, therefore the risk of fire is not a concern for these systems. Besides the technical properties, which will allow RFBs to be adopted in specific storage scenarios, the higher upfront cost is currently one of the main restrictions for this technology to compete with Li-ion systems.
Although not literally 'batteries', intended as secondary electrochemical storage devices, another class of storage system is also approaching the stationary storage market. These are high power, and long storage systems, investigated by IDTechEx in another report.
These systems, characterised by large power and long storage duration, are addressing the FTM segment of the market, and will facilitate the improvement of the electricity grid infrastructure, avoiding the installation of new power lines. High power and long storage duration come with a large device, which therefore requires long installation and time, and upfront cost, although with a reduced levelized cost of storage.
The evolution of the electricity market will soon focus on cost analysis, offering to emerging technologies the opportunity to find their position in the market, even with a greater upfront cost.
The growing necessity of energy storage devices is linked to the growing adoption of renewable energies. The renewable installations are affecting the existing structure of the electricity grid, and the requirement to maintain a constant flow of electricity is creating big opportunities for the energy storage market.
As analysed in the report, stationary energy storage devices can provide different services to the electricity grid. Utility scale batteries can for example support the power grid, by grid deferral and energy capacity service, among other services. Ancillary services are also another type of service which batteries can provide, to stabilise the power grid. This is currently the most chosen segment.
The requirement for these services is constantly growing due to renewable energy integration, but also because of decommissioning of coal and gas power plants.
Together with the adoption of batteries in the existing power grid infrastructure, new business models are also being developed, based on the management of battery systems, such us the virtual power plant (VPP) from the agglomeration of several battery units, and the adoption and implementation of Vehicle-To-Grid (V2G) approach. This approach exploits the battery electric vehicles (BEV), which have a considerable battery capacity (100kWh compare to tens of kWh for home batteries), to provide ancillary services to the power grid.
The stationary storage market is therefore evolving. An increasing number of companies are offering, besides battery storage systems, also solar storage, power purchase agreements (PPAs), and electricity tariffs.
Although the stationary storage market is facing quick adoption, the market is still under the strong influence of political decisions. In fact, the adoption of renewable energy targets, the improvement of the power grid, or the decommission of power plant, are all decisions affecting the adoption of energy storage systems.
To understand the current status of deployment of energy storage technologies, and policies adopted by the main countries, IDTechEx forecasted the future evolution of the stationary storage market.
Although similar scenarios exist among different countries, each of the analysed countries presents its peculiarities, in terms of regulations, technical requirements, and adopted policies. Therefore, IDTechEx estimated a growing trend for each of the analysed countries, obtaining as a final result a 38% compound annual growth rate between 2021 and 2031, with a cumulative energy capacity installed above 1TWh.
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Table of Contents
1.1.Energy Storage: a Li-ion battery led market
1.2.Classification of energy storage systems
1.3.Renewable energy targets adoption
1.4.Li-ion will dominate the market
1.5.The impact of RES on the electricity grid
1.6.Overview of ancillary services
1.7.Similar situation, different problems
1.8.US average electricity price per state
1.9.Similar situation, different problems
1.10.Large utility battery projects in California
1.11.US Battery installation breakdown
1.12.Australia's battery deployment
1.13.Japan and the energy (in)dependency
1.14.Japan battery installation
1.15.China, high potential but slow growing for ES
1.16.Chinese stationary battery forecast
1.17.South Korea
1.18.South Korea battery installations
1.20.United Kingdom
1.23.Battery energy storage development 2018-2020
1.24.Global battery installations
1.25.FTM, BTM market forecast breakdown
1.26.Important considerations for battery selection
1.27.Forecast assumptions and explanation
2.1.Consumption of electricity is changing
2.2.Renewables are leading the power source changes
2.3.The advantage of energy storage in the power grid
2.4.Stationary storage position in the power grid
2.5.Different batteries size for different uses
2.6.Where can energy storage be fit in?
2.7.Battery storage system
2.8.Battery storage designed for self consumption
3.1.1.Battery for stationary energy storage: Overview
3.1.2.Electrochemistry definitions
3.1.3.Useful charts for performance comparison
3.1.4.MW or MWh?
3.2.Li-ion Batteries
3.2.1.What is a Li-ion battery?
3.2.2.Ragone plots
3.2.3.More than one type of Li-ion battery
3.2.4.Commercial battery packaging technologies
3.2.5.Differences between cell, module, and pack
3.2.6.A family tree of Li based batteries
3.2.7.Weight content of a Li-ion cell
3.3.Cathode Materials
3.3.1.Cathode history
3.3.2.Cathode materials - LCO and LFP
3.3.3.Cathode materials - NMC, NCA and LMO
3.3.4.Cathode development
3.4.Anode Materials
3.4.1.Anode materials
3.4.2.Introduction to graphite
3.4.3.The promise of silicon
3.4.4.Introduction to lithium titanate oxide (LTO)
3.4.5.Where will LTO play a role?
3.4.6.Anodes compared
3.4.7.IDTechEx's Li-ion Battery related reports
3.5.Other Batteries
3.5.1.More than Li-ion
3.5.2.The increasingly important role of stationary storage
3.5.3.Lead-acid batteries
3.5.4.Sodium sulphur battery
3.5.5.Nickel cadmium and nickel metal hydride battery
3.5.6.Redox flow batteries for stationary storage?
3.5.7.Redox flow batteries working principle
3.5.8.Exploded view of VRFB
3.5.9.The case for RFBs: Stationary Batteries Comparison
3.5.10.RFB chemistries: All Vanadium (VRFB)
3.5.11.RFB chemistries: Zinc Bromine flow battery (ZBB) - Hybrid
3.5.12.RFB chemistries: Hydrogen/Bromide - Hybrid
3.5.13.RFB Chemistries: all Iron - Hybrid
3.5.14.Other RFBs: Organic Redox Flow Battery
3.5.15.Technology recap
3.5.16.PEMFC Overview
3.5.17.The fuel cell limitations
3.5.18.Renewables + storage to gas
3.5.19.Comparison of ES technology use cases
3.5.20.High Potential ES Technologies: Overview
3.5.21.High Potential ES Technologies: Properties
3.5.22.High Potential ES Technologies: Properties Comparison
3.5.23.High potential ES technologies analysis
3.5.24.Why not Li-ion or Redox Flow Batteries?
3.5.25.Comparison of energy storage devices
4.1.1.Introduction to ES drivers
4.1.2.Overview of ES drivers
4.1.3.ESS for every position in the value chain
4.1.4.Power capacity VS. discharge duration
4.2.Behind-the-Meter Applications
4.2.1.Renewable energy self-consumption
4.2.2.Principle of self-consumption
4.2.3.Time-of-Usage (ToU) arbitrage
4.2.4.Feed-in-Tariff phase-outs
4.2.5.Net metering phase-outs
4.2.6.Other drivers
4.2.7.Power Purchase Agreements
4.2.8.Virtual Power Plants
4.2.9.Virtual Power Plant companies
4.2.10.Summary of solar compensations
4.2.11.Demand charge reduction
4.2.12.Vehicle-to-grid and vehicle-to-home
4.2.13.A brief history of V2G/V2H
4.2.14.FCA V2G in Mirafiori
4.2.15.Schematics of V2G and V2H
4.2.16.Summary: Values provided by battery storage - Customer Side
4.3.Front-of-Meter Applications
4.3.1.Gas peaker plant deferral
4.3.2.Off-grid and remote applications
4.3.3.Other drivers
4.3.4.Values provided by battery storage in utility
4.3.5.Overview of ancillary services
4.3.6.Ancillary service requirements
4.3.7.Frequency Regulation
4.3.8.Levels of frequency regulation
4.3.9.Load following
4.3.10.Spinning and non-spinning reserve
4.3.11.Values provided by battery storage in ancillary services
5.1.1.Regional analysis overview
5.1.2.Global battery installation (GWh)
5.1.3.Global battery installation breakdown
5.2.United States
5.2.1.U.S. overview
5.2.2.US Policy, and ES storage projects
5.2.3.US electricity cost
5.2.4.US: Key Developments
5.2.5.US Key Developments: FERC Order 2222
5.2.6.FERC 2222 advantages for ES market
5.2.7.US Key Developments FERC Order 841
5.2.8.US: Key Developments
5.2.9.Hot states: mandates and targets overview
5.2.10.U.S. stationary battery forecast
5.2.11.US State Analysis
5.3.1.California overview
5.3.2.Large utility battery projects
5.3.3.California home-batteries policies: SGIP
5.3.4.California home-batteries policies: NEM
5.3.5.California home battery market
5.4.1.Hawaii: 'The prototype state'
5.4.2.Hawaii clean energy initiative
5.4.3.Renewables + Storage are competitive with fossil fuels
5.4.4.Net Energy Metering (NEM) and its upgrade
5.4.5.Performance-based regulations for renewables
5.5.1.Energy Storage Policy: Virginia
5.5.2.South Carolina
5.5.3.South Carolina: Energy Freedom Act
5.6.New York
5.6.1.New York state moving toward Energy Storage
5.6.2.New York, and the largest installed battery - 2.5 GWh
5.6.3.New York state energy storage roadmap
5.7.1.Australia's summary
5.7.2.Australia battery installations
5.7.3.Residential storage boom in Australia
5.7.4.Australia storage policy and renewables targets
5.7.5.Australia's Li-ion battery supply chain
5.8.1.Introduction to the Japanese energy status
5.8.2.Japanese multiple approaches toward energy resiliency
5.8.3.A trend shift: Residential2012 - Utility2017 - Residential2020
5.8.4.FiT phase out, driver for battery energy storage
5.8.5.Private households investing in Solar + Batteries
5.8.6.Tesla entering the Japanese home batteries
5.8.7.Other approaches besides Home Batteries
5.8.8.Relevant Projects: Vehicle-to-grid (V2G)
5.8.9.The "Basic Hydrogen Roadmap" Fukushima Electrolyser
5.9.1.Chinese emissions target
5.9.2.Chinese power grid upgrade
5.9.3.Chinese Energy Storage: a solid slowdown
5.9.4.Chinese ES market is destined to grow
5.9.5.A Li-ion battery driven Energy Storage market
5.9.6.Chinese battery installations
5.10.1.India's commitment toward renewables
5.10.2.A lead-acid dominated industry
5.10.3.The Indian Li-ion battery industry development
5.10.4.India battery installations
5.11.South Korea
5.11.1.Korea overview
5.11.2.Polluting more now, to pollute less later
5.11.3.Government approach toward ES system
5.11.4.Korea: Market Drivers
5.11.5.Korean Renewable Energy Certificate (REC)
5.11.6.Reduced battery installations after 2018
5.11.7.Battery fires in Korea
5.11.8.Causes of battery fires
5.11.9.Korea: ESS developer market share
5.12.United Kingdom
5.12.1.UK renewable energy overview
5.12.3.Capacity Market: 2020 updates
5.12.4.A step forward for clean energy sources
5.12.5.Key changes to the Capacity Market (CM)
5.12.6.Capacity Markets: Explained
5.12.7.Batteries lose value after BEIS de-rating
5.12.8.Storage de-rating factors
5.12.9.Revenue stacking
5.12.10.UK residential market lagging
5.13.1.Germany: the European 'California'
5.13.2.Structure and targets of the 'Energy Concept'
5.13.3.Germany overview
5.13.4.From coal to storage
5.13.5.Electricity grid upgrade
5.13.6.The German energy transition emblem: 'BigBattery Lausitz'
5.13.7.GridBooster project
5.13.8.FTM in Germany
5.13.9.Home batteries as solution
5.13.10.Solar-plus-storage reaches cost parity
5.13.11.KfW bank subsidy
5.13.12.Further options, after the FiT
5.13.13.Home battery in Germany
5.13.14.Germany battery installations
5.14.1.Italian energetic situation
5.14.2.The Italian Feed-in-Tarif, and the new RES Decree
5.14.3.Italian historical Feed-in-Tariff
5.14.4.Electricity storage in Italy: the VPP development
5.14.5.FCA V2G in Mirafiori
5.14.6.Italy: home batteries recession
5.14.7.Italian battery storage
6.1.Convergence between solar and storage
6.2.Downstream Energy Storage component vendors
6.3.Global players in ESS
6.4.Companies from other sectors jumping in
6.5.Value Chain
6.6.Most companies in assembly business
6.7.Tesla's ESS business
6.8.Powerwall and Powerpack
6.9.Residential storage cost breakdown
6.10.Tesla's ESS business
6.11.Major powerpack projects
6.12.Tesla Megapack
6.14.Green Charge Networks
6.16.BYD's layout is similar to Tesla
6.17.Green Mountain Power
6.18.Green Mountain Power's Innovation Strategy
6.19.Global players in ESS
6.20.Company Profiles (Hyperlinks)
6.21.Ampard and Fenecon
6.23.Benchmark of IDTechEx Index across vendors

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