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Graphene Market & 2D Materials Assessment 2021-2031: IDTechEx

The graphene market is rapidly reaching a turning point

Graphene Market & 2D Materials Assessment 2021-2031

Granular ten-year graphene market forecasts for 18 key application areas, data-driven application assessment, benchmarking studies. 150+ companies interviewed, full profiles for 55+ key players included, research on graphene for over 10 years.

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This report offers a detailed analysis of the technological and commercial progress, as well as prospects, of graphene and other 2D materials
Why use IDTechEx for research on graphene and other nanomaterials?
This report is the result of many years of ongoing research. We launched the first version of our report on CNTs and graphene in 2011 and 2012, respectively, and have been tracking the industries ever since. In addition to the initial research, we have organized business-focused events on this topic ourselves in Europe and USA; we have also attended and/or lectured at multiple relevant non-IDTechEx conferences in Asia, Europe and USA; we have interviewed more than 140 players worldwide; we have delivered masterclasses to business leaders; and we have completed major consulting custom projects. All this gives us an excellent and unrivalled insight into these industries.
Another unique point of strength for us is that we have extensive in-depth coverage of the end-use markets for these materials. In fact, we have a series of independent reports on such topics including energy storage, composites, conductive inks, flexible electronics, and more. This expertise on the end-use markets enables us to better understand the landscape in which these materials compete.
Graphene: Finally moving out of the lab and into the market?
Graphene materials are progressing through their own hype curve. The commercialization has been making steady progress and IDTechEx expect the graphene market to significantly grow over the next decade.
Nanoplatelets are the closest to commercial success, with many market drivers and factors:
  • Increasing industry experience: in the early days graphene was oversold as a wonder material or a magic dust that would overnight revolutionize just about every industry. Naturally, with time, realism has set in. Today, graphene platelets are increasingly, and rightly, viewed as part of the expansive continuum of carbon additive materials.
Furthermore, the market now realizes that there are many graphene materials and not all are equal. Although there is some progression towards standardisation and safety legislation/qualification. Nevertheless, the end-users now accept that the winning materials cannot be determined a priori as final application-level results are influenced by many parameters such as graphene morphology and formulation/compounding techniques and conditions.
  • Increasing availability: graphene has diverse useful properties and as a result a diverse application pipeline. Most target applications however are volume markets. Therefore, suppliers have had to take the risk to invest in sizable production in the face of small and uncertain demand. This has been inevitable because otherwise suppliers could never progress past the phase of prototyping or performance demonstration. This process (of installing capacity) has made such significant progress worldwide and that availability, in the medium term, is not a major industry concern.
Interestingly, and as is now familiar in many industries, China has become the significant territory in terms of nominal production capacity. Its rise to prominence has also made direct liquid phase exfoliation the leading process by share of production capacity.
  • Increasing affordability: similar to CNTs, graphene powders and platelets are largely a substitute material providing an iterative improvement over carbon black, graphite or other additives. As such, it must compete on price as well as performance with incumbent solutions. As a new specialty material, graphene suffered from high and divergent (by orders of magnitude) prices and pricing strategies.
This has changed. Graphene platelet prices have fallen and are beginning to converge, for now. The prices will however not settle around a single point, reflecting the diversity of graphene types and giving it a speciality chemical character. Furthermore, suppliers will be reluctant to further cut costs out of fear of premature commoditization, although the continuation of this trend has an air of inevitability to it. In the long term, IDTechEx anticipates significant consolidation in the number graphene manufacturers over the next decade.
  • Increasing revenue and volume sales progress: our data suggests that income at the graphene company level has been rising steadily since 2013. This rise, which is reflected largely across the board, will continue at similar rates until 2021/22 around which time our model suggests an inflection point will occur, putting the market into its rapid volume growth phase.
  • This rise in revenue however has not always been accompanied with increasing profit. In fact, the opposite is often true in that losses have grown in line with revenues. Indeed, the industry, as a whole, is still loss making despite the existence of several profitable companies.
This is no surprise, but is likely to soon change. Experience has demonstrated that new materials take years, if not decades, to commercialize. Graphene is also no exception therefore this behaviour is in our view a natural part of growth process of the industry.
  • Key market drivers include the necessity for improved thermal management, sustainability (with the role for graphene enabling use of recycled polymers, energy storage systems, and even concrete), lightweighting & product lifetime, and more.
The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic has been felt by the graphene industry in delaying scale-ups, development trials, and general operations. This may be irreversibly consequential for some, but for many it will just delay the commercial success.
Graphene Market and 2D Materials Assessment 2021-2031. We forecast that the market will grow from <$100m in 2020 to reach $700m by 2031. Since graphene is still largely an additive material, this means that we will find graphene, of different types, in numerous volume applications in the years to come. True success will be when graphene inclusion isn't the headline news but rather a largely unmentioned inclusion for economic reasons given the value added properties This success, it is worth remembering, will not have come overnight but will have been the results of almost two decades of steadfast global research and commercialization efforts.
Graphene films and wafers have had a very different history and outlook. Given the obvious potential, certain key applications were initially targeted including transistor and TCFs, however the lack of band gap and high-performance incumbent materials coupled with manufacturing challenges has led to an inevitable realisation of limitations. However, with manufacturing improvements and further developments, commercial successes are being observed mostly for sensors and optoelectronic applications. Expansions are being observed and the next 10-years looks very promising for certain key end-user markets.
Non-graphene 2D materials?
Beyond graphene there is an emerging family of 2D materials, each with unique properties and potential across a range of commercial applications. Nearly all are at a very early stage of development; IDTechEx provides a detailed assessment and outlook with a specific focus on boron nitride, transition metal dichalcogenides, MXenes, and Xenes. Key technical progressions, prospective market applications, profiles of early-stage commercial companies, and detailed insights are all included within the report.
What about other nanocarbons?
Graphene is not the first nanocarbon or indeed nanomaterial additive to emerge out of the lab; throughout the report key benchmarking studies are given against competitive materials. There is also a lot to be learnt from the materials that have gone before; information is provided on the commercial progression of multi-walled and single-walled carbon nanotubes. MWCNTs went through a premature period of capacity expansion and it is only in the last few years that the significant revenues and next stages of expansion are beginning to emerge.
What does this report provide?
This report provides the following:
Introduction and business dynamics/trends
  • Disparity between ideal and non-ideal graphene and CNTs
  • Diversity of graphene on the market
  • Pricing evolutions, trends and strategies worldwide for graphene
  • Nominal production capacity by supplier worldwide for graphene
  • Categorization of graphene manufacturers by production processes
  • Granular analysis into the patent landscape
  • Trends in company revenue and profit/loss
  • Companies valuation trends
  • Specific look at China (for graphene) covering key emerging Chinese suppliers, applications and prices
  • Applications examples, pipeline and readiness levels for graphene.
  • Benchmarking studies and market comparison to CNTs
Ten-year segmented market forecasts
  • Ten-year application-segmented market projections for graphene (platelet and film) in volume and value. Segmented by 18 end-use applications.
This report has dedicated chapters for key end-use applications. End-use applications include energy storage (lithium-ion, silicon anode, LiS, supercapacitors and other); polymer composites (mechanically-enhanced, permeation-enhanced, electrically conductive, thermally conductive, EMI shielding, 3D printing filaments, tires, other); inks and coatings (anti-corrosion coating, RFID antenna, other); transistors; transparent conductive films; sensors; thermal interface materials; concrete & asphalt; e-textiles; metal matrix composites; filtration; and more.
IDTechEx has interviewed more than 150 companies for this analysis. This report includes a large number of key company profiles and updates for the reader.
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Table of Contents
1.1.Not all graphenes are equal: diversity is intrinsic to the material system
1.2.Trade-offs involved between different production processes
1.3.Explaining the main graphene manufacturing routes
1.4.Summary of graphene categorisation
1.5.Quantitative mapping of graphene morphologies on the market (lateral size vs thickness)
1.6.Does anyone mass produce true graphene?
1.7.The hype curve of the graphene industry
1.8.Graphene suppliers categorised by production process (direct exfoliation, rGO, CVD(powder), Plasma, CVD (film), etc.)
1.9.Comparison of business models
1.10.Trends in publications for graphene and other 2D materials
1.11.Market leaders emerge and consolidation anticipated
1.12.Shifting graphene investments
1.13.Revenue of graphene companies
1.14.Profit and loss trend of graphene companies
1.15.Profitable graphene companies
1.16.Value creation for graphene companies: a look at public valuation trends
1.17.Graphite mines see opportunity in graphene
1.18.The rise of China in graphene (production capacity figures of Chinese graphene manufacturers)
1.19.Graphene platelet-type: global production capacity by company
1.20.Graphene platelet-type: global production capacity by region
1.21.The importance of intermediaries
1.22.Graphene prices by suppliers
1.23.Quality and consistency issue
1.24.Learning from the capacity progression of MWCNTs
1.25.Graphene film production - technical challenges remain
1.26.CVD graphene - applications are shifting
1.27.Expanding graphene wafer capacity and adoption
1.28.Graphene producers: historical progression
1.29.Graphene applications going commercial?
1.30.Graphene products and prototypes
1.31.Market breakdown by revenue and volume
1.32.Nanoinformatics - Accelerating R&D
1.33.Overview of 2D materials beyond graphene
1.34.General Conclusions
2.1.Forecast methodology and assumptions
2.2.Granular ten year graphene market forecast segmented by 18 application areas
2.3.Ten-year forecast for volume (MT) demand for graphene platelets
2.4.Snapshots of the graphene market
2.5.Ten-year forecast for graphene platelet vs sheets
2.6.CNT market forecast comparison
3.1.Graphene Patent Trends
3.2.Top Patent Holders: Dominance of Asia is Clear
3.3.Key Historic Patent and New Entrants
3.4.Deep-Dive into Major Patent Holders
3.5.Geographic Patent Distribution and Outlook
4.1.The rise of China in graphene (production capacity figures)
4.2.SuperC Technology Limited: Already making headway in energy storage
4.4.Ningbo Morsh: one of the largest graphene producers?
4.5.2D Carbon (Changzhou)Ltd
4.6.Sixth Element
4.7.Sixth Element: success in anti-corrosion and heat spreaders?
4.8.Sixth Element: material properties
4.9.Sixth Element: also CVD film?
4.10.Ningbo Soft Carbon Electronics: R2R CVD graphene growth and transfer
4.11.Wealtech/MITBG: Graphene as heating element
4.12.Tungshu (Dongxu Optoelectronic Technology)
4.13.Tungshu (Dongxu Optoelectronic Technology)
4.14.Deyang Carbonene: Exfoliated graphene for heating
4.15.Haike (subsidiary of Shandon One New Materials)
4.16.Other companies: ENN, Nanjing SCF Nanotech Ltd, Hongsong Technology
4.17.Other companies: Liaoning Mote Graphene Technology, Shandon Yuhuang New Energy Technology, Changsha Research Institute of Mining & Metallurgy
5.1.Expanded graphite
5.2.Reduced graphene oxide
5.3.Oxidising graphite: processes and characteristics
5.4.Reducing graphene oxide: different methods
5.5.Direct liquid phase exfoliation: process and characteristics
5.6.Direct liquid phase exfoliation under shear force
5.7.Electrochemical exfoliation
5.8.Properties of electrochemical exfoliated graphene
5.9.Plasma exfoliation
5.10.Substrate-less Plasma
5.11.Substrate-less CVD (chemical vapour deposition)
5.12.Substrate-less CVD: growth of flower like graphene
5.13.Producing graphene as an electronic substrate or material
5.14.Chemical Vapour Deposited (CVD) Graphene
5.15.Growth process of CVD graphene
5.16.The key role of oxygen in CVD graphene growth
5.17.CVD graphene: cm scale grain domains possible
5.18.Roll to roll (R2R) growth of CVD graphene film
5.19.The transfer challenge: a showstopper?
5.20.Roll-to-roll transfer of CVD graphene
5.21.Novel methods for transferring CVD graphene
5.22.Using R2R joule heating to enable CVD growth
5.23.Epitaxial: high performance but high cost
5.24.Graphene from SiC
5.25.Improving graphene from SiC epitaxy
5.26.Metal on silicon CVD (then transfer)
5.27.Transfer-FREE metal on Si graphene
5.28.SINGLE CRYSTAL wafer scale graphene on silicon!
5.29.CVD Graphene Progress
6.1.Graphene batteries introduction
6.2.LFP cathode improvement
6.3.Why graphene and carbon black are used together
6.4.Results showing graphene improves LFP batteries
6.5.Results showing graphene improves NCM batteries
6.6.Results showing graphene improves LTO batteries
6.7.Why silicon anode battery and key challenges?
6.8.Silicon Anodes
6.9.Electrolyte and Current Collectors
6.10.Fast Charging Lithium-ion Batteries
6.11.Motivation - Why Lithium Sulphur batteries?
6.12.The Lithium sulphur battery chemistry
6.13.Why graphene helps in Li sulphur batteries
6.14.State of the art use of graphene in LiS batteries
6.15.Mixed graphene/CNT in batteries
6.16.Graphene-enabled lead acid battery
6.17.Conclusions: graphene role in batteries
7.1.Energy Storage Priorities
7.2.Batteries vs Supercapacitors
7.3.Challenges with graphene: poor out-of-plane conductivity and re-stacking
7.4.Graphene supercapacitor Ragone plots
7.5.Promising results on GO supercapacitors
7.6.Skeleton Technologies' graphene supercapacitors
7.7.Targeted high-volume production
7.8.Conclusions: graphene role in supercapacitors
8.1.Graphene platelet/powder-based conductors: conductive inks
8.2.Applications of conductive graphene inks
8.3.Results of resistive heating using graphene inks
8.4.Heating applications
8.5.Uniform and stable heating
8.6.Results of de-frosting using graphene inks
8.7.Results of de-icing using graphene heaters
8.8.Transparent EMI shielding
8.9.ESD films printed using graphene
8.10.Graphene UV shielding coatings
8.11.Graphene inks can be highly opaque
8.12.RFID types and characteristics
8.13.UV resistant tile paints
8.14.Graphene RFID tags: already a success story?
8.15.Overview of RFID antennas
8.16.Overview of the general RFID antenna market figures
8.17.Cost breakdown of RFID tags
8.18.Methods of producing RFID antennas
8.19.Graphene in glucose test strips
8.20.Printed glucose: what is it?
8.21.Anatomy of a test strip: one example
9.1.Thermal management applications
9.2.Introduction to Thermal Interface Materials (TIM)
9.3.Advanced Materials for TIM - Introduction
9.4.Summary of TIM utilising advanced carbon materials
9.5.Achieving through-plane alignment
9.6.Graphene heat spreaders: commercial success
9.7.Graphene heat spreaders: performance
9.8.Graphene heat spreaders: suppliers multiply
9.9.Graphene as a thermal paste additive
9.10.Graphene as additives to thermal interface pads
9.11.Graphene: heat conductivity boosters
9.12.Nanofluidic coolant
10.1.General observation on using graphene additives in composites
10.2.Graphene platelet-based conductors: polymer composites
10.3.Commercial results on graphene conductive composites (Nylon 66): the impact of aspect ration
10.4.Graphene as conductive additive in Polyester and PET
10.5.Graphene as conductive additive in PMDS, Natural Rubber and Epoxy
10.6.Graphene as conductive additive in PUA, PC, PDMS
10.7.Conductivity improvement in HDPE
10.8.EMI Shielding: graphene additives in epoxy
10.9.Results showing Young's Modulus enhancement using graphene
10.10.Commercial results on permeation graphene improvement
10.11.Permeation Improvement
10.12.Commercial results on thermal conductivity improvement using graphene
10.13.Thermal conductivity improvement using graphene
10.14.Key adoption examples - sports & leisure
10.15.Key adoption examples - automotive & industrial
10.16.Graphene-enhanced conductive 3D printing filaments
11.1.Role of nanocarbon as additives to FRPs
11.2.Routes to incorporating nanocarbon material into composites
11.3.Routes to electrically conductive composites
11.4.Technology adoption for electrostatic discharge of composites
11.5.Nanocarbon for enhanced electrical conductivity - Graphene
11.6.Enhanced thermal conductivity - application overview
11.7.Electrothermal de-icing - Nanocarbon patents
11.8.Electrothermal de-icing - Graphene research
11.9.Nanocomposites for enhanced thermal conductivity - graphene
11.10.Embedded sensors for structural health monitoring of composites - introduction
11.11.Embedded sensors for structural health monitoring of composites - types
11.12.Nanocarbon Sensors for embedded SHM
12.1.Industry examples of graphene-based sensors
12.2.Graphene Sensors - Gas Sensors
12.3.Graphene Sensors - Smart surfaces
12.4.Graphene Sensors - Biosensors
12.5.Graphene Quantum Dots
12.6.Hall-effect sensor
12.7.Graphene's optical properties
12.8.Fast graphene photosensor
12.9.Commercial example of graphene-enabled photodetector
12.10.Graphene humidity sensor
12.11.Optical brain sensors using graphene
12.12.Graphene skin electrodes
12.13.Graphene-enabled stretch sensor applications
12.14.Graphene-enabled stretch sensor applications
13.1.Transparent conducting films (TCFs)
13.2.Different Transparent Conductive Films (TCFs)
13.3.ITO film assessment: performance, manufacture and market trends
13.4.ITO film shortcomings: flexibility
13.5.ITO film shortcomings: limited sheet conductivity
13.6.ITO films: current prices
13.7.Indium's single supply risk: real or exaggerated?
13.8.Silver nanowire transparent conductive films: principles
13.9.Silver nanowire transparent conductive films: performance levels and value proposition
13.10.Silver nanowire transparent conductive films: flexibility
13.11.Metal mesh transparent conductive films: operating principles
13.12.Metal mesh: photolithography followed by etching
13.13.Fujifilm's photo-patterned metal mesh TCF
13.14.Embossing/Imprinting metal mesh TCFs
13.15.Komura Tech: improvement in gravure offset printed fine pattern (<5um) metal mesh TCF ?
13.16.Graphene performance as TCF
13.17.Doping as a strategy for improving graphene TCF performance
13.18.Be wary of extraordinary results for graphene
13.19.Graphene transparent conducting films: flexibility
13.20.Graphene transparent conducting films: thinness and barrier layers
13.21.Wuxi Graphene Film Co's CVD graphene progress
13.22.LG Electronics: R2R CVD graphene targeting TCFs?
13.23.Ningbo Soft Carbon Electronics: R2R CVD graphene growth and transfer
13.24.Quantitative benchmarking of different TCF technologies
13.25.Technology comparison
14.2.Transistor Figures-of-Merit (transfer characteristics)
14.3.Transistor Figures-of-Merit (output characteristics)
14.4.Why graphene transistors?
14.5.First graphene FET with top gate (CMOS)- 2007
14.6.High performance top gate FET
14.7.Graphene FET with bandgap
14.8.Opening a bandgap: e-field induced bandgap bilayer graphene
14.9.Opening bandgap: No free lunch!
14.10.Graphene wafer scale integration
14.11.Graphene IC (2011)
14.12.Can graphene FETs make it as an analogue high frequency device?
14.13.Why the limited fmax?
14.14.So what if we print graphene? Poor competition gives hope!
14.15.Fully inkjet printed 2D material FETs
14.16.Fully inkjet printed 2D material FETs on TEXTILE
14.17.Fully inkjet printed on-textile 2D material logic!
14.18.Graphene transistor conclusions
15.1.Concrete & Asphalt
15.4.Engine Oil
15.5.Water Filtration
15.7.Copper nanocomposites - introduction
15.8.Production of copper nanocomposites
15.9.Graphene platelet-based conductors: metal composites
15.10.Shear assisted processing and extrusion
15.11.Hot Extrusion Nanoalloy
15.12.Multilayer copper nanocomposites
15.13.Graphene as additive in tires
15.14.Results on use of graphene in silica loaded tires
15.15.Graphene-enabled vehicle tire
15.16.Graphene-enabled bike tires
15.17.Anti-corrosion coating
15.18.E-textile applications
15.19.Antibacterial applications
16.1.2D materials beyond graphene: a GROWING family!
16.2.Computation suggests thousands available
16.3."Atomic Lego" - the future of material science?
16.4.2D materials beyond graphene: a GROWING family!
16.5.Publication rate is astronomical
16.6.A range of two materials exist with bandgaps!
16.7.Introduction to nano boron nitride
16.8.BNNT players and prices
16.9.BNNT property variation
16.10.BN nanostructures in thermal interface materials
16.11.BN vs C nanostructures: manufacturing routes
16.12.BNNS - manufacturing status
16.13.BNNS - research advancements
16.14.TMD - Overview
16.15.MoS2: change in band structure from bulk to 2D
16.16.Other 2D materials actually work: top gate FET
16.17.Other 2D materials actually work: phototransistor
16.18.Liquid phase exfoliation: examples of exfoliated TMDs
16.19.Wafer scale uniform TMD growth
16.20.Wafer scale uniform TMD growth: a look at growth conditions
16.21.Why use TMDs at all if mobility not outstanding?
16.22.The point of 2D materials as transistors: 5nm gate & beyond?
16.23.The point of 2D materials as transistors: large area flexible TFTs?
16.24.MXenes - a rapidly emerging class
16.25.MXenes - application opportunities
16.26.MXenes - Latest research
16.28.Phosphorene - manufacturing

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