Sensors Report

到 2030 年,全球自动驾驶交通工具激光雷达市场的规模将增长到 54 亿美元

激光雷达 2020-2030:技术、参与者、市场和预测

100+ 3D 激光雷达公司的分析;专注于汽车。机械、MEMS、OPA、快闪、液晶和其他针对 ADAS 的固态激光雷达、自动驾驶汽车、工业、智慧城市、安全和测绘。

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IDTechEx 对 106 家开发独特 3D 激光雷达技术的参与者进行了全面的分析,主要针对 ADAS 和自动驾驶交通工具市场。我们基于采访的公司简介和公司背景涵盖全部 106 家参与者。预测分为六种新兴激光雷达技术和四类交通工具。到 2030 年,全球自动驾驶交通工具 3D 激光雷达市场的规模将增至 54 亿美元,其中 MEMS 激光雷达将成为最大的细分市场。
Report Overview
Following a period of dedicated research by expert analysts, IDTechEx published a report that offers unique insights into the global 3D lidar market. The report contains a comprehensive analysis of 106 players developing 3D lidar for the ADAS and autonomous vehicles market, which includes a detailed assessment of technology innovations and market dynamics. While the market analysis and forecasts focus on the automotive industry, the technology analysis and company profiles also cover lidar for industrial automation, robotics, smart city, security, and mapping. Importantly, the report presents an unbiased analysis of primary data gathered via our interviews with key players, and it builds on our expertise in the transport, electronics and photonics sectors.
This research delivers valuable insights for:
  • Companies that require lidar*
  • Companies that develop lidar
  • Companies that supply components and materials for lidar
  • Companies that invest in lidar
  • Companies that develop other technologies for machine automation
*or similar and competing sensors
The Lidar Revolution: Enabling Machines to See the World
3D lidar is an optical perception technology that enables machines to see the world, make decisions and navigate. At present, machines using lidar range from small service robots to large autonomous vehicles. Lidar technologies and markets are rapidly evolving, and IDTechEx are tracking 106 3D lidar players worldwide. Each player claims to offer a unique, next-generation product that is superior to competing technologies. The technology landscape is cluttered with numerous options for every component in a lidar system. IDTechEx identified four important technology choices that every lidar player and lidar user must make: measurement process, laser, beam steering mechanism, and photodetector. The beam steering mechanism is the most complicated and critical choice.
Four important technology choices in designing or selecting a 3D lidar module. Source: IDTechEx
The technology choices made today will have immense consequences for performance, price and scalability of lidar in the future. The present state of the lidar market is unsustainable because winning technologies and players will inevitably emerge, consolidating the technology and business landscapes. 3D lidar start-ups targeting the autonomous vehicles market have secured $1.9 billion USD in funding for product development.
25 automotive lidar start-ups that have announced funding of $10 million USD or more. Source: IDTechEx
Research on Lidar by IDTechEx
The research on lidar was conducted by Dr Nilushi Wijeyasinghe, an IDTechEx analyst, as part of an autonomous vehicles project directed by Dr Khasha Ghaffarzadeh, the Research Director of IDTechEx. The authors have significant experience in laser physics and semiconductor physics research, in addition to experience in advising multi-billion dollar corporations on business growth and technology strategy. The project builds on the expertise of IDTechEx in the transport, electronics and photonics sectors, which includes our extensive network of contacts throughout the lidar supply chain: from materials suppliers to automotive OEMs.
The coverage of our research is global and includes 34 players headquartered in Asia (20 start-ups in China), 19 players headquartered in Europe, 48 players headquartered in North America and 5 players headquartered in the rest of the world (ROW). Our research is focused on players who position themselves as automotive Tier 2 suppliers.
Geographical distribution of the 106 3D lidar players included in our market analysis. Source: IDTechEx
3D lidar players included in our market analysis split by position in the automotive supply chain and by beam steering technology. Source: IDTechEx
The report explores how innovations in lidar technology affect the growth of lidar market segments. In the technical analysis chapters, IDTechEx analysts use their experience in physics research to explain novel technical concepts to a non-specialist audience. The market analysis chapters provide an assessment of 106 players developing 156 3D lidar products. Market forecasts are based on the extensive analysis of primary and secondary data, combined with careful consideration of market drivers, restraints and key player activities. The technology adoption roadmaps for six types of lidar in four types of level 3+ autonomous vehicles are evaluated to provide a balanced outlook on market opportunities.
Our forecast model of the lidar market builds on our forecast model for autonomous mobility, which considers a peak car scenario from 2032 onward. The peak car scenario partly results from the wide adoption of autonomous shared mobility vehicles. Our model of the lidar market considers how the following variables evolve during the forecast period for each beam steering technology segment: technology readiness level of lidar; lidar unit price; lidar cost per vehicle; lidar production volume; vehicle production volume; autonomous vehicle technology adoption; lidar technology adoption; lidar market share per autonomous vehicle segment.
Our report answers important questions such as:
  • What are the lidar technology choices available today, and how do these choices impact on product development and product positioning?
  • What is the present status of each lidar technology and what are the future opportunities?
  • How is the lidar business landscape evolving in terms of the supply chain, investments and partnerships?
  • How will each lidar market segment evolve in the short-term and long-term?
The global market for 3D lidar in level 3+ autonomous vehicles grows to $5.4 billion by 2030 with MEMS lidar emerging as the largest market segment.
Examples of lidar configurations considered in our market analysis and forecasts for level 3+ autonomous vehicles. Source: IDTechEx
IDTechEx Report Structure
Chapter 1: Executive Summary & Conclusions
Chapter 2: Technology Analysis, Sensors for Autonomous Machines
Chapter 3: Technology Analysis, Measurement Process Options for Lidar
Chapter 4: Technology Analysis, Laser Options for Lidar
Chapter 5: Technology Analysis, Beam Steering Options for Lidar
Chapter 6: Technology Analysis, Photodetector Options for Lidar
Chapter 7: Global 3D Lidar Market Analysis
Chapter 8: China 3D Lidar Market Analysis
Chapter 9: Global 10-Year 3D Lidar Market Forecasts
Chapter 10: Autonomous Vehicles, Market Overview & 10-Year Forecasts
Chapter 11: Methodology
Chapter 12: Appendix
Chapter 13: Interview-Based Company Profiles (23 3D Lidar Players)
Chapter 14: Company Backgrounds (83 3D Lidar Players)
Companies Interviewed
3D lidar players interviewed by IDTechEx include AEye, Baraja, Blickfeld, Cepton, Continental, Innoviz, LeddarTech, Luminar, Ouster, Quanergy, SiLC, TriLumina, Velodyne, and XenomatiX. A company offering a competing laser gated imager (BrightWay Vision) was also interviewed.
The interview-based company profiles in Chapter 13 present a detailed discussion of each player's lidar technology and business. Chapters 13 and 14 provide information on all 106 3D lidar players analysed in the report.
Please download the SAMPLE PAGES for examples of how the company profiles and other chapters are structured.
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Table of Contents
1.1.3D Lidar: Market Segments & Applications
1.2.3D Lidar: Four Important Technology Choices
1.3.Automotive Lidar: Operating Process & Requirements
1.4.Emerging Technology Trends
1.5.Laser Technology Choices
1.6.Beam Steering Technology Choices
1.7.Photodetector Technology Choices
1.8.106 Lidar Players by Geography
1.9.Lidar Hardware Supply Chain for L3+ Vehicles
1.10.Beam Steering Technology
1.11.Mechanical Lidar Players, Rotating & Non-Rotating
1.12.Micromechanical Lidar Players, MEMS & Other
1.13.Pure Solid-State Lidar Players, OPA & Liquid Crystal
1.14.Pure Solid-State Lidar Players, 3D Flash
1.15.Players by Technology & Funding Secured
1.16.L3 Private Vehicle Market Share by Lidar Technology
1.17.L4 & L5 Private Vehicle Market Share by Lidar Technology
1.18.L4 & L5 Shared Mobility Market Share by Lidar Technology
1.19.L4 & L5 Delivery Vehicle Market Share by Lidar Technology
1.20.Global Lidar Unit Sales by L3+ Vehicle Type
1.21.Global Lidar Market Size by L3+ Vehicle Type
1.22.Global Lidar Unit Sales by Technology
1.23.Global Lidar Market Size by Technology
2.1.3D Lidar: Market Segments & Applications
2.2.3D Lidar: Four Important Technology Choices
2.3.Autonomous Driving Technologies
2.4.Levels of Autonomous Driving
2.5.Comparison of Lidar, Radar, Camera & Ultrasonic Sensors
2.6.Automotive Lidar: Operating Process & Requirements
2.7.Emerging Technology Trends
2.8.Automotive Lidar: SWOT Analysis
2.9.Comparison of Lidar Product Parameters
3.1.Optical 3D Sensing: Comparison of Common Methods
3.2.Optical 3D Sensing: Opportunities & Challenges
3.3.Direct TOF: Time Measurement via Pulsed Light
3.4.Indirect TOF: Phase Measurement via Amplitude Modulation
3.5.TOF Lidar: Spatial Data Analysis, Part I
3.6.TOF Lidar: Spatial Data Analysis, Part II
3.7.FMCW: Frequency Modulated Continuous Wave
3.8.FMCW Lidar: 3D Position & Velocity Data
3.9.Comparison of TOF & FMCW Lidar
3.10.Background Noise & Interference
3.11.Poor Weather Performance: Challenges & Solutions
4.1.LED Illumination: Limited to Short-Range Depth Sensors
4.2.Laser Technology Choices
4.3.Comparison of Common Laser Type & Wavelength Options
4.4.Laser Operating Principles
4.5.Laser Diodes: Homojunction & Heterojunction Devices
4.6.Laser Diodes: Optical Feedback & Operating Temperature
4.7.Laser Diodes: Material & Wavelength Relationship
4.8.Laser Diodes: Key Operating Parameters
4.9.Laser Diodes: Comparison of Properties by Device Structure
4.10.Laser Diodes: Edge-Emitting Lasers
4.11.Laser Diodes: Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers
4.12.Laser Diodes: External Cavity & Quantum Cascade Lasers
4.13.Laser Diodes: Reliability & Lifetime Considerations
4.14.Comparison of Common EEL & VCSEL Sources for Lidar
4.15.Fiber Lasers: Structure & Operating Principles
4.16.Fiber Lasers: Wavelengths, Modes & Applications
4.17.Fiber Amplifiers: Master Oscillator Power Amplifier System
4.18.Fiber Lasers for Automotive Lidar: Industry Perspectives
4.19.Fiber Laser Lidar: Luminar Technologies Patent
4.20.Fiber Laser Lidar: Google & Waymo Patent
4.21.Diode-Pumped Solid-State Lasers
4.22.DPSSL Lidar: Continental Patent
4.23.Edge-Emitting Lasers & VCSELs for Lidar: SWOT Analysis
4.24.ECDLs & QCLs for Lidar: SWOT Analysis
4.25.Fiber Lasers & DPSSLs for Lidar: SWOT Analysis
5.1.Beam Steering Technology Choices
5.2.Comparison of Common Beam Steering Options
5.3.Overview of Rotating & Non-Rotating Mechanical Lidar
5.4.Overview of MEMS Lidar
5.5.Recent Progress in 1D MEMS Lidar
5.6.Recent Progress in 2D MEMS Lidar
5.7.Optical Phased Arrays
5.8.OPA Lidar Using TOF Process
5.9.OPA Lidar Using FMCW Process
5.10.Recent Progress in OPA Technologies, Part I
5.11.Recent Progress in OPA Technologies, Part II
5.12.Hybrid: MEMS-Actuated Grating OPA
5.13.Liquid Crystal Lidar: LC Clad Waveguide
5.14.Liquid Crystal Lidar: LCPG & LC-OPA
5.15.Liquid Crystal Lidar: LCOS & LC Metasurface
5.16.3D Flash Lidar
5.17.Recent Progress in 3D Flash Lidar
5.18.Alternatives: Electro-Optical & Acousto-Optical Deflectors
5.19.Alternatives: Risley Prisms, MMT & Liquid Lens
5.20.Mechanical Lidar: SWOT Analysis
5.21.MEMS Lidar: SWOT Analysis
5.22.Optical Phased Array Lidar: SWOT Analysis
5.23.Liquid Crystal Lidar: SWOT Analysis
5.24.3D Flash Lidar: SWOT Analysis
6.1.Photodetector Technology Choices
6.2.Comparison of Common Photodetectors & Materials
6.3.Multiphoton Detectors: PIN Photodiode
6.4.Multiphoton Detectors: APD
6.5.Single Photon Detectors: SPAD
6.6.Single Photon Detectors: SiPM
6.7.Recent Progress in Ge Photodiodes, SPADs & SiPMs
7.1.Overview: 106 Lidar Players by Geography
7.2.Overview: Players with HQ in North America, Part I
7.3.Overview: Players with HQ in North America, Part II
7.4.Overview: Players with HQ in Asia, Part I
7.5.Overview: Players with HQ in Asia, Part II
7.6.Overview: Players with HQ in Europe & ROW
7.7.Business: Target Markets
7.8.Business: Business Models
7.9.Business: Lidar Hardware Supply Chain for L3+ Vehicles
7.10.Business: Laser & Semiconductor Suppliers
7.11.Business: Evolution of Laser Diode & Fiber Laser Power & Price
7.12.Business: Evolution of Laser Diode Radiance & Price
7.13.Business: Photodetector Suppliers
7.14.Business: Beam Steering Component Suppliers
7.15.Business: Key Investors & Partners of Lidar Start-Ups, Part I
7.16.Business: Key Investors & Partners of Lidar Start-Ups, Part II
7.17.Business: Key Investors & Partners of Lidar Start-Ups, Part III
7.18.Business: Key Partners of Large Corporations Developing Lidar
7.19.Business: 30 Mergers & Acquisitions in the Lidar Supply Chain
7.20.Business: Company Size & Lidar Division Size
7.21.Business: Emergence of New Players
7.22.R&D: Beam Steering Technology
7.23.R&D: Mechanical Lidar Players, Rotating & Non-Rotating
7.24.R&D: Micromechanical Lidar Players, MEMS & Other
7.25.R&D: Pure Solid-State Lidar Players, OPA & Liquid Crystal
7.26.R&D: Pure Solid-State Lidar Players, 3D Flash
7.27.R&D: SWIR Lidar Players, Emerging Alternative to NIR
7.28.R&D: FMCW Lidar Players, Emerging Alternative to TOF
7.29.R&D: Emergence of New Technologies
7.30.R&D: Technology Development Status
7.31.R&D: Lidar Technology Patents & Patent Applications
7.32.Financials: Total Funding Secured per Technology
7.33.Financials: Funding Secured per Technology per Year
7.34.Financials: Players by Geography & Funding Secured
7.35.Financials: Players by Technology Group & Funding Secured
7.36.Financials: Players by Technology & Funding Secured
7.37.Financials: Players by Measurement Process & Funding Secured
7.38.Financials: Players by Laser Wavelength & Funding Secured
7.39.Financials: Players by Funding & Time Invested on Lidar R&D
7.40.Financials: Sales Revenue by Technology
7.41.Products: Components & Systems, Scanned & Non-Scanned
7.42.Products: Emerging System Configurations & Sensor Fusion
7.43.Products: Beam Steering Technology
7.44.Products: Technology Readiness by Technology
7.45.Products: Measurement Process by Technology, TOF & FMCW
7.46.Products: Laser Type by Technology
7.47.Products: Laser Operation by Technology, Pulsed & CW
7.48.Products: Wavelength Band by Technology
7.49.Products: Wavelength by Technology
7.50.Products: Range at 10% R by Technology
7.51.Products: Horizontal FOV by Technology
7.52.Products: Vertical FOV by Technology
7.53.Products: Horizontal Angular Resolution by Technology
7.54.Products: Vertical Angular Resolution by Technology
7.55.Products: Frame Rate by Technology
7.56.Products: Power Consumption by Technology
7.57.Products: 2019 Unit Price by Technology
7.58.Products: Target Price for Mass Production by Technology
7.59.Products: AV Application by Technology, L3-5 Vehicles
7.60.Products: AV Application by Technology, Highway & Urban
7.61.Products: Minimum Units per L3-5 Vehicle by Technology
7.62.Products: Maximum Units per L3-5 Vehicle by Technology
7.63.Products: Wavelength & Range Correlation by Technology
7.64.Products: Range & FOV Correlation by Technology
7.65.Products: Horizontal & Vertical FOV Correlation by Technology
7.66.Products: Angular Resolution Correlation by Technology
7.67.Products: Price & Range Correlation by Technology
7.68.Products: Price & Horizontal FOV Correlation by Technology
7.69.Products: Price & Vertical FOV Correlation by Technology
7.70.Products: Price & Horizontal Resolution Correlation by Technology
7.71.Products: Price & Vertical Resolution Correlation by Technology
8.1.Overview: 20 Players Developing 3D Lidar
8.2.Business: Business Models & Target Markets
8.3.Business: Overview of Operations
8.4.Business: Funding, Sales Revenue & Revenue Growth
8.5.R&D: Lidar Technology, Development Status & Patents
8.6.Products: Beam Steering & Technology Readiness
8.7.Products: Laser, Measurement Process & Sensor Fusion
8.8.Products: Lidar Range & Unit Price
8.9.Products: Horizontal & Vertical FOV
9.1.Roadmap: Evolution of 3D Lidar by Beam Steering Technology
9.2.Roadmap: Evolution of L3+ Vehicles with 3D Lidar by Vehicle Type
9.3.Adoption of 3D Lidar: Summary of Opportunities & Threats
9.4.Lidar Unit Price by Technology: All Products & Average
9.5.Lidar Unit Price by Technology: Mechanical & Non-Mechanical
9.6.Lidars per Vehicle by Technology & Common Configurations
9.7.Lidar Configuration Diagrams: L3, L4 & L5 Vehicles
9.8.Average Lidar Cost per Vehicle by Technology
9.9.Minimum & Maximum Lidar Cost per Vehicle
9.10.Lidar Production Volume per Player: All Market Segments
9.11.Lidar Production Volume per Player: L3+ Vehicles
9.12.Number of Players, New Start-Ups & Business Closures
9.13.Global Lidar Production by Technology: L3+ Vehicles
9.14.L3 Private Vehicle Market Share by Lidar Technology
9.15.L4 & L5 Private Vehicle Market Share by Lidar Technology
9.16.L4 & L5 Shared Mobility Market Share by Lidar Technology
9.17.L4 & L5 Delivery Vehicle Market Share by Lidar Technology
9.18.L3+ Vehicle Production Volume by Vehicle Type: Lidar Markets
9.19.Availability of Lidar Products for L3+ Vehicles
9.20.Global Lidar Unit Sales by L3+ Vehicle Type
9.21.Lidar Unit Sales by L3+ Vehicle Type: Lidar Redundancy Scenario
9.22.Global Lidar Market Size by L3+ Vehicle Type
9.23.Lidar Market Size by L3+ Vehicle Type: Lidar Redundancy Scenario
9.24.Global Lidar Unit Sales by Technology
9.25.Lidar Unit Sales by Technology: Lidar Redundancy Scenario
9.26.Global Lidar Market Size by Technology
9.27.Lidar Market Size by Technology: Lidar Redundancy Scenario
9.28.Lidar Unit Sales & Market Size by Technology: 5-Year Trends
9.29.Lidar Unit Sales by L3+ Vehicle Type & Technology: 2019 & 2030
9.30.Lidar Market Size by L3+ Vehicle Type & Technology: 2019 & 2030
9.31.Lidar Unit Sales & Market Size by Technology: L3 Private Vehicles
9.32.Lidar Unit Sales & Market Size by Technology: L4/L5 Private Vehicles
9.33.Lidar Unit Sales & Market Size by Technology: L4/L5 Shared Mobility
9.34.Lidar Unit Sales & Market Size by Technology: L4/L5 Delivery Vehicles
10.1.Private & Shared Vehicles: Test Distance by AV Player
10.2.Private & Shared Vehicles: Tests by Player in China
10.3.Private Vehicles: Autonomous Car Tests by OEM in 2018
10.4.Private Vehicles: Launch Time by Automotive OEM
10.5.Shared Mobility: Robotaxi Launch Time by Player
10.6.Delivery Vehicles: Funding for AV Truck Start-Ups
10.7.Delivery Vehicles: Deployment of L4+ Trucks
10.8.Delivery Vehicles: Market Readiness L4+ Truck Players
10.9.Global Unit Sales of Private & Shared Vehicles: L0 to L5
10.10.Global Unit Sales of Private & Shared Vehicles: L3, L4 & L5
13.1.ABAX Sensing: FMCW Pure Solid-State Lidar
13.2.AEye: MOEMS Lidar with RGB Camera
13.3.Baraja: RMCW Spectrum-Scan Lidar
13.4.Blickfeld: MEMS Lidar with Large Aperture
13.5.BrightWay Vision: Laser Gated Image Sensor & Camera
13.6.Cepton: Micro-Motion Technology (MMT) Lidar
13.7.Continental & ASC: 3D Flash Lidar
13.8.Fastree3D: 3D Flash Lidar
13.9.Hybrid Lidar Systems: Sequential Flash Lidar
13.10.Innoviz: Automotive Grade MEMS Lidar
13.11.LeddarTech: Flash Lidar, System on Chip & Software
13.12.Luminar: Non-Rotating Mechanical Lidar
13.13.Mirada Technologies: Liquid Immersed Polygon Scanner
13.14.Ouster: Rotating Multi-Beam 3D Flash Lidar
13.15.Phantom Intelligence: 3D Flash Lidar & Signal Processing
13.16.QLM Technology: Quantum Sensors & FMCW OPA Lidar
13.17.Quanergy: OPA Lidar & Mechanical Lidar
13.18.Sense Photonics: 3D Flash Lidar
13.19.SiLC: FMCW Lidar, Silicon Photonic Chip
13.20.TriLumina: VCSEL Array & Monolithic Microlens Scanning
13.21.Velodyne: Mechanical Lidar & Micro-Lidar Array
13.22.XenomatiX: 3D Flash Lidar with 2D Monochrome Camera
13.23.ZVISION: MEMS Lidar & FMCW OPA Lidar

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