) is the leading cause of death worldwide, with over 17 million per year according to the World Health Organisation. This represents approximately 31% of global deaths. Many forms of CVD are chronic in nature, meaning that they worsen over time. Thus, once the disease has been diagnosed it is important to initiate treatment as soon as possible in order to provide positive patient outcomes.
Pharmacological agents are often the treatment of choice for CVDs, including arrhythmia and heart failure. However, the nature of these conditions can sometimes prevent drugs from having the desired effect. For instance, the various contraindications associated with concomitant drug use limit the suitability of anti-arrhythmic drugs. Treating heart failure through medication presents a similar problem as heart failure patients often need multiple medications, which increases the chances of adverse effects being experienced by the patient.
Cardiac rhythm disorders and heart failure have proven that other solutions are required to provide positive patient outcomes. Various cardiac devices have been developed to help treat these conditions. The main disease areas of CVD revolve around abnormal cardiac rhythm and loss of tissue function. Current treatment areas thus focus on cardiac rhythm management and the generation of new cardiovascular tissue through tissue engineering and 3D bioprinting.
Current technologies for the treatment of CVD are in various stages of development - some have been commercially available for decades and others are still in the proof-of-concept phase. The differences in levels of development reflect the depth of our understanding of the diseases in question. For instance, pacemakers have been in use for over fifty years as cardiac rhythm was one of the first areas of cardiovascular health to be investigated. On the other hand, cardiac tissue engineering and bioprinting technologies are still in their infancy due to a lack of understanding of the complexities of re-creating human tissue.
Though the first engineered tissue came onto the market almost 20 years ago, there has been little progress in commercializing tissue engineering products via traditional regulatory pathways. Instead, patients receive life-saving tissue engineering through small scale studies run by academic institutions and hospitals. Tissue engineering therapies can provide a benefit in the healing and regeneration process but so far are unable to completely resolve injuries or diseases. MedTech companies and research institutions are currently working on methods of 3D bioprinting blood vessels, cardiac tissue and even an entire human heart.
IDTechEx's report Cardiovascular Disease 2020-2030
discusses the different medical device technologies available for the treatment of cardiac rhythm disorders and heart failure. It highlights recent advancements in the field of cardiac devices and cardiovascular tissue engineering as well as the regulatory and manufacturing challenges associated with these sectors. It also offers insights on various elements such as historical revenue data, market drivers & constraints, ongoing clinical trials and more to provide detailed evaluation of recent and upcoming developments.