Market for eVTOL Air Taxis to grow to just under US$20 billion by 2044.

Air Taxis: Electric Vertical Take-Off and Landing (eVTOL) Aircraft 2024-2044: Technologies, Players

eVTOL Players, 20-year Market Forecasts, TCO Analysis, Advanced Batteries, Electric Motors, Distributed Electric Propulsion, Composite Materials for Aviation and Air Taxi Skyport Infrastructure.

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Taxiing for take-off: The flying cab in your future
IDTechEx's new report "Air Taxis: Electric Vertical Take-Off and Landing (eVTOL) Aircraft 2024-2044: Technologies, Players" is intended to help companies understand the exciting emerging urban air mobility (UAM) market. This report provides comprehensive detail, from an assessment of the pros and cons of the different electric vertical take-off and landing (eVTOL) aircraft design architectures, through to more nuanced detail on opportunities in key enabling technologies, such as aviation grade batteries, advanced electric motors and propulsion systems, composite materials and eVTOL ground infrastructure. Along with information and insight into the eVTOL air taxi market this report contains IDTechEx's 20-year outlook for eVTOL air taxi sales, market revenue, battery demand and battery market revenue.
Although "flying taxis" are not yet part of our daily lives, the technology is advancing, regulators are developing certification pathways, and the public is intrigued. Airlines, airports, and aerospace companies are incorporating new types of passenger transport into their plans. Meanwhile, automotive OEMs and others in the broader mobility ecosystem are carefully following developments related to eVTOL aircraft, knowing that they could provide a new sustainable option for passenger transport at the urban and regional level.
IDTechEx analysis of air taxi / passenger drone operations within Urban Air Mobility (UAM) suggests that there are frequently talked about areas for air taxi deployment which simply do not look viable, offering commuters no perceivable benefit at a greater expense. However, IDTechEx's research also indicates applications where eVTOL aircraft could provide a faster, more direct, and flexible journey, at a lower cost than competing transport modes. It is this potential which has attracted the attention of huge companies both inside and outside the aviation industry and stirred major investment into this nascent market.
The advanced air mobility ecosystem will power a new value chain. Source: IDTechEx
Indeed, many of the world's largest aerospace and automotive companies are ramping up their interest in eVTOL aircraft, recognising it as a potentially disruptive new transport mode. The major aerospace suppliers RTX Corporation, GE, SAFRAN, and Honeywell, are all investing in eVTOL related technologies including electric and hybrid-electric powertrain components, systems for autonomous flight and advanced air traffic management systems. Furthermore, composite material manufacturers like Toray and Hexcel have been working with OEMs on the advanced lightweight materials required for several facets of eVTOL design. The automotive industry is taking an interest as well, with Toyota, Hyundai, Stellantis, XPeng, Suzuki, and Honda, all funding, collaborating on, or conducting their own eVTOL projects.
Hundreds of concepts of eVTOL aircraft have been introduced in recent years, however very few of them have actually flown, and even fewer have any outlook for certification, commercial launch, or operations at scale. Some handful of eVTOL companies hope to receive regulatory certification for their eVTOLs by the middle of the decade. The years leading up to 2024 saw some OEMs finishing assembly of type-conforming eVTOLs, which is an important step on the path to achieving type certification required to begin commercial passenger operations. Full scale demonstrators have also been made by few OEMs. These demonstrators are usually larger and more advanced than scale models or prototypes, representing a significant step towards the eventual commercialization of eVTOL aircraft.
Main Electric Vertical Take-Off and Landing (eVTOL) Aircraft Architectures. Source: IDTechEx.
In 2023, companies took steps forward with production facilities as well, announcing site specific plans. Manufacturers are also improving the chances of scale-up by taking steps to make production more efficient, which will enable more rapid production of serial aircraft and aircraft systems at lower cost. Those to market first will have the opportunity to be the face of this electrifying new market as a brand leader at the technological forefront.
Much of the focus for batteries has been on cost per energy storage (for example, dollar per kilowatt-hour). But for aviation, which fights a constant battle against gravity, the metric of energy density (watt-hour per kilogram) is even more essential. The industry must achieve the battery performance required to sustain electric vertical takeoff and landing. To enable this, battery density must nearly double from today's approximately 200 watt-hours per kilogram, and these batteries must achieve aviation-grade safety standards. This is critical to reduce the noise and cost of operating these vehicles.
This IDTechEx report consolidates some of the most interesting research from the past few years, focusing on the core challenges and opportunities in this emerging industry. While many hurdles remain for passenger advanced air mobility, entrepreneurs, incumbents, and other industry stakeholders are prepared to tackle them. The path to designing and certifying a viable aircraft can be technically challenging and capital intensive. Few sectors of aerospace are as fast-paced as advanced air mobility, but as market entry draws closer, the stakes are only rising. Certification progress, cash consumption and preparations for production and operation are coming to a head.
Key aspects
The report addresses key aspects including:
  • Distributed electric propulsion and the various eVTOL architectures possible
  • Analysis of multicopter eVTOL trips and faster vectored thrust eVTOL to ground based taxi service
  • TCO analysis based on autonomous/non-autonomous operations and average trip lengths
  • eVTOL battery requirements including suppliers
  • eVTOL motors and powertrains
  • Composite materials for eVTOL
  • eVTOL infrastructure requirements: vertiports and charging standards
  • eVTOL regulation and certification landscape
  • Hybrid and fuel cell eVTOLs
  • 20-year outlook for eVTOL air taxis: Unit sales by economy wealth, battery demand (GWh), Market revenue (US$)
Report MetricsDetails
Historic Data2020 - 2023
CAGRGlobal Air Taxi eVTOL unit sales will exhibit a 25% CAGR for the period 2024-2044.
Forecast Period2024 - 2044
Forecast UnitsSales (Units), Battery demand (GWh), Market size ($USD Billion)
Regions CoveredWorldwide
Segments CoveredElectric Vertical Take-off and Landing Aircraft: Multicopter, Tiltrotor, Lift+Cruise, and Tiltwing
Analyst access from IDTechEx
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Further information
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Table of Contents
1.1.IDTechEx Air Taxis: Electric Vertical Take-Off and Landing Aircraft Report
1.2.What is an eVTOL Aircraft?
1.3.Main eVTOL Architectures
1.4.Why eVTOL Aircraft?
1.5.Huge Companies are Already Investing in eVTOL
1.6.eVTOL Getting Off the Ground
1.7.The eVTOL Market is Very Crowded
1.8.2024 OEM Updates
1.9.eVTOLs Have Attracted Significant Commercial Interest
1.10.eVTOL OEMs are Attracting Large Funding
1.11.New Manufacturing Facilities and Production Plans
1.12.eVTOL OEMs will Have to Weather a Tougher Investor Climate
1.13.When will the First eVTOL Air Taxis Launch? Slipping Timelines as Market Entry Draws Closer
1.14.Air Taxi Services
1.15.Conclusions on Air Taxi Time Saving
1.16.eVTOL as an Urban Mass Mobility Solution?
1.17.Where is the eVTOL Air Taxi Advantage?
1.18.The Value of Autonomous Flight
1.19.eVTOL: Summary of Enabling Technologies
1.20.The Need for Component Improvements
1.21.eVTOL Battery Requirements
1.22.Lithium-based Batteries Beyond Li-ion
1.23.Li-ion Timeline - Technology and Performance
1.24.eVTOL Motor / Powertrain Requirements
1.25.eVTOL Composite Material Requirements
1.26.eVTOL Infrastructure Requirements
1.27.Companies Developing Vertiports
1.28.Forecast Summary
1.29.eVTOL Air Taxi Sales Forecast 2020-2044 (Units)
1.30.eVTOL Air Taxi Battery Demand Forecast 2020-2044 (GWh)
1.31.eVTOL Battery Market Revenue Forecast (US$ million)
1.32.eVTOL Air Taxi Market Revenue Forecast (US$ billion)
2.1.What is an eVTOL Aircraft?
2.2.eVTOL Architectures
2.3.Distributed Electric Propulsion
2.4.The Dream of Urban Air Mobility
2.5.Advantages of UAM Networks
2.6.Advanced Air Mobility
2.7.eVTOL Applications
2.8.Air Taxi Services
2.9.Current General Aviation Aircraft
2.10.Why Helicopters are not Suitable for UAM
2.11.Range and Endurance Limitations of eVTOL
2.12.GAMA General Aviation Helicopter Sales and Market
2.13.Worldwide Helicopter Fleet
2.14.Helicopter OEMs
2.15.GAMA General Aviation Airplane Sales and Market Size
2.16.Top 5 General Aviation OEMs by Airplane Type
2.17.What is Making eVTOL Possible?
2.18.Why eVTOL Aircraft?
2.19.eVTOL Air Taxis: Much More than New Aircraft
2.20.Huge Companies are Already Investing in eVTOL
2.21.Air Mobility Funding
2.22.Market Outlook
2.23.Significant Challenges
2.24.Numerous Opportunities
2.25.NASA: UAM Challenges and Constraints
2.26.Key Issues for eVTOL Air Taxis
3.1.Aerospace Companies by Revenue
3.2.RTX Corp.
3.3.General Electric
4.1.Will eVTOL Taxis Reduce Journey Time?
4.2.eVTOL Multicopter vs Robotaxi: 10km Journey
4.3.eVTOL vs Robotaxi: Example 10km Journey
4.4.eVTOL Multicopter vs Robotaxi: 40km Journey
4.5.eVTOL vs Robotaxi: Example 40km Journey
4.6.Multicopter eVTOL vs Robotaxi: 100km Journey
4.7.Vectored Thrust eVTOL vs Robotaxi: 100km Journey
4.8.eVTOL vs Robotaxi: Example 100km Journey
4.9.Important Factors for an Air Taxi Time Advantage
4.10.Conclusions on Air Taxi Time Saving
5.1.TCO Analysis: eVTOL Taxi US$/50km Trip (Base Case)
5.2.eVTOL vs Helicopter Operating Cost
5.3.eVTOL Aircraft Upfront Cost
5.4.eVTOL Operational Fuel Cost Savings
5.5.The Value of Autonomous Flight
5.6.TCO vs Helicopters Uber Air US$/mile
5.7.Sensitivity to Battery Cost and Performance
5.8.Sensitivity to Upfront / Infrastructure Cost
5.9.Sensitivity to Average Trip Length
5.10.TCO Analysis: US$/15km Trip: Multicopter eVTOL Design
5.11.TCO US$/15km Autonomous Trip: Multicopter vs Base Case
6.1.World eVTOL Aircraft Directory
6.2.Geographical Distribution of eVTOL Projects
6.3.Key Players: eVTOL Air Taxi
6.4.Main eVTOL Architectures
6.5.eVTOL Architecture Choice
6.6.eVTOL Multicopter / Rotorcraft
6.7.Multicopter: Flight Modes
6.8.Multicopter / Rotorcraft: Key Players Specifications
6.9.Benefits / Drawbacks of Multicopters
6.10.eVTOL Lift + Cruise
6.11.Lift + Cruise: Flight Modes
6.12.Lift + Cruise: Key Players Specifications
6.13.Benefits / Drawbacks of Lift + Cruise
6.14.Vectored Thrust eVTOL
6.15.Vectored Thrust: Flight Modes
6.16.eVTOL Vectored Thrust: Tiltwing
6.17.Tiltwing: Key Player Specifications
6.18.Benefits / Drawbacks of Tiltwing
6.19.eVTOL Vectored Thrust: Tiltrotor
6.20.Tiltrotor: Key Player Specifications
6.21.Benefits / Drawbacks of Tiltrotor
6.22.When will the First eVTOL Air Taxis Launch?
6.23.Manned Air Taxi eVTOL Test Flights
6.24.Unmanned Air Taxi eVTOL Model Test Flights
6.25.Range and Cruise Speed: Electric eVTOL Designs
6.26.Hover Lift Efficiency and Disc Loading
6.27.Hover and Cruise Efficiency by eVTOL Architecture
6.28.Complexity, Criticality & Cruise Performance
6.29.Comparison of eVTOL Architectures
7.1.Uber Elevate - Joby Aviation
7.2.Driving Air Taxi Progress: Uber Elevate
7.3.Uber Elevate: Strategic OEM Vehicle Partnerships
7.4.Uber Air Vehicle Requirements
7.5.Uber Air Mission Profile
7.6.US Airforce eVTOL Support - Agility Prime
7.7.US Airforce - Agility Prime
7.8.Agility Prime: Advance Air Mobility Ecosystem
7.9.NASA: Advanced Air Mobility Mission
7.10.NASA: Advanced Air Mobility National Campaign
7.11.Groupe ADP eVTOL Test Area
7.12.China's Unmanned Civil Aviation Zones
7.13.Favourable Policies and Regulations Supporting China's UAM / Low-Altitude Economy
7.14.K-UAM Grand Challenge: South Korea
7.15.UK's Future Flight Challenge
7.16.Varon Vehicles: UAM in Latin America
8.3.Airbus A3 (Acubed): Vahana
8.4.Vahana Controls and Redundancy
8.5.Airbus Helicopters: CityAirbus
8.6.Airbus: CityAirbus NextGen
8.7.Airbus eVTOL Projects
8.8.Archer Aviation
8.9.Archer and Stellantis Partnership
8.10.Autoflight: Prosperity I
8.11.Bell Textron
8.12.Bell Textron: Nexus
8.13.Bell Textron: Experimental eVTOL Concepts
8.14.Bell Textron - Key eVTOL Partnerships
8.15.BETA Technologies
8.17.EHang 216
8.19.Embraer: Eve (EmbraerX)
8.20.Eve Air Mobility - Suppliers
8.21.Jaunt Air Mobility: Journey Air Taxi
8.22.Jaunt Air Mobility
8.23.Jaunt Air Mobility - Key Partners
8.24.Joby Aviation
8.26.Lilium - Key Suppliers
8.29.SkyDrive - Key Suppliers
8.30.Supernal (Hyundai): S-A2
8.31.Vertical Aerospace
8.32.Vertical Aerospace - Key Suppliers
8.33.Volocopter: VoloCity
8.35.Wisk Aero
8.36.Wisk Aero - Cora
8.37.Players Planned Production Capacity Comparison
8.38.IDTechEx Portal Company Profiles - OEM
9.1.Battery Specifics for eVTOLs
9.2.What is a Li-ion Battery?
9.3.Electrochemistry Definitions
9.4.The Battery Trilemma
9.5.Battery Wish List for an eVTOL
9.6.Li-ion Cathode Benchmark
9.7.Li-ion Anode Benchmark
9.8.Li-ion Timeline - Technology and Performance
9.9.eVTOL Battery Requirements
9.10.The Promise of Silicon
9.11.Airbus Minimum Battery Requirement
9.12.eVTOL Battery Range Calculation
9.13.Aerospace Battery Pack Sizing
9.14.Importance of Battery Pack Energy Density
9.15.Importance of eVTOL Lift/Drag to Range
9.16.Uber Air Proposed Battery Requirements
9.17.Battery Size
9.18.Battery Specifications of eVTOL OEMs
9.19.Batteries Packs: More than Just Cells
9.20.Eliminating the Battery Module
9.21.eVTOL Batteries: Specific Energy Vs Discharge Rates
9.23.Lilium Battery Technology Outlook
9.24.E-One Moli Energy Corp. (Molicel)
9.25.Electric Power Systems (EPS): Li-ion Batteries
9.26.Electric Power Systems (EPS) - Partners
9.27.Amprius Inc: Silicon Anode
9.28.Moving on from Li-ion?
9.29.Lithium-based Batteries Beyond Li-ion
9.30.Lithium-Sulfur Batteries (Li-S)
9.31.Advantages of LSBs
9.32.Li-Sulfur Energy Density
9.33.OXIS Energy: Lithium-Sulfur Batteries
9.34.Lithium-Metal and Solid-State Batteries (SSB)
9.35.Solid Energy Systems - Solid State Batteries
9.36.Sion Power Corporation: Lithium-Metal Battery
9.37.Cuberg (Northvolt): Lithium Metal Anode Batteries
9.38.CATL: Condensed Battery
9.39.Battery Chemistry Comparison for eVTOL
9.40.Battery Fast Charging
9.41.Battery Swapping
9.42.Distributed Battery Modules
9.43.eVTOL Battery Cost
9.44.eVTOL Battery Supply Chain
9.45.Development Focus for eVTOL Batteries
10.1.Competing Charging Standards in the AAM Market
10.2.Global Electric Aviation Charging System (GEACS)
10.3.Beta Charging Technologies (CCS)
10.4.EPS Charging Solutions
11.1.Options For Hydrogen Use In Aviation
11.2.Key Systems Needed For Hydrogen Aircraft
11.3.Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells
11.4.Comparison of Technology Options
11.5.Grey Hydrogen
11.6.Major Challenges Hindering Hydrogen Aviation
11.7.Smaller hydrogen FC aircraft: drones & eVTOL
11.8.Hydrogen Aviation Company Landscape
11.9.Fuel Cell eVTOL
11.10.Conclusions for Hydrogen Fuel Cell eVTOL
12.1.Electric Propulsion System
12.2.Conventional Propulsion Systems
12.3.Hybrid Propulsion Systems
12.4.Hybrid Systems Optimisation
12.5.All-Electric Range vs Fuel Cell and Hybrid Powertrains
12.6.Hybrid Propulsion: Turbines and Piston Engines
12.7.Honda eVTOL Hybrid-electric Propulsion System
12.8.Conclusions for Hybrid eVTOL
13.1.eVTOL Motor / Powertrain Requirements
13.2.eVTOL Aircraft Motor Power Sizing
13.3.eVTOL Power Requirement: kW Estimate
13.4.eVTOL Power Requirement
13.5.eVTOL Power Requirement: kW Estimate
13.6.Electric Motors and Distributed Electric Propulsion
13.7.eVTOL Number of Electric Motors
13.8.Motor Sizing
13.9.Electric Motor Designs
13.10.Summary of Traction Motor Types
13.11.Comparison of Traction Motor Construction and Merits
13.12.Motor Efficiency Comparison
13.13.Differences Between PMSM and BLDC
13.14.Radial Flux Motors
13.15.Axial Flux Motors
13.16.Radial Flux vs Axial Flux Motors
13.17.Yoked vs Yokeless Axial Flux
13.18.Why Axial Flux Motors in eVTOL?
13.19.List of Axial Flux Motor Players
13.20.Benchmark of Commercial Axial Flux Motors
13.21.YASA Axial Flux Motors
13.22.Daimler Acquires YASA
13.23.Rolls-Royce / Siemens
13.24.Rolls-Royce / Siemens
13.32.Other Player Examples
13.33.Power Density Comparison: Motors for Aviation
13.34.Torque Density Comparison: Motors for Aviation
14.1.Composite Materials - Lightweighting
14.2.What is Lightweighting?
14.3.Lightweight Material Drivers
14.4.Comparison of Lightweight Materials
14.5.Lightweight Material Candidates
14.6.Introduction to Composites
14.7.Introduction to Composite Materials
14.8.Comparison of Relative Fibre Properties
14.9.Cost Adjusted Fibre Properties
14.10.Supply Chain for Composite Manufacturers
14.11.Carbon Fibre Reinforced Polymer (CFRP)
14.12.Glass Fibres
14.13.FRP/PMC Introduction
14.14.Resins - Overview and Property Comparison
14.15.Thermoplastics for Composites - Overview
14.16.Thermosetting Resins - Key Resins
14.17.Key Challenges for Composites
14.18.eVTOL Composite Material Requirements
14.19.Composite Materials - Toray / Joby Aviation
14.20.Composite Materials - Toray / Lilium
14.21.Composite Materials - BFT / Beta
14.22.Composite Materials - Triumph / Jaunt
14.23.Composite Materials - GKN Aerospace / Supernal
14.24.Composite Materials - GKN Aerospace / Bell
14.25.Composite Materials - Hexcel
15.1.eVTOL Certification
15.2.Companies Pursuing eVTOL Development and Regulatory Approval
15.3.eVTOL Regulation
15.4.European Union Aviation Safety Agency (EASA)
15.5.EASA Special Condition: SC-VTOL
15.6.EASA Certification Categories
15.7.EASA EUROCAE Working Groups
15.8.European Union Aviation Safety Agency (EASA)
15.9.US Federal Aviation Administration (FAA)
15.10.What is FAA Certification?
15.11.Civil Aviation Authority of China (CAAC)
16.1.eVTOL Infrastructure Requirements
16.2.Skyport / Vertiports
16.3.Vertiport Nodal Network
16.4.Companies Developing Vertiports
16.5.Infrastructure for Vertiports
16.7.CORGAN: Meeting Operational Demand
16.8.CORGAN: Stacked Skyports
16.10.CORGAN's Mega Skyport
16.11.CORGAN Uber Skyport Mobility Hub
16.12.CORGAN Uber Skyport Mobility Hub
16.14.Hyundai Future Mobility Vision
16.15.Groupe ADP
16.16.Lilium Scalable Vertiports
16.19.Beta Technologies Recharge Pad
16.20.EHang E-Port
16.21.Uber Air Mega Skyport Concepts 2018
16.22.Uber Air Skyport Mobility Hub Concepts 2019
16.23.eVTOL Urban Air Traffic Management (UATM)
16.24.eVTOL Urban Air Traffic Management (UATM)
16.25.UAM Traffic Management
17.1.Forecast Summary
17.2.Global eVTOL Sales Forecast 2024-2044: Methodology
17.3.eVTOL Air Taxi Sales Forecast (Units)
17.4.eVTOL Air Taxi Sales Forecast by World Bank Country Wealth Definition and Economy Size (Units)
17.5.eVTOL Air Taxi Battery Demand Forecast (GWh)
17.6.eVTOL Battery Market Revenue Forecast (US$ million)
17.7.eVTOL forecast: Average eVTOL Battery Size 2020-2044
17.8.eVTOL Air Taxi Market Revenue Forecast (US$ billion)
17.9.eVTOL forecast: Average eVTOL Price 2020-2044

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Air Taxis: Electric Vertical Take-Off and Landing (eVTOL) Aircraft 2024-2044: Technologies, Players

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Report Statistics

Slides 378
Forecasts to 2044
Published Mar 2024
ISBN 9781835700266

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