Battery demand for off-highway industries will be worth nearly US$8 Billion in 2034.

Battery Markets in Construction, Agriculture & Mining Machines 2024-2034

Battery markets for construction, agriculture, and mining vehicles across China, US, Europe, & RoW. Technology benchmarking, performance analysis, beyond Li-ion. 10-year forecasts for battery demand and revenue. Technologies, trends, forecasts.

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Electrification in the construction, agriculture, and mining (CAM) industries is growing. The construction industry now has many production electric machines, with agriculture and mining soon to follow. With this growth in electrification comes a new market opportunity for cell manufacturers and battery pack makers. In total, this report finds that battery demand across all CAM industries is expected to reach 53.6 GWh in 2034. This equates to an industry valued at US$7.8 billion in 2034, representing a 10-year CAGR of 27.1%.
Electrifying CAM machines requires a wide range of battery sizes, from 10kWh to 2MWh, and a wide range of performance, safety and longevity requirements. Traditionally, the priority in battery development has been increasing gravimetric and volumetric densities, allowing auto-makers to build EVs with longer range, or physically smaller and lighter battery packs. The size and weight of most CAM machines means energy density is not a concern. Lots of existing diesel machines even utilize concrete ballast for balance and stability. Hence the priorities and needs of EV CAM machines are more focused on cost, safety, and longevity. This report takes a close look at the battery requirements that CAM machines have and how the existing and upcoming battery technologies can meet those demands.
Electric CAM Equipment Battery Sizes. Source: IDTechEx
NMC/LFP Across the CAM Market
The global battery market is currently dominated by NMC (nickel manganese cobalt) and LFP (lithium ferrous phosphate) cathodes with lithium as the charge carrier and a graphite anode. This is no different in the CAM markets. The products from turnkey battery pack manufacturers like Forsee, Accelera, and CATL are dominated by NMC and LFP options. These technologies offer pack level energy densities in the range of 100-200Wh/kg, volumetric energy densities in the 300-400Wh/L range, and enough cycle life to meet many applications.
"Battery Markets in Construction, Agriculture & Mining Machines 2024-2034" finds that LFP and NMC are used throughout the CAM markets. The report also finds that there are trends which impact whether a machine is more likely to use LFP or NMC. Although both chemistries offer very good energy density, the extra volumetric density of NMC means that it can make physically smaller packs, which can be easier to integrate in smaller machines, such as 2-tonne excavators. LFP on the other hand is typically less dense, but cheaper than NMC. This makes it a more common choice for larger machines, where the additional weight and volume can be tolerated and the cost savings are appreciated. In addition to energy density and cost pressures, the choice of LFP or NMC might also be impacted be geography, with some regions having better availability than others.
In addition to LFP and NMC, there are many other technologies coming to the battery market over the next few years. In this report IDTechEx analyzes the benefits and drawbacks of eight additional battery chemistries, and aligns their performance attributes and drawbacks with the needs of 15 vehicle types across the CAM markets.
LTO and Haul Trucks
Lithium titanate (LTO) is an alternative anode technology, replacing the graphite but keeping either an NMC or LFP cathode. LTO doesn't have as high energy density as cells with a graphite anode, however, it is a very stable and robust chemistry. It can provide very high cycle life and supports very quick re-charging. Its lack of energy density means that it is not compatible with all EV CAM machines, but those that can manage the lack of density stand to benefit from its significant charging and longevity advantages.
Haul trucks are a prime example of a machine that could leverage the advantages of an LTO battery. Haul trucks need to operate for 20 hours per day, with very little downtime. Combined with a life expectancy of more than ten years, and subsequently a requirement of more than 12,000 cycles, haul trucks are a tough vehicle to electrify. However, LTO could help. LTO batteries can be charged in as little as three minutes, minimizing downtime. Longevity is also not an issue, with pack manufacturers like ABB estimating that their packs will last 40,000 cycles before end of life.
Silicon Anode Cells and Agriculture
Adding silicon to the graphite anode is one way in which battery companies are looking to increase the energy density of cells. Silicon stores lithium through an alloying reaction, which gives it the potential for very high energy density, but also creates challenges around longevity. As the silicon becomes lithiated it swells, and over time the repeated swelling caused by charge and discharge cycles causes the anode to deteriorate. Current examples of advanced silicon cells (with 10-50% silicon by weight) struggle to exceed cycle lives of more than 1,000 cycles. For many CAM applications this is simply insufficient. The machines could need multiple replacements over their lifetimes making the total cost of ownership too high.
However, silicon anodes could have a place within agriculture. Some large farming machines only see the fields for a few weeks each year, meaning even over a 10-20 year lifespan they will require far fewer charge and discharge cycles than say an excavator. Additionally, operating over rough/muddy terrain, pulling heavy equipment through the field is energetic work. This report finds that electric tractors need approximately 50% more energy than equivalently sized machines in construction and mining, making the additional energy density of silicon anode technologies potentially very valuable.
This IDTechEx report examines a database of over 200 electric machines from the CAM sectors, combined with nearly 200 products from turnkey battery pack suppliers. It considers the individual needs of 15 different machine types, and the merits of ten battery technologies, including; NMC, LFP, LTO, sodium-ion, solid-state batteries, silicon anode batteries, lithium-metal batteries, and more. These combine to give recommendations for the best battery fit for each of the machines across construction, agriculture and mining industries. The report concludes with forecasts for the growth of these technologies within the CAM market, evaluating the market size and distribution over the next 10 years.
Key aspects
This report provides critical market intelligence on battery markets for construction, agriculture, and mining. This includes:
  • An overview of CAM EVs
  • Vehicle trends and performance analysis
  • Benchmarking of off-the-shelf battery products and suppliers' core technologies
  • An overview of Li-ion and beyond Li-ion batteries, and their applicability to CAM
  • Granular 10-year forecasts for battery demand and revenue
Report MetricsDetails
CAGRBattery demand for CAM vehicles will grow with a 10-year CAGR of 35.2%
Forecast Period2024 - 2034
Forecast UnitsBattery demand (GWh), Revenue (US$), Vehicle unit sales
Regions CoveredChina, United States, Europe, Worldwide
Segments CoveredNMC, LFP, LTO, Na-ion, Silicon anode, Solid-state
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Table of Contents
1.1.Key Report Findings
1.2.Advantages of / Barriers to Machine Electrification
1.3.Construction Machines Overview
1.4.Agriculture Machines Overview
1.5.Mining Machines Overview
1.6.Battery Sizing for Different Machine Types
1.7.Battery Chemistries for Different Machine Sizes
1.8.Battery Cycle Life Requirements
1.9.Battery Performance Requirements
1.10.Battery Pack Requirements for EV Construction Machines
1.11.Battery Pack Requirements for EV Agriculture Machines
1.12.Battery Pack Requirements for EV Mining Machines
1.13.Battery Cost Requirements
1.14.Turnkey Battery Pack Suppliers Analysis
1.15.Cycle Life vs Energy Density for Different Chemistries
1.16.Lithium Battery Chemistries
1.17.Key Differences Between Battery Technologies
1.18.Battery Technology Comparison
1.19.Best Fit Battery Technologies for Construction Machines
1.20.Best Fit Battery Technologies for Agriculture Machines
1.21.Best Fit Battery Technologies for Mining Machines
1.22.Total Battery Demand (GWh) by Region 2024 - 2034
1.23.Total Battery Demand (GWh) by Industry 2024 - 2034
1.24.Total Battery Demand (GWh) by Chemistry 2024 - 2034
2.1.Electric Construction Equipment
2.1.1.Overview of Electric Construction Vehicles
2.1.2.Key Construction Machine Types for Electrification
2.1.3.Advantages of / Barriers to Machine Electrification
2.1.4.Electrification Activity of Major Construction OEMs (1)
2.1.5.Electrification Activity of Major Construction OEMs (2)
2.1.6.Mini Excavator OEMs
2.1.7.Example Electric Mini-Excavator - Caterpillar 301.9
2.1.8.Medium / Large Excavator OEMs
2.1.9.Example Excavator - John Deere 145 X-Tier
2.1.10.Compact Loaders / Skid Steer / Dumpers
2.1.11.Compact Loaders OEMs
2.1.12.Example Compact Loader - Bobcat S7X and T7X
2.1.13.Backhoe Loaders OEMs
2.1.14.Example Backhoe Loader - CASE Construction 580EV
2.1.15.Wheel Loaders OEMs
2.1.16.Example Wheel Loader - LuiGong 856E Max and 856HE MAX
2.1.18.JCB 525-60E Electric Telehandler
2.1.19.Mobile Cranes OEMs
2.1.20.XCMG XCT25EV and XCA60EV PHEV Truck Cranes
2.1.21.Other Construction Vehicles
2.2.Electric Agricultural Equipment
2.2.1.Key Agriculture Vehicles for Electrification
2.2.2.Electrification Activity of Major Agriculture OEMs
2.2.3.Sub-compact Tractor OEMs
2.2.4.Example Electric Sub-compact Tractor: Solis SV26
2.2.5.Compact Tractor OEMs
2.2.6.Example Electric Compact Tractor: Rigitrac SKE 40 Electric
2.2.7.Utility Tractor OEMs
2.2.8.Example Electric Utility Tractor: Case IH Farmall 75C Electric
2.2.9.Other Agriculture Vehicles
2.3.Electric Mining Equipment
2.3.1.Key Mining Vehicle Types for Electrification
2.3.2.Electrification Activity of Major Mining OEMs
2.3.3.Haul Truck OEMs
2.3.4.Example Electric Haul Truck: XEMC SF31904
2.3.5.Dump Truck OEMs
2.3.6.Example Electric Dump Truck: XCMG XDR80TE
2.3.7.Wheel Loader OEMs
2.3.8.Example Electric Wheel Loader: Batt Mobile Equipment BIT210 and BME220
2.3.9.Underground Loader OEMs
2.3.10.Example Electric Underground Loader: Sandvik - Toro and Artisan Models
2.3.11.Underground Truck OEMs
2.3.12.Example Electric Underground Truck: Epiroc Minetruck MT42 SG
2.3.13.Mining Light Vehicle OEMs
2.3.14.Example Electric Mining Light Vehicle: Rokion R100, R200, and R400
2.3.15.Other Mining Vehicles
3.1.Battery Sizing for Different Machine Types
3.2.Battery Sizing for EV Machines Smaller Than 50-tonne
3.3.Most Common Battery Pack Sizing
3.4.Battery Capacity and Runtimes
3.5.Battery Sizing for Excavators
3.6.Battery Power Requirements
3.7.Battery Discharge Rate
3.8.Battery Charging Rates
3.9.Battery Voltages
3.10.Battery Voltages Binned
3.11.Battery Voltages in Construction Machines
3.12.Battery Chemistries in Different Machine Sizes
3.13.Typical Battery Chemistry Choices in Different Industries
3.14.Battery Chemistry by Region
3.15.Battery Lifetime Requirements
3.16.Typical Battery Pack Requirements for Different EV CAM Machines - Construction
3.17.Typical Battery Pack Requirements for Different CAM Machines - Agriculture
3.18.Typical Battery Pack Requirements for Different CAM Machines - Mining
3.19.Battery Performance Requirements
3.20.Battery Cost Requirements
4.1.Product Benchmarking and Trends
4.1.1.Batteries for CAM
4.1.2.Introduction to Turnkey Battery Pack Suppliers and Key Takeaways
4.1.3.Suppliers and their Offerings - North America
4.1.4.Suppliers and their Offerings - Europe (1)
4.1.5.Suppliers and their Offerings - Europe (2)
4.1.6.Suppliers and their Offerings - China
4.1.7.Suppliers and their Offerings - Other
4.1.8.Availability of Different Chemistries
4.1.9.Availability of Different Cell Form Factors
4.1.10.LTO and Sodium-ion from the Turnkey Suppliers
4.1.12.Benchmarking - Best Packs for Gravimetric Energy Density
4.1.13.Benchmarking - Best Packs for Volumetric Energy Density
4.1.14.Benchmarking - Best Packs for Gravimetric Power Density
4.1.15.Benchmarking - Best Packs for Volumetric Power Density
4.1.16.Benchmarking - Best Packs for Charging Power
4.1.17.Benchmarking - Best Packs for Longevity
4.1.18.Benchmarking - Largest Capacity Modules/Packs
4.1.19.Ragone Plot - Highlighting Cell Chemistries
4.1.20.Ragone Plot - Highlighting Cell Formfactors
4.1.21.Energy Density, Cycle Life and Chemistry
4.1.22.Energy Density, Charging Speed and Chemistry
4.1.23.Energy Density, Charging Speed and Chemistry (NMC and LFP)
4.1.24.Thermal Management
4.1.25.Thermal Management Options
4.2.Supplier Case Studies
4.2.1.Build the Battery for the Task
4.2.3.Forsee Power
4.2.7.Hot Swapping - Dimaag
4.3.Thermal Management
4.3.1.Thermal Management Overview
4.3.2.Air Cooling
4.3.3.Liquid Cooling
4.3.4.Immersion Cooling
4.3.5.Analysis of Battery Cooling Methods
4.4.LTO Packs for Hybrid Applications
4.4.1.Forsee Power and Kubota - Micro-Hybrid Engine
4.4.2.Proventia Low-Voltage Batteries
4.4.3.Hyliion Battery Module for Hybrids
4.5.Merger, Acquisition & Spinout Activities
4.5.1.Proterra Acquired by Volvo Group
4.5.2.American Battery Solutions Acquired by Komatsu
4.5.3.Hyperdrive Acquired by Turntide
4.5.4.XALT Energy Acquired by Freudenberg
4.5.5.Kokam Acquired by SolarEdge
4.5.6.Accelera - Spinout from Cummins
4.5.7.Kreisel Acquired by John Deere
4.5.8.Futavis Acquired by Deutz
4.5.9.ZQuip - Spinout from Moog
4.5.10.Romeo Power: Acquisition and Liquidation
4.5.11.Bankruptcies: Britishvolt and EnerDel
4.5.12.Summary and Key Takeaways
5.1.Introduction to Future Battery Technologies
5.1.1.Typical Li-ion Energy Density
5.1.2.The Key Differences Between Different Battery Technologies
5.1.3.Electrochemistry Definitions 1
5.1.4.Electrochemistry Definitions 2
5.2.Li-ion Overview
5.2.1.Lithium battery chemistries
5.2.2.Li-ion Battery Performance Comparisons of Typical Technology Options
5.2.3.Li-ion cathode materials - LCO and LFP
5.2.4.Li-ion cathode materials - NMC, NCA and LMO
5.2.5.Li-ion anode materials - graphite and LTO
5.2.6.Li-ion anode materials - silicon and lithium metal
5.2.7.Moving to high-nickel layered oxides
5.2.8.High manganese cathodes - LMO, LMR-NMC
5.2.9.High manganese cathodes - LMP, LMFP
5.2.10.High-level performance comparison
5.2.11.Lithium-ion Technologies for CAM Machines
5.3.Lithium Titanates and Niobates
5.3.1.Introduction to lithium titanate oxide (LTO)
5.3.2.Comparing LTO and graphite
5.3.3.Lithium titanate to niobium titanium oxide
5.3.4.LTO in CAM Machines
5.4.Silicon Anodes
5.4.2.The promise of silicon
5.4.3.Value proposition of high silicon content anodes
5.4.4.The reality of silicon
5.4.5.Silicon Anodes for CAM machines
5.5.1.Lithium-metal anodes
5.5.2.Li-ion battery cell structure - Li-metal
5.5.3.Difficulty of Li-metal anodes
5.5.4.Enabling Li-metal without solid-electrolytes
5.5.5.Energy density of lithium-metal anode designs
5.5.6.Anode-less cell design
5.5.7.Anode-less lithium-metal cells
5.5.8.Lithium Metal for CAM Machines
5.6.1.What is a solid-state battery (SSB)?
5.6.2.Value propositions and limitations of solid state battery
5.6.3.Energy density improvement
5.6.4.Solid-state for CAM Applications
5.7.1.Lithium-sulphur batteries - introduction
5.7.2.Value proposition of Li-S batteries
5.7.3.Lithium-sulphur batteries - advantages
5.7.4.Challenges with lithium-sulphur
5.7.5.Engineering challenges to commercial Li-S
5.7.6.Solutions to Li-S challenges
5.7.7.Lithium Sulfur for CAM Applications
5.8.Sodium-ion (Na-ion)
5.8.1.Introduction to sodium-ion batteries
5.8.2.Na-ion vs Li-ion
5.8.3.Na-ion performance compared
5.8.4.Appraisal of Na-ion
5.8.5.Appraisal of Na-ion
5.8.6.Value proposition of Na-ion batteries
5.8.7.Sodium-ion Applications in CAM
5.9.Aluminium-ion (Al-ion)
5.9.1.Why the interest in aluminium-ion?
5.9.2.Battery chemistries compared
5.9.4.Aluminum-ion Applications in CAM
5.10.Zn-Based Batteries (Zinc-air, Zinc-ion, Zinc-Bromide)
5.10.1.Zn-based batteries
5.10.2.Zn-based batteries - introduction
5.10.3.Zinc-based batteries
5.10.4.Zinc-air batteries
5.10.5.Problems and solutions for rechargeable Zn-air batteries
5.10.6.Remarks on Zn-based batteries
5.10.7.Zinc-based Battery Applications in CAM
5.11.Summary of Battery Technologies and How They Fit with CAM
5.11.1.Battery Technology Comparison
5.11.2.Best Fit Battery Technologies for Construction Machines
5.11.3.Best Fit Battery Technologies for Agriculture Machines
5.11.4.Best Fit Battery Technologies for Mining Machines
6.1.Forecast Methodology: Unit Vehicles Addressable Market and EV Forecasts
6.2.Total Electric Vehicle Market (unit sales) by Industry 2024 - 2034
6.3.Forecast Methodology: Battery Demand and Revenue Forecasts
6.4.Forecast Assumptions
6.5.Total Battery Demand (GWh) by Region 2024 - 2034
6.6.Total Battery Demand (GWh) by Industry 2024 - 2034
6.7.Total Battery Demand (GWh) by Machine Type 2024 - 2034 (1)
6.8.Total Battery Demand (GWh) by Machine Type 2024 - 2034 (2)
6.9.Total Battery Demand (GWh) by Chemistry 2024 - 2034
6.10.Revenue (US$ Billion) from CAM Battery Market by Region 2024 - 2034
6.11.Revenue (US$ Billion) from CAM Battery Market by Industry 2024 - 2034
6.12.Battery Demand (GWh) for Construction by Chemistry 2024 - 2034
6.13.Battery Demand (GWh) for Agriculture by Chemistry 2024 - 2034
6.14.Battery Demand (GWh) for Mining by Chemistry 2024 - 2034
7.1.American Battery Solutions
7.2.Blue Solutions/Bolloré
7.3.BMZ Group
7.4.BYD: Electric Trucks
7.7.Corvus Energy (2020)
7.10.Forsee Power
7.12.Hyliion: Natural Gas PHEV Truck
7.13.Kore Power
7.14.Leclanché: Heavy-Duty EV Battery Systems
7.15.Lithion Technologies
7.18.OBRIST Group
7.19.Our Next Energy (ONE)
7.21.Romeo Power
7.23.Voltabox AG
7.24.XALT Energy/ EnergyPowerSystems (EPS)
7.26.XING Mobility: Immersion-Cooled Batteries

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Battery Markets in Construction, Agriculture & Mining Machines 2024-2034

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Report Statistics

Slides 256
Companies 26
Forecasts to 2034
Published Apr 2024
ISBN 9781835700365

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