IDTechEx forecasts the global CCUS capture capacity to reach 2.5 gigatonnes per annum by 2045.

Carbon Capture, Utilization, and Storage (CCUS) Markets 2025-2045: Technologies, Market Forecasts, and Players

CCUS market outlook, twenty-year granular forecasts, company profiles, and benchmarking of point-source carbon capture, direct air capture (DAC), CO₂ transport and storage (T&S), CO₂ utilization cases, and carbon removals


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Carbon capture, utilization, and storage (CCUS) technologies strip carbon dioxide (CO₂) from waste gases and directly from the atmosphere, before either storing it underground or using it for a range of industrial applications. By preventing CO2 from accumulating in the atmosphere, CCUS offers a ready-now pathway to decarbonize existing fossil fuel assets, whilst also enabling the growth of emerging sustainable industrial sectors such as blue hydrogen and BECCS (bioenergy with carbon capture and storage). Therefore, CCUS technologies can play an essential role in mitigating global CO₂ emissions and keeping the world within the 2°C of warming as outlined in the Paris Agreement.
 
"Carbon Capture, Utilization, and Storage (CCUS) Markets 2025-2045" provides a comprehensive outlook of the emerging CCUS industry and carbon markets, with an in-depth analysis of the technological, economic, regulatory, and environmental aspects that are set to shape the CCUS industry over the next 20 years. Carbon capture, carbon utilization, and carbon storage technologies are evaluated, discussing latest advancements, key players, and opportunities and barriers within each area. The report also includes a 20-year granular forecast until 2045 for CCUS CO2 capture capacity (segmented by CO2 end-point, point-source vs DAC, and further broken down into 5 industrial sectors), alongside exclusive analysis, over 80 interview-based company profiles, and coverage of 350+ companies.
 
 
Breakdown of how the share of point source captured CO2 by industrial sector will vary over the next twenty years. Source: IDTechEx.
Carbon capture technologies are mature but remain expensive
Carbon capture technologies are technologically mature but remain expensive due to a high energy demand. Alternative technologies, including emerging solvents, sorbents, membranes, cryogenic methods, and oxyfuel designs, are being developed in the search for lower capture costs. This report includes analysis, benchmarking, key players, and latest advancements for all major carbon capture technologies, enabling selection of the best technology for a specific emission scenario.
 
Profitable carbon capture is already a reality
How CCUS projects can achieve economic viability is critical for large-scale deployment. Historically, CCUS has been dominated by natural gas processing facilities. Predating environmental concerns, selling CO2 to nearby oilfields for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) was the dominant carbon capture business model. This report examines how EOR and emerging utilization applications can lead to profitable carbon capture, and how direct government subsidies and the advent of carbon pricing (such as the EU ETS and US 45Q tax credit) are slowly expanding the economic feasibility of dedicated CO2 storage projects. Growth of CCUS will be driven by carbon pricing becoming higher in existing carbon markets, as well as extending to more sectors in more regions.
 
A paradigm shift in the CCUS business model
Future CCUS projects are expected to shift from a full-chain approach managed by a single entity to a part-chain business model where third-party service providers handle CO2 capture, or transportation, or storage, simplifying project development for emitters. This report examines technological, economic, and regulatory considerations for CO2 transportation and storage, identifying the opportunities this paradigm shift in business model could represent for companies with existing expertise and infrastructure in the space. The development of industrial CCUS hubs/clusters is also expected to fast-track CO2 transport/storage development.
 
 
The major steps involved in carbon capture, utilization, and storage (CCUS). Source: IDTechEx
 
Key industrial applications for CCUS
Within industry, CCUS provides a retrofittable means of decarbonizing existing industrial assets. Emerging sustainable sectors can also benefit from CCUS, such as bioenergy and blue hydrogen. This report identifies which industrial sectors hold the greatest opportunity for CCUS deployment and examines sector specific drivers and barriers.
 
Key questions answered in this report
• What is CCUS and how can it be used to address climate change?
• Where is CCUS currently deployed?
• Which industrial applications are most suited for CCUS technologies?
• What is the market outlook for CCUS?
• What are the key drivers and restraints of market growth?
• How can carbon pricing schemes and other incentives help scale up CCUS?
• How much does carbon capture technology cost?
• What can carbon dioxide be used for industrially?
• Where are the key growth opportunities for carbon dioxide utilization?
• Who are the key players in CCUS?
• Can CCUS help the world meet its climate ambitions?
 
Key aspects
This report provides the following information:
 
Technology and market analysis:
•Analysis of the challenges and opportunities in deploying CCUS.
•State of the art and innovation in the field for post-combustion capture, pre-combustion capture, oxyfuel combustion capture, direct air capture, CO2 utilization, CO2 transportation, and CO2 storage.
•Detailed overview and comparison of CCUS solutions for different sectors: cement and other heavy industry, hydrogen, power, oil and gas, chemicals.
•Market potential of CCUS, including key regulations and carbon pricing policies influencing the CCUS market.
•Key strategies and economics for scaling CCUS technologies.
•Benchmarking based on factors such as technology readiness level (TRL), cost, and scale potential.
 
Player analysis and trends:
•Primary information from key CCUS-related companies. 80+ interview-based company profiles
•Analysis of CCUS players' latest developments, observing projects announced, funding, trends, and partnerships
 
Market forecasts and analysis:
•20-year granular CCUS market forecasts until 2045 for CCUS subdivided by point-source capture vs DAC, CO2 fate (storage, emerging utilization, or EOR), and sector (power, BECCUS, blue hydrogen/ammonia, natural gas processing, and industry). 12 sub-categories based on the anthropogenic CO2 capture source and destination.
Report MetricsDetails
CAGRIDTechEx forecasts the global CCUS capture capacity to reach 2.5 gigatonnes per annum by 2045. This represents a CAGR of 18.5% 2025-2045.
Forecast Period2023 - 2045
Forecast UnitsMtpa (megatonne per annum) of CO₂ captured
Regions CoveredWorldwide
Segments CoveredPoint source capture, direct air capture, CO₂ fate (CO₂ storage, CO₂ utilization, CO₂ -enhanced oil recovery), sector segmentation (blue hydrogen/ammonia, natural gas processing, BECCUS, power, and industry) and utilization breakdown (CO₂ -derived building materials, CO₂ -derived fuels, CO₂ -derived chemicals, and CO₂ in biological yield boosting).
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Further information
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Table of Contents
1.EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
1.1.What is Carbon Capture, Utilization and Storage (CCUS)?
1.2.Why CCUS and why now?
1.3.Development of the CCUS business model
1.4.Carbon pricing and carbon markets
1.5.Compliance carbon pricing mechanisms across the globe
1.6.Alternative to carbon pricing: 45Q tax credits
1.7.Capture from certain industries is already profitable
1.8.CCUS business models: full chain, part chain, hubs and clusters
1.9.The CCUS value chain
1.10.From which sectors has CO₂ been captured historically?
1.11.CCUS could help decarbonize hard-to-abate sectors
1.12.High-concentration CO₂ sources are the low-hanging fruits
1.13.Which sectors will dominate CCUS?
1.14.Point-source carbon capture capacity forecast by CO₂ source sector, Mtpa of CO₂
1.15.Point-source carbon capture forecast by CO₂ source - Gas and power
1.16.Main CO₂ capture systems
1.17.Technology Readiness Level (TRL): Carbon capture technologies
1.18.Comparison of CO₂ capture technologies
1.19.Solvent-based CO₂ capture
1.20.Solid sorbent-based CO₂ separation
1.21.Selecting a carbon capture technology
1.22.What is direct air capture (DAC)?
1.23.DAC: key takeaways
1.24.Introduction to CO₂ transportation
1.25.Key takeaways - CO₂ transportation
1.26.CO₂ Utilization
1.27.Comparison of emerging CO₂ utilization applications
1.28.Analyst viewpoint - CO₂ utilization
1.29.CO₂ storage
1.30.CCUS capacity forecast by CO₂ endpoint, Mtpa of CO₂
1.31.CCUS forecast by CO₂ endpoint - Discussion
1.32.Key takeaways - CO₂ storage
1.33.Mixed performance from CCUS projects
1.34.The momentum behind CCUS is building up
1.35.CCUS market forecast - Overall discussion
1.36.Access More With an IDTechEx Subscription
2.INTRODUCTION
2.1.What is Carbon Capture, Utilization and Storage (CCUS)?
2.2.Why CCUS and why now?
2.3.CCUS could help decarbonize hard-to-abate sectors
2.4.The CCUS value chain
2.5.Carbon capture
2.6.The challenges in carbon capture
2.7.Why CO₂ utilization?
2.8.Carbon utilization
2.9.Main emerging applications of CO₂ utilization
2.10.Carbon storage
2.11.Carbon transport
2.12.The costs of CCUS
2.13.When can CCUS be considered net-zero?
2.14.The challenges in CCUS
3.BUSINESS MODELS FOR CCUS
3.1.Introduction
3.1.1.Development of the CCUS business model
3.1.2.Government funding support mechanisms for CCUS
3.1.3.Government ownership of CCUS projects varies across countries
3.1.4.CCUS business model: full value chain
3.1.5.CCUS business model: networks and hub model
3.1.6.CCUS industrial clusters in the UK: East Coast Cluster
3.1.7.CCUS industrial clusters in the UK: HyNet
3.1.8.CCUS industrial clusters in the UK: conclusions
3.1.9.Part chain CCUS business models
3.1.10.Why CO₂ utilization should not be overlooked
3.2.Carbon pricing and carbon markets
3.2.1.Carbon pricing and carbon markets
3.2.2.Compliance carbon pricing mechanisms across the globe
3.2.3.What is the price of CO₂ in global carbon pricing mechanisms?
3.2.4.The European Union Emission Trading Scheme (EU ETS)
3.2.5.Has the EU ETS had an impact?
3.2.6.Carbon pricing in the US
3.2.7.Alternative to carbon pricing: 45Q tax credits
3.2.8.Carbon pricing in China
3.2.9.The role of voluntary carbon markets in supporting CCUS
3.2.10.Carbon accounting: double counting is not allowed
3.2.11.Challenges with carbon pricing
3.2.12.How high does carbon pricing need to be to support CCS?
4.STATUS OF THE CCUS INDUSTRY
4.1.The momentum behind CCUS is building up
4.2.Momentum: Government support for CCUS
4.3.Supportive legal and regulatory framework for CCUS
4.4.Global pipeline of carbon capture facilities built and announced
4.5.Analysis of CCUS development
4.6.CO₂ source: From which sectors has CO₂ been captured historically?
4.7.Which sectors will see the biggest growth in CCUS?
4.8.CO₂ fate: Where does/will the captured CO₂ go?
4.9.Regional analysis of CCUS Projects
4.10.Major CCUS players
4.11.Mixed performance from CCUS projects
4.12.Major CCUS projects performance comparison (1/3)
4.13.Major CCUS projects performance comparison (2/3)
4.14.Major CCUS projects performance comparison (3/3)
4.15.Boundary Dam - battling capture technical issues
4.16.Petra Nova's long shutdown: lessons for the industry?
4.17.How much does CCUS cost?
4.18.Enabling large-scale CCUS
5.CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE
5.1.Introduction
5.1.1.Main CO₂ capture systems
5.1.2.The CCUS value chain
5.1.3.Status of point source carbon capture
5.1.4.Comparison of point-source CO₂ capture systems
5.1.5.Natural gas sweetening
5.1.6.Post-combustion CO₂ capture
5.1.7.Post-combustion: Equipment space requirements
5.1.8.Pre-combustion CO₂ capture
5.1.9.Oxy-fuel combustion CO₂ capture
5.1.10.Main CO₂ capture technologies
5.1.11.Technology Readiness Level (TRL): Carbon capture technologies
5.1.12.Carbon capture technology providers for existing large-scale projects
5.1.13.Comparison of CO₂ capture technologies
5.1.14.When should different carbon capture technologies be used?
5.1.15.Typical conditions and performance for different capture technologies
5.1.16.Carbon capture
5.1.17.Going beyond CO₂ capture rates of 90%
5.1.18.99% capture rate: Suitability of different PSCC technologies
5.1.19.The challenges in carbon capture
5.1.20.CO₂ capture: Technological gaps
5.1.21.Metrics for CO₂ capture agents
5.1.22.CO₂ concentration and partial pressure varies with emission source
5.1.23.How does CO₂ partial pressure influence cost?
5.1.24.High-concentration CO₂ sources are the low-hanging fruits
5.1.25.PSCC technologies: Cost, energy demand, and CO₂ recovery
5.1.26.Techno-economic comparison of CO₂ capture technologies (1/2)
5.1.27.Techno-economic comparison of CO₂ capture technologies (2/2)
5.2.Solvents for CO₂ capture
5.2.1.Solvent-based CO₂ capture
5.2.2.Chemical absorption solvents
5.2.3.Amine-based post-combustion CO₂ absorption
5.2.4.Hot Potassium Carbonate (HPC) process
5.2.5.Comparison of key chemical solvent-based systems (1/2)
5.2.6.Comparison of key chemical solvent-based systems (2/2)
5.2.7.Chemical absorption solvents used in current operational CCUS point-source projects (1/2)
5.2.8.Chemical absorption solvents used in current operational CCUS point-source projects (2/2)
5.2.9.Physical absorption solvents
5.2.10.Comparison of key physical absorption solvents
5.2.11.Physical solvents used in current operational CCUS point-source projects
5.2.12.Innovation addressing solvent-based CO₂ capture drawbacks
5.2.13.When should solvent-based carbon capture be used?
5.3.Emerging solvents for carbon capture
5.3.1.Innovation in carbon capture solvents
5.3.2.Chilled ammonia process (CAP)
5.3.3.Comparison of key chemical solvent-based systems - emerging
5.3.4.Applicability of chemical absorption solvents capture solvents for post-combustion applications
5.3.5.Next generation solvent technologies for point-source carbon capture
5.4.Sorbents for CO₂ capture
5.4.1.Solid sorbent-based CO₂ separation
5.4.2.Overview of solid sorbents explored for carbon capture
5.4.3.Metal organic framework (MOF) adsorbents
5.4.4.Zeolite-based adsorbents
5.4.5.Solid amine-based adsorbents
5.4.6.Carbon-based adsorbents
5.4.7.Polymer-based adsorbents
5.4.8.Solid sorbents in pre-combustion applications
5.4.9.Sorption Enhanced Water Gas Shift (SEWGS)
5.4.10.Solid sorbents in post-combustion applications
5.4.11.Comparison of emerging solid sorbent systems
5.5.Membrane-based CO₂ capture
5.5.1.Membrane-based CO₂ separation
5.5.2.Membranes: Operating principles
5.5.3.How is membrane performance characterised?
5.5.4.Technical advantages and challenges for membrane-based CO₂ separation
5.5.5.Comparison of membrane materials for CCUS (1/2)
5.5.6.Comparison of membrane materials for CCUS (2/2)
5.5.7.Commercial status of membranes in carbon capture (1/2)
5.5.8.Commercial status of membranes in carbon capture (2/2)
5.5.9.Membranes for post-combustion CO₂ capture
5.5.10.Facilitated transport membranes could unlock low-cost operating conditions
5.5.11.When should be membrane carbon capture be used?
5.5.12.Membranes for pre-combustion capture (1/2)
5.5.13.Membranes for pre-combustion capture (2/2)
5.5.14.Key development areas for membranes in carbon capture
5.6.Cryogenic CO₂ capture
5.6.1.Cryogenic CO₂ capture: an emerging alternative
5.6.2.When should cryogenic carbon capture be used?
5.6.3.Status of cryogenic CO₂ capture technologies
5.6.4.Cryogenic CO₂ capture in blue hydrogen: Cryocap™
5.7.Oxyfuel combustion capture
5.7.1.Oxy-fuel combustion CO₂ capture
5.7.2.Oxygen separation technologies for oxy-fuel combustion
5.7.3.Oxyfuel CCUS projects in the cement industry
5.7.4.Large-scale oxyfuel CCUS cement projects in the pipeline
5.7.5.Oxyfuel CCUS in the power generation industry
5.7.6.Novel oxyfuel: Chemical looping combustion (CLC)
5.8.Novel CO₂ capture technologies
5.8.1.LEILAC process: Direct CO₂ capture in cement plants
5.8.2.LEILAC process: Configuration options
5.8.3.Calcium Looping (CaL)
5.8.4.Calcium Looping (CaL) configuration options
5.8.5.CO₂ capture with Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFCs)
5.8.6.CO₂ capture with Molten Carbonate Fuel Cells (MCFCs)
5.8.7.The Allam-Fetvedt Cycle
5.8.8.Summary: PSCC technology readiness and providers (1/2)
5.8.9.Summary: PSCC technology readiness and providers (2/2)
5.9.Point-source Carbon Capture in Key Industrial Sectors
5.9.1.Which sectors will see the biggest growth in CCUS?
5.9.2.Capture costs vary by sector
5.9.3.Power plants with CCUS generate less energy
5.9.4.The impact of PSCC on power plant efficiency
5.9.5.The cost of increasing the rate of CO₂ capture in the power sector
5.9.6.Blue Hydrogen Production and Markets 2023-2033: Technologies, Forecasts, Players
5.9.7.Blue hydrogen: main syngas production technologies
5.9.8.Blue hydrogen production - SMR with CCUS
5.9.9.Pre- vs post-combustion CO₂ capture for blue hydrogen
5.9.10.CO₂ capture retrofit options for blue H2 production (1/2)
5.9.11.CO₂ capture retrofit options for blue H2 production (2/2)
5.9.12.CO₂ capture retrofit options - Honeywell UOP example
5.9.13.Example project value chain
5.9.14.Notable blue hydrogen projects
5.9.15.Cost comparison: Commercial CO₂ capture systems for blue H2
5.9.16.The cost of CO₂ capture in blue hydrogen production
5.9.17.CO₂ capture for blue hydrogen production
5.9.18.Summary of point-source carbon capture for blue H2
5.9.19.Early CCUS opportunity: BECCS
5.9.20.The role of CCUS in decarbonizing cement
5.9.21.Status of carbon capture in the cement industry
5.9.22.Major future CCUS projects in the cement sector
5.9.23.Carbon capture technologies demonstrated in the cement sector
5.9.24.SkyMine® chemical absorption: The largest CCU demonstration in the cement sector
5.9.25.Carbon Capture and Utilization (CCU) in the cement sector: Fortera's ReCarb™
5.9.26.Algae CO₂ capture from cement plants
5.9.27.Cost and technological status of carbon capture in the cement sector
5.9.28.Maritime carbon capture: Onboard Carbon Capture and Storage
5.10.Direct Air Capture
5.10.1.DAC vs point-source carbon capture
5.10.2.What is direct air capture (DAC)?
5.10.3.Why DACCS as a CDR solution?
5.10.4.Current status of DACCS
5.10.5.Momentum: private investments in DAC
5.10.6.Momentum: public investment and policy support for DAC
5.10.7.Momentum: DAC-specific regulation
5.10.8.DAC land requirement is an advantage
5.10.9.CO₂ capture/separation mechanisms in DAC
5.10.10.Direct air capture technologies
5.10.11.DAC solid sorbent swing adsorption processes (1/2)
5.10.12.DAC solid sorbent swing adsorption processes (2/2)
5.10.13.Electro-swing adsorption of CO₂ for DAC
5.10.14.Solid sorbents in DAC
5.10.15.Emerging solid sorbent materials for DAC
5.10.16.Liquid solvent-based DAC
5.10.17.Process flow diagram of S-DAC
5.10.18.Process flow diagram of L-DAC
5.10.19.Process flow diagram of CaO looping
5.10.20.Solid sorbent- vs liquid solvent-based DAC
5.10.21.Electricity and heat sources
5.10.22.Requirements to capture 1 Mt of CO₂ per year
5.10.23.DAC companies by country
5.10.24.Direct air capture company landscape
5.10.25.A comparison of the three DAC pioneers
5.10.26.TRLs of direct air capture players
5.10.27.Climeworks
5.10.28.Carbon Engineering
5.10.29.Global Thermostat
5.10.30.Heirloom
5.10.31.DACCS carbon credit sales by company
5.10.32.Challenges associated with DAC technology (1/2)
5.10.33.Challenges associated with DAC technology (2/2)
5.10.34.Oil and gas sector involvement in DAC
5.10.35.DACCS co-location with geothermal energy
5.10.36.Will DAC be deployed in time to make a difference?
5.10.37.What can DAC learn from the wind and solar industries' scale-up?
5.10.38.What is needed for DAC to achieve the gigatonne capacity by 2050?
5.10.39.The economics of DAC
5.10.40.The CAPEX of DAC
5.10.41.The CAPEX of DAC: sub-system contribution
5.10.42.The OPEX of DAC
5.10.43.Overall capture cost of DAC (1/2)
5.10.44.Overall capture cost of DAC (2/2)
5.10.45.Component specific capture cost contributions for DACCS
5.10.46.Financing DAC
5.10.47.DACCS SWOT analysis
5.10.48.DACCS: summary
5.10.49.DAC: key takeaways
6.CARBON DIOXIDE REMOVAL (CDR)
6.1.Introduction
6.1.1.Carbon Dioxide Removal (CDR) 2024-2044: Technologies, Players, Carbon Credit Markets, and Forecasts
6.1.2.Why carbon dioxide removal (CDR)?
6.1.3.What is CDR and how is it different from CCUS?
6.1.4.Description of the main CDR methods
6.1.5.Technology Readiness Level (TRL): Carbon dioxide removal methods
6.1.6.The state of CDR in compliance markets
6.1.7.The state of CDR in the voluntary carbon market
6.1.8.Shifting buyer preferences for durable CDR in carbon credit markets
6.2.BECCS
6.2.1.Bioenergy with carbon capture and storage (BECCS)
6.2.2.Opportunities in BECCS: heat generation
6.2.3.The economics of BECCS
6.2.4.Opportunities in BECCS: waste-to-energy
6.2.5.BECCS Value Chain
6.2.6.BECCS current status
6.2.7.Trends in BECCUS projects (1/2)
6.2.8.Trends in BECCUS projects (2/2)
6.2.9.The challenges of BECCS
6.2.10.What is the business model for BECCS?
6.2.11.BECCS carbon credits
6.2.12.The energy and carbon efficiency of BECCS
6.2.13.Is BECCS sustainable?
6.2.14.BECCS Outlook: Government support and large-scale demonstrations needed
6.2.15.Ocean-based NETs
6.2.16.Direct ocean capture
6.2.17.State of technology in direct ocean capture
6.2.18.Future direct ocean capture technologies
6.2.19.Ocean-based CDR: key takeaways
6.3.Ocean-based CDR and direct ocean capture
6.3.1.Biochar: key takeaways
6.3.2.Afforestation and reforestation: key takeaways
6.3.3.Mineralization: key takeaways
6.3.4.CDR technologies: key takeaways
7.CARBON DIOXIDE UTILIZATION
7.1.Introduction
7.1.1.Carbon Dioxide Utilization 2024-2044: Technologies, Market Forecasts, and Players
7.1.2.Why CO₂ utilization?
7.1.3.How is CO₂ used and sourced today?
7.1.4.CO₂ utilization pathways
7.1.5.Emerging applications of CO₂ utilization
7.1.6.Comparison of emerging CO₂ utilization applications
7.1.7.Factors driving CO₂ U future market potential
7.1.8.Carbon utilization potential and climate benefits
7.1.9.Cost effectiveness of CO₂ utilization applications
7.1.10.Traction in CO₂ U: funding worldwide
7.1.11.Technology readiness and climate benefits of CO₂ U pathways
7.1.12.When can CO₂ utilization be considered "net-zero"?
7.1.13.How is CO₂ utilization treated in existing regulations?
7.1.14.CO₂ utilization: Analyst viewpoint (i)
7.1.15.CO₂ utilization: Analyst viewpoint (ii)
7.1.16.Carbon utilization business models
7.2.CO₂ -derived concrete
7.2.1.The Basic Chemistry: CO₂ Mineralization
7.2.2.CO₂ use in the cement and concrete supply chain
7.2.3.CO₂ utilization in concrete curing or mixing
7.2.4.CO₂ utilization in carbonates (aggregates and additives)
7.2.5.CO₂ -derived carbonates from waste
7.2.6.CO₂ -derived carbonates from waste (ii)
7.2.7.The market potential of CO₂ use in the construction industry
7.2.8.Supplying CO₂ to a decentralized concrete industry
7.2.9.Future of CO₂ supply for concrete
7.2.10.Prefabricated versus ready-mixed concrete markets
7.2.11.Market dynamics of cement and concrete
7.2.12.CO₂ U business models in building materials
7.2.13.CO₂ utilization players in mineralization
7.2.14.Concrete carbon footprint of key CO₂ U companies
7.2.15.Key takeaways in CO₂ -derived building materials
7.2.16.Key takeaways in CO₂ -derived building materials (ii)
7.2.17.Key takeaways in CO₂ -derived building materials (iii)
7.3.CO₂ -derived chemicals and polymers
7.3.1.CO₂ can be converted into a giant range of chemicals
7.3.2.Using CO₂ as a feedstock is energy-intensive
7.3.3.The basics: types of CO₂ utilization reactions
7.3.4.CO₂ may need to be first converted into CO or syngas
7.3.5.Fischer-Tropsch synthesis: syngas to hydrocarbons
7.3.6.Direct Fischer-Tropsch synthesis: CO₂ to hydrocarbons
7.3.7.Electrochemical CO₂ reduction
7.3.8.Electrochemical CO₂ reduction technologies
7.3.9.Low-temperature electrochemical CO₂ reduction
7.3.10.High-temperature solid oxide electrolyzers
7.3.11.Cost parity has been a challenge for CO₂ -derived methanol
7.3.12.Thermochemical methods: CO₂ -derived methanol
7.3.13.Major CO₂ -derived methanol projects
7.3.14.Aromatic hydrocarbons from CO₂
7.3.15."Artificial photosynthesis" - photocatalytic reduction methods
7.3.16.Plasma technology for CO₂ conversion
7.3.17.Major pathways to convert CO₂ into polymers
7.3.18.CO₂ -derived linear-chain polycarbonates
7.3.19.Commercial production of polycarbonate from CO₂
7.3.20.Commercial production of CO₂ -derived polymers
7.3.21.Carbon nanostructures made from CO₂
7.3.22.Players in CO₂ -derived chemicals by end-product
7.3.23.CO₂-derived chemicals: Market potential
7.3.24.Are CO₂ -derived chemicals climate beneficial?
7.3.25.Centralized or distributed chemical manufacturing?
7.3.26.Could the chemical industry run on CO₂ ?
7.3.27.Which CO₂ U technologies are more suitable to which products?
7.3.28.Technical feasibility of main CO₂ -derived chemicals
7.3.29.Key takeaways in CO₂ -derived chemicals
7.4.CO₂ -derived fuels
7.4.1.What are CO₂ -derived fuels (power-to-X)?
7.4.2.CO₂ can be converted into a variety of fuels
7.4.3.Summary of main routes to CO₂ -fuels
7.4.4.The challenge of energy efficiency
7.4.5.CO₂ -fuels are pertinent to a specific context
7.4.6.CO₂ -fuels in road vehicles
7.4.7.CO₂ -fuels in shipping
7.4.8.CO₂ -fuels in aviation
7.4.9.Power-to-methane
7.4.10.Synthetic natural gas - thermocatalytic pathway
7.4.11.Biological fermentation of CO₂ into methane
7.4.12.Drivers and barriers for Power-to-Methane technology adoption
7.4.13.Power-to-Methane projects worldwide - current and announced
7.4.14.Can CO₂ -fuels achieve cost parity with fossil-fuels?
7.4.15.CO₂ -fuels rollout is linked to electrolyzer capacity
7.4.16.Low-carbon hydrogen is crucial to CO₂ -fuels
7.4.17.CO₂ -derived fuels projects announced - regional
7.4.18.CO₂ -derived fuels projects worldwide over time - current and announced
7.4.19.CO₂ -fuels from solar power
7.4.20.Companies in CO₂ -fuels by end-product
7.4.21.Are CO₂ -fuels climate beneficial?
7.4.22.CO₂ -derived fuels SWOT analysis
7.4.23.CO₂ -derived fuels: market potential
7.4.24.Key takeaways in CO₂ -derived fuels
7.5.CO₂ utilization in biological yield boosting
7.5.1.CO₂ utilization in biological processes
7.5.2.Main companies using CO₂ in biological processes
7.5.3.CO₂ enrichment in greenhouses
7.5.4.CO₂ enrichment in greenhouses: market potential
7.5.5.CO₂ enrichment in greenhouses: pros and cons
7.5.6.Advancements in greenhouse CO₂ enrichment
7.5.7.CO₂ -enhanced algae or cyanobacteria cultivation
7.5.8.CO₂ -enhanced algae cultivation: open systems
7.5.9.CO₂ -enhanced algae cultivation: closed systems
7.5.10.Algae has multiple market applications
7.5.11.The algae-based fuel market has been rocky
7.5.12.CO₂ -enhanced algae cultivation: pros and cons
7.5.13.CO₂ utilization in biomanufacturing
7.5.14.CO₂ -consuming microorganisms
7.5.15.Food and feed from CO₂
7.5.16.CO₂ -derived food and feed: market
7.5.17.Carbon fermentation: pros and cons
7.5.18.Key takeaways in CO₂ biological yield boosting
8.CARBON DIOXIDE STORAGE
8.1.Introduction
8.1.1.The case for carbon dioxide storage or sequestration
8.1.2.Storing supercritical CO₂ underground
8.1.3.Mechanisms of subsurface CO₂ trapping
8.1.4.CO₂ leakage is a small risk
8.1.5.Earthquakes and CO₂ leakage
8.1.6.Storage type for geologic CO₂ storage: saline aquifers
8.1.7.Storage type for geologic CO₂ storage: depleted oil and gas fields
8.1.8.Unconventional storage resources: coal seams and shale
8.1.9.Unconventional storage resources: basalts and ultra-mafic rocks
8.1.10.Estimates of global CO₂ storage space
8.1.11.CO₂ storage potential by country
8.1.12.Permitting and authorization of CO₂ storage
8.1.13.Monitoring, reporting, and verification (MRV) in CO₂ storage
8.1.14.MRV Technologies and Costs in CO₂ Storage
8.1.15.Carbon storage: Technical challenges
8.2.Status of CO₂ Storage Projects
8.2.1.Technology status of CO₂ storage
8.2.2.World map of operational and under construction large-scale dedicated CO₂ storage sites
8.2.3.Available CO₂ storage will soon outstrip CO₂ captured
8.2.4.Dedicated geological storage will soon outpace CO₂ -EOR
8.2.5.Can CO₂ storage be monetized?
8.2.6.Part-chain storage project in the North Sea: The Longship Project
8.2.7.Part-chain storage project in the North Sea: The Porthos Project
8.2.8.The cost of carbon sequestration (1/2)
8.2.9.The cost of carbon sequestration (2/2)
8.2.10.Storage-type TRL and operator landscape
8.2.11.Key takeaways
8.3.CO₂ -EOR
8.3.1.What is CO₂ -EOR?
8.3.2.What happens to the injected CO₂ ?
8.3.3.Types of CO₂ -EOR designs
8.3.4.Global status of CO₂ -EOR: U.S. dominates but other regions arise
8.3.5.World's large-scale CO₂ capture with CO₂ -EOR facilities
8.3.6.CO₂ -EOR potential
8.3.7.Most CO₂ in the U.S. is still naturally sourced
8.3.8.CO₂ -EOR main players in the U.S.
8.3.9.CO₂ -EOR main players in North America
8.3.10.CO₂ -EOR in China
8.3.11.The economics of promoting CO₂ storage through CO₂ -EOR
8.3.12.The impact of oil prices on CO₂ -EOR feasibility
8.3.13.Climate considerations in CO₂ -EOR
8.3.14.The climate impact of CO₂ -EOR varies over time
8.3.15.CO₂ -EOR: an on-ramp for CCS and DACCS?
8.3.16.CO₂ -EOR: Progressive or "Greenwashing"
8.3.17.Future advancements in CO₂ -EOR
8.3.18.CO₂ -EOR SWOT analysis
8.3.19.Key takeaways: market
8.3.20.Key takeaways: environmental
9.CARBON DIOXIDE TRANSPORTATION
9.1.Introduction to CO₂ transportation
9.2.Phases of CO₂ for transportation
9.3.Overview of CO₂ transportation methods and conditions
9.4.Status of CO₂ transportation methods in CCS projects
9.5.CO₂ transportation by pipeline
9.6.CO₂ pipeline infrastructure development in the US
9.7.CO₂ pipelines: Technical challenges
9.8.CO₂ transportation by ship
9.9.CO₂ transportation by ship: innovations in ship design
9.10.CO₂ transportation by rail and truck
9.11.Purity requirements of CO₂ transportation
9.12.General cost comparison of CO₂ transportation methods
9.13.CAPEX and OPEX contributions
9.14.Cost considerations in CO₂ transport
9.15.Transboundary networks for CO₂ transport: Europe
9.16.Available CO₂ transportation will soon outstrip CO₂ captured
9.17.Potential for cost reduction in transport and storage
9.18.CO₂ transport operators
9.19.CO₂ transport and/or storage as a service business model
9.20.Key takeaways
10.MARKET FORECASTS
10.1.1.CCUS forecast methodology
10.1.2.CCUS forecast breakdown
10.1.3.CCUS market forecast - Overall discussion
10.1.4.CCUS capture capacity forecast by CO₂ endpoint, Mtpa of CO₂
10.1.5.CCUS forecast by CO₂ endpoint - Discussion
10.1.6.CCUS forecast by CO₂ endpoint - CO₂ storage
10.1.7.CCUS forecast by CO₂ endpoint - CO₂ enhanced oil recovery (EOR)
10.1.8.Emerging CO₂ utilization capacity forecast by CO₂ end-use, Mtpa of CO₂
10.1.9.CCUS forecast by CO₂ endpoint - Emerging CO₂ utilization
10.1.10.CCUS revenue potential for captured CO₂ offtaker, billion US $
10.1.11.CCUS revenue for captured CO₂ offtaker
10.1.12.CCUS capacity forecast by capture type, Mtpa of CO₂
10.1.13.CCUS forecast by capture type - Direct Air Capture (DAC) capacity forecast
10.1.14.Point-source CCUS capture capacity forecast by CO₂ source sector, Mtpa of CO₂
10.1.15.Point-source carbon capture forecast by CO₂ source - Industry
10.1.16.Point-source carbon capture forecast by CO₂ source - blue hydrogen and blue ammonia
10.1.17.Point-source carbon capture forecast by CO₂ source - Gas and power
10.1.18.Point-source carbon capture forecast by CO₂ source - BECCUS
11.COMPANY PROFILES
11.1.3R-BioPhosphate
11.2.Adaptavate
11.3.Aether Diamonds
11.4.Airco Process Technology
11.5.Airex Energy
11.6.Airhive
11.7.Aker Carbon Capture
11.8.Arborea
11.9.Ardent
11.10.AspiraDAC: MOF-Based DAC Technology Using Solar Power
11.11.Atoco (MOF-Based AWH and Carbon Capture)
11.12.Avantium: Volta Technology
11.13.BC Biocarbon
11.14.Bright Renewables: Carbon Capture
11.15.C-Capture
11.16.CapChar
11.17.CarbiCrete
11.18.Carbo Culture
11.19.Carboclave
11.20.Carbofex
11.21.Carbogenics
11.22.Carboclave
11.23.Carbon Engineering
11.24.Carbon Neutral Fuels
11.25.Carbon Recycling International
11.26.Carbonaide
11.27.CarbonBlue
11.28.CarbonBuilt
11.29.CarbonCapture Inc.
11.30.CarbonCure
11.31.CarbonFree
11.32.Carbyon
11.33.CERT Systems
11.34.Chiyoda: CCUS
11.35.Climeworks
11.36.CO2 GRO Inc.
11.37.CO₂ Capsol
11.38.CSIRO: MOF-Based DAC Technology (Airthena)
11.39.Deep Branch
11.40.Dimensional Energy
11.41.Econic Technologies
11.42.Equatic
11.43.Fluor: Carbon Capture
11.44.Fortera Corporation
11.45.FuelCell Energy
11.46.Future Biogas
11.47.Giammarco Vetrocoke
11.48.Global Thermostat
11.49.Graphyte
11.50.GreenCap Solutions
11.51.Greenore
11.52.Heirloom
11.53.LanzaTech
11.54.Liquid Wind
11.55.Mission Zero Technologies
11.56.Mosaic Materials: MOF-Based DAC Technology
11.57.Myno Carbon
11.58.NeoCarbon
11.59.neustark
11.60.NovoMOF
11.61.Noya
11.62.Nuada: MOF-Based Carbon Capture
11.63.O.C.O Technology
11.64.Orchestra Scientific: MOF-Based Carbon Separation
11.65.OXCCU
11.66.Paebbl
11.67.Pentair: Carbon Capture
11.68.Prometheus Fuels
11.69.PyroCCS
11.70.Seaweed Generation
11.71.Seratech
11.72.Skytree
11.73.Solar Foods
11.74.Soletair Power
11.75.Solidia Technologies
11.76.Svante: MOF-Based Carbon Capture
11.77.Synhelion
11.78.Takachar
11.79.UNDO
11.80.UniSieve: MOF-Based Membrane Technology
11.81.UP Catalyst
11.82.Verdox
11.83.Vycarb
11.84.WasteX
 

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Report Statistics

Slides 522
Companies 84
Forecasts to 2045
Published Jul 2024
ISBN 9781835700440
 

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