Charging Infrastructure for Electric Vehicles and Fleets 2024-2034: IDTechEx

EV charging market value more than US$123 billion by 2034.

Charging Infrastructure for Electric Vehicles and Fleets 2024-2034

Public charging, private charging, high power DC fast-charging, fleet charging, megawatt charging. Technology landscape, market players, business models and granular regional forecasts.

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The importance of EV charging infrastructure
Electric vehicles have the potential to reshape the transportation sector globally, drastically cutting carbon emissions and clearing the way for significant climate progress. Many EV owners charge their cars at home using a wall-mounted charger. This arrangement works for most people, because the average EV use is well within the range of today's electric vehicles. However, two major difficulties arise. First, for drivers who live in apartments, parking garages are rarely equipped with charging infrastructure, and installing such infrastructure may be cost prohibitive for building managers. Second, expanded charging infrastructure is needed for EVs to make long-distance trips that require multiple stops for charging. Hence, building a robust public "fuelling" network of charging stations is the key to a successful EV market. At home - followed by the workplace - remains the most favourable location for EV charging. This means that the market for public charging stations is in DC fast charging targeted at on-the-go, cross-country (long-range) driving.
IDTechEx believe the electric vehicle industry will not be derailed and will continue with its staggering momentum. Over the coming decade, demand for charging infrastructure will be driven by over 345 million BEV + PHEV vehicles in-use globally including passenger cars, buses, trucks, and vans. The benefits of the electric vehicle transition are at least an order of magnitude greater than charging infrastructure costs, making charging infrastructure a modest down payment to decarbonize the transport sector.
Multiple types of EV charging solutions exist today to serve different market needs. Source: IDTechEx
This report provides an in-depth coverage of multiple types of EV charging solutions including private AC charging, public DC charging, megawatt charging, battery swapping, and wireless charging. As electrification penetrates multiple vehicle markets, the type of charging infrastructure needed is also evolving. Vehicle platform voltages are shifting from 400 to 800 V architectures, unlocking even higher charging powers, while bringing new thermal challenges. IDTechEx research aims to provide clarity on the different technologies available today and those emerging with potential for disruption in the future. Technologies like destination or wallbox DC chargers, megawatt charging, robotic charging, battery-buffered charging, off-grid solar charging, and mobile charging are some examples of the emerging EV charging solutions. This report covers the key players within these fields, benchmarks their products, and provides a market outlook for their adoption.
Megawatt (MW) charging
Megawatt charging (charging power over 1000 kW) is an enabling technology to commercial vehicle electrification. It will also pave the way to electrifying other heavy duty transport areas such as ferries and aeroplanes along with mining and agricultural equipment. At least 12 projects targeting commercial electric vehicle charging are now underway or set to begin construction by the end of 2023. These projects were announced in 2021/22 and disclosed investments exceed US$1.2 billion. For many projects the ultimate goal is to operate megawatt-scale chargers, once the relevant MCS standard is finalized. Some developers plan to use CCS high power connectors initially. Megawatt chargers are expected to begin commercial rollout in 2024. This report covers the MCS standard (including connector design), challenges in implementing megawatt chargers, key stakeholders, MW projects and investment, and market forecast.
Fleet electrification
In 2022 many companies began electrifying their fleets. Walmart purchased 4,500 Canoo Electric Delivery Vehicles (EDVs) and reserved 5,000 GM BrightDrop electric vans for last-mile deliveries. Amazon also recently rolled out a fleet of Rivian electric trucks to 100 cities across the US and plans to eventually deploy 100,000 electric trucks for deliveries. The United States Post Office is also going electric, promising to spend nearly US$10 billion on a fleet of more than 60k EVs by 2028.
In Europe, Amazon is also planning to spend €1 billion to electrify its delivery fleet. In early 2023, Germany opened its first electric truck corridor designed specifically for heavy freight vehicles. One common requirement is needed to support all the above examples: reliable, cost-optimised, plentiful charging infrastructure.
When choosing between AC and DC charging for fleets, the choice comes down to the type of vehicle, battery size, and time available for charging with regards to duty cycles. Level 2 chargers provide sufficient power to recharge light and medium duty vehicles overnight, but larger battery capacity long-haul trucks will require DC fast charging. Technologies like wireless charging and battery swapping have also been implemented successfully for fleets, with various case studies included in the report.
EV charging value chain extends beyond hardware
IDTechEx identifies the following as stakeholders involved in building a network of high power chargers:
  • Automotive OEMs - supports charging infrastructure to improve EV sales.
  • Hardware Manufacturers - supply the HPC product-Component / Material Suppliers - to hardware manufacturers.
  • Charge Point Operators (CPOs) - deployment, operation and marketing of the product.
  • Electric Mobility Service Providers (eMSPs) - provide access to product via service contracts and user interfaces that help locate, manage and pay for charging sessions.
  • Utility Providers - energy supplier to the network of HPCs.
  • Software Solutions Providers - enable communication of charging stations with backend, remote monitoring and data analytics.
  • Commercial Real Estate - provide land for installation.
A window of opportunity exists for enterprises to integrate along the value chain or diversify into adjacent business models to expand their scale, reach and service offerings to maintain their market position.
The EV charging ecosystem consists of multiple entities. Source: IDTechEx
This report provides an overview of the EV charging infrastructure market covering the following aspects:
1. Public charging infrastructure deployment in key regions as of Q1 2023.
2. Low power destination DC or DC wallbox chargers - key players, product benchmarking, market outlook
3. High power DC chargers - 800 V system voltage effects on EV charging, product benchmarking, thermal management strategies, mitigating reliability and uptime issues
4. Megawatt charging (MW) - MCS standard, connector design, challenges, player landscape, MW projects and investments, forecast for deployment
5. Innovations in conductive charging - off-grid solar charging, mobile/portable DC charging, battery-integrated DC charging, robotic charging
6. Emerging alternatives to conductive charging - wireless charging and battery swapping
7. Infrastructure for fleets
8. Key market players - company information, product portfolio, deployments
9. EV charging supply chain
10. Market share of public charging infrastructure by network operator in key regions
11. Business models and revenue pools in EV charging
12. Smart charging and V2X
13. 10 Year Market Forecasts & Analysis:
  • Charging installations by sector - public, private and fleet.
  • Charging installations by type - AC and DC.
  • Charging installations by power split - <10 kW and 10-22 kW (AC) + 20-100 kW, 101-250 kW, 251-750 kW, 751-3 MW (DC).
  • Public charging installations by region - China, Europe and US (with AC and DC split).
  • Charging market value - in US$.
Report MetricsDetails
Historic Data2015 - 2022
CAGRThe electric vehicle charging infrastructure industry will be worth more than $123 billion by 2034 exhibiting a CAGR of 14% from 2024-2034.
Forecast Period2023 - 2034
Forecast UnitskW, Units (number of outlets), US$
Regions CoveredWorldwide
Segments CoveredAC Charging, DC charging, Battery Swapping, Wireless Charging
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Table of Contents
1.1.Overview of charging levels
1.2.EV charging experiencing continued growth
1.3.Six key market trends in EV charging
1.4.DC fast charging levels
1.5.Cost per kW of installing chargers varies
1.6.Public charging pain points still exist
1.7.Megawatt charging: a new segment of high-power DC fast charging
1.8.Megawatt class chargers forecast
1.9.Destination DC charging: a new product class for EVSE manufacturers
1.10.Alternate charging strategies emerging
1.11.Evaluation of different charging infrastructure
1.12.Global plug-in electric vehicles in-use 2015-2034
1.13.Total car and fleet charging outlets in-use 2015-2034
1.14.Global charging infrastructure installations
1.15.New charging installations by power class 2015-2034
1.16.Level 2 AC charging speeds are on the rise
1.17.Level 3 DC fast charging power envelope pushing further
1.18.Total charging installations by region 2015-2034
1.19.EV charging market value 2015-2034 ($ billion)
1.20.EV charging value chain
1.21.EV charging ecosystem
1.22.The landscape for charging infrastructure is getting competitive
1.23.Smart charging and V2X will be vital
1.24.Access to IDTechEx Portal Profiles
2.1.Charging levels
2.2.Charging modes
2.3.Basics of electric vehicle charging mechanisms
2.4.How long does it take to charge an electric vehicle?
2.5.Factors that affect charging speed
2.6.The trend towards DC fast charging
2.7.Charging methods
2.8.Charging infrastructure coverage and demand
2.9.Number of public chargers required for plug-in EVs?
2.10.Private versus public charging
2.11.Charger infrastructure terminology
2.12.Market trends in EV charging (1)
2.13.Market trends in EV charging (2)
2.14.Market trends in EV charging (3)
2.15.Market trends in EV charging (4)
3.1.1.Global charging infrastructure installations
3.2.Charging Infrastructure by Region - U.S.
3.2.1.Growth of EV charging infrastructure in US
3.2.2.The state of public charging stations in US (I)
3.2.3.The state of public charging stations in US (II)
3.2.4.Growth of public DC fast chargers in US
3.2.5.Private and public charging penetration in US
3.3.Charging Infrastructure by Region - Europe
3.3.1.The state of EV charging infrastructure in Europe
3.3.2.Growth of EV charging infrastructure in EU
3.3.3.Segmentation of public chargers in EU
3.3.4.AC/DC split by EU country
3.3.5.EU charging infrastructure rollout lagging
3.3.6.Policy for EV charging Infrastructure in EU
3.3.7.Total public charging installations in Europe by country 2015-2034
3.3.8.Private and public charging penetration in Europe
3.4.Charging Infrastructure by Region - China
3.4.1.The status of public charging in China
3.4.2.Public charging rollout in China keeping up the pace with EV sales
3.4.3.Public charging installations in China by province and municipalities
3.4.4.Total public charging installations in China 2015-2034
3.4.5.Private and public charging penetration in China
4.1.1.Overview of EV charging connector standards
4.1.2.EV charging infrastructure standard organizations
4.1.3.Development of charging connector standards
4.1.4.EV charging infrastructure standards: ISO/IEC
4.1.5.EV charging infrastructure standards: SAE
4.1.6.DC charging standard: CCS
4.1.7.DC charging standard: CHAdeMO
4.1.8.EV charging infrastructure standard in China: GB
4.1.9.Why EV connectors will not use household outlets
4.1.10.Types of EV charging plugs (I)
4.1.11.Types of EV charging plugs (II)
4.1.12.EV charging systems comparison
4.1.13.Summary of charging levels and regional standards
4.1.14.Tesla proprietary plug
4.1.15.Tesla charging connectors
4.1.16.Overview of EV charging standards by region
4.2.Harmonisation of Charging Connector Standards
4.2.1.The dilemma of charging connectors
4.2.2.Choosing the right connector
4.2.3.Will OEMs adapt one standard?
4.2.4.ChaoJi and the current charging standards
4.2.5.Achieving harmonisation of standards
4.2.6.Harmonisation of standards will be key
4.3.Communication Protocols
4.3.1.What are communication protocols?
4.3.2.Communication protocols and standards
4.3.3.Communication systems for EV charging
4.3.4.Communication interfaces (I)
4.3.5.Communication interfaces (II)
4.3.6.Types of communication protocols
4.3.7.Overview: OCPP versions and benefits
4.4.Plug and Charge
4.4.1.The next big step in EV fast charging is Plug and Charge
4.4.2.What is Plug and Charge? What are the benefits?
4.4.3.How does Plug and Charge work? (I)
4.4.4.How does Plug and Charge work? (II)
4.4.5.Public key infrastructure is the basis of Plug and Charge
4.4.6.Functionalities enabled by ISO 15118
4.4.7.Plug and charge aims to be more customer centric than the Tesla ecosystem
4.4.9.For Ionity, Plug and Charge is a reality - others to follow?
4.4.10.EVs supporting Plug and Charge capability
4.4.11.Concerns around the standard
4.4.12.Plug and Charge SWOT
5.1.Overview of Electric Vehicle Charging Infrastructure
5.1.1.EV charging infrastructure: technology overview
5.1.2.Different types of EV charging infrastructure
5.1.3.Architecture of EV charging infrastructure
5.1.4.EV charging technologies by application
5.2.Conductive Charging
5.2.1.Conductive charging technologies by application
5.2.2.AC charging versus DC charging (I)
5.2.3.AC charging versus DC charging (II)
5.2.4.Electric vehicle on-board charger (OBC)
5.2.5.Types of OBC
5.2.6.Working of an OBC
5.2.7.Role of the OBC
5.2.8.EV OEM onboard charger examples
5.2.9.Conductive charging at Level 1
5.2.10.Conductive charging at Level 2
5.2.11.Conductive charging at Level 3
5.2.12.Summary of charging levels
5.2.13.Behind the plug: what's in a charging station?
5.2.14.Residential charging
5.2.15.Workplace charging - an essential complement to residential charging
5.2.16.How workplace charging can help alleviate grid pressure
5.2.17.Destination DC charging
5.2.18.List of destination/residential DC chargers
5.2.19.Applications for destination DC chargers
5.2.20.Benchmarking destination DC chargers (1)
5.2.21.Benchmarking destination DC chargers (2)
5.2.22.Auto OEMs to remove OBCs if destination DC chargers installed?
5.2.23.Outlook for destination DC chargers
5.2.24.High Power Conductive Charging
5.2.25.Megawatt charging
5.2.26.Innovations in Conductive Charging
5.3.Wireless Charging
5.3.1.Introduction to wireless charging for EVs
5.3.2.Resonant inductive coupling - the principle behind wireless EV charging
5.3.3.Wireless charging will use magnetic as opposed to electric fields
5.3.4.Enabling componentry
5.3.5.Wireless charging addressable markets
5.3.6.Wireless charging overview
5.3.7.Benchmarking wireless coil designs
5.3.8.Key points about different coil topologies
5.3.9.Commercially deployed wireless chargers
5.3.10.OEMs with wireless charging pilot projects
5.3.11.Wireless charging trials are underway
5.3.12.Wireless charging players overview
5.3.13.Wireless charging player benchmarking
5.3.14.Cabled-chargers are not on their way out
5.3.15.Componentry cost and volumes
5.3.16.Wireless vs plug-in TCO analysis
5.3.17.Dynamic wireless charging remains experimental
5.3.18.Dynamic charging trials underway
5.3.19.Wireless charging aids V2G and battery downsizing
5.3.20.Wireless charging SWOT analysis
5.3.21.Wireless charging units by vehicle segment 2021-2033
5.3.22.Wireless charging for EVs: conclusions
5.4.Battery Swapping
5.4.1.Battery swapping: charge it or change it?
5.4.2.There are many ways to charge your EV - charging modes comparison
5.4.3.Swap-capable EVs entering the market
5.4.4.Battery swapping pathways for different types of EVs
5.4.5.Car swapping process overview
5.4.6.Battery swapping market for cars in China is getting competitive
5.4.7.Swapping is more expensive than AC or DC charging
5.4.8.Swapping station deployment will rise over the next 5 years
5.4.9.Battery as a Service (BaaS) business model - a disintegrated approach
5.4.10.Two and three-wheelers use small capacity, self-service swap models
5.4.11.Two wheeler battery swapping is successfully being carried out in population-dense regions of APAC
5.4.12.Commercial heavy duty battery swapping is in its early stages
5.4.13.China's heavy duty swapping industry
5.4.14.Battery swapping stations can act as grid support units and enable battery recycling
5.4.15.China dominates swapping globally
5.4.16.Chinese swapping players overview
5.4.17.BSS deployment on the rise
5.4.18.Nio leading the battery swapping race
5.4.19.Nio swapping technology in its third iteration
5.4.20.CATL EVOGO showing slow uptake
5.4.21.Aulton expansion as taxis electrify
5.4.22.Battery swapping benefits and scepticism
5.4.23.Battery swapping SWOT analysis
5.4.24.Global cumulative swap station deployment by segment 2021-2032
5.4.25.Battery swapping for EVs: conclusions
5.5.Charging Infrastructure for Electric Vehicle Fleets
5.5.1.The rising demand for fleet charging
5.5.2.What is driving fleet electrification?
5.5.3.The rising population of electric vehicle fleets
5.5.4.Charging infrastructure for electric buses
5.5.5.Charging electric buses: depot versus opportunity charging
5.5.6.Type of fleet charging depends on use case and vehicle class
5.5.7.Heliox: public transport and heavy-duty vehicle charging
5.5.8.Heliox's 13 MW charging network for electric buses
5.5.9.SprintCharge: battery-buffered opportunity charging for electric buses
5.5.10.ABB's smart depot charging solution for large fleets
5.5.11.ABB: opportunity charging for electric buses
5.5.12.Siemens: electric bus and truck charging infrastructure
5.5.13.Siemens autonomous charging system
5.5.14.Greenlane: Daimler lead public charging network
5.5.15.Case study: wireless charging for electric bus fleets
5.5.16.WAVE - wireless charging for electric buses
5.5.17.WAVE wireless charging impact on vehicle cost
5.5.18.Summary of commercial electric fleet wired DC charging options
5.5.19.Charging solutions for heavy duty fleet: high level findings
5.6.Electric Road Systems for Electric Vehicle Charging
5.6.1.Types of electric road systems
5.6.2.Electric road systems: conductive versus inductive
5.6.3.Configuration of ERS infrastructure
5.6.4.Benefits of ERS
5.6.5.Electric road systems: Korea
5.6.6.Electric road systems: Sweden
5.6.7.Germany tests its first electric highway for trucks
5.6.8.Real world testing
5.6.9.Electric road systems: market and challenges
6.1.Market players summary
6.3.ABB's heavy commercial vehicle charging product portfolio
6.4.ABB is deploying infrastructure globally
6.6.Bosch Mobility Solutions
6.7.Bosch does away with the "charging brick"
6.8.BP Pulse
6.10.ChargePoint product series
6.11.ChargePoint as a Service
6.15.Electrify America
6.16.Electrify America growth down, charger utilisation up
6.20.Huawei Digital Power Technology
6.22.Pod Point
6.25.Tesla supercharging network
6.26.Supercharger manufacturing
6.27.Non-Tesla Supercharger pilot in the US
6.28.Improvements in per kWh cost of charging
6.29.Tesla hints at wireless charging
6.32.Wallbox's bi-directional residential electric vehicle charger
6.34.Manufacturers by region
6.35.OEMs building own charging hardware
7.1.1.The emergence of electric vehicle charging value chain
7.1.2.The electric vehicle charging value chain
7.1.3.Entering the high power charging value chain
7.1.4.Utility led EV incentive programs in the US
7.1.5.Key market players along the EV charging value chain
7.1.6.Barriers to entry for commercial charging
7.1.7.Chargepoint operators (CPO) / charging network operators
7.1.8.Market share of public charging infrastructure by network operator: China
7.1.9.Market share of public charging infrastructure by network operator: Europe
7.1.10.USA market shares; Tesla leads DCFC
7.1.11.EV charging billing models
7.1.12.Supply chain
7.1.13.US building up domestic manufacturing base for EV charging
7.1.14.The electric vehicle charging value chain
7.1.15.Business models of charging network operators
7.1.16.Current business models
7.1.17.Future business models and revenue streams
7.2.Smart Charging and V2X
7.2.1.Smart charging: A (load) balancing act
7.2.2.Emerging business models for new services: V2X
7.2.3.Technology behind V2X
7.2.4.V2G: Nuvve
7.2.5.The V2G architecture
7.2.6.Nuvve targets electric school buses for V2G
7.2.7.V2G: OVO Energy
7.2.8.Nissan "Energy Share" V2X solutions
7.2.9.V2G: Keysight Technologies
7.2.10.Different forms of V2G
7.2.11.V2G accelerates battery degradation?
7.2.12.V2G can extend the longevity of the electric vehicle battery
7.2.13.V2G projects by type of service
7.2.14.V2G projects by vehicle and EVSE manufacturers
7.2.15.Summary of smart charging and V2X implementations
8.1.Forecast methodology
8.2.Forecast assumptions (I)
8.3.Global plug-in electric vehicles in-use 2015-2034
8.4.Total car and fleet charging outlets in-use 2015-2034
8.5.New car and fleet charging outlets installed 2015-2034
8.6.New charging installations by power class 2015-2034
8.7.Total public charging installations in China (AC & DC)
8.8.Total public charging installations in Europe (AC & DC)
8.9.Total public charging installations in US (AC & DC)
8.10.AC charging installations by power split
8.11.DC charging installations by power split
8.12.EV charging market value 2015-2034 ($ billion)
8.13.Total charging installations by region 2015-2034
8.14.New charging installations by region 2015-2034
8.15.Total public charging installations in Europe by country 2015-2034
8.16.Total private charging installations in Europe by country 2015-2034

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Report Statistics

Slides 423
Forecasts to 2034
Published Jun 2023
ISBN 9781915514738

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