Conductive inks market to exceed US$6.5 Billion by 2034, driven by the photovoltaics market.

Conductive Inks Market 2024-2034: Technologies, Applications, Players

Flake-based, nanoparticle, particle-free, copper, stretchable, thermoformable nanowire inks for photovoltaics, EMI shielding, printed electronics, flexible hybrid electronics, wearable electronics, e-textiles, 3D electronics

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IDTechEx's report 'Conductive Inks Market 2024-2034: Technologies, Applications, Players' comprehensively details this crucial material technology that underpins both photovoltaics and the emerging field of printed electronics. Based on primary research and interviews with over 30 companies, the report assesses the market for eight different conductive ink types across 15 different applications. Conductive ink types include flake-based silver, nanoparticle-based silver, copper, stretchable/thermoformable and particle-free, while applications include photovoltaics, multiple types of printed sensors, flexible hybrid electronics (FHE), in-mold electronics (IME), and RFID/smart packaging. This detailed segmentation provides 39 distinct forecast lines, providing a clear picture of the status of the market for each ink type and future opportunities. The market as a whole is currently valued at US$3.7bn and forecast to exceed US$6.5bn by 2034.
Primary insight from interviews with individual players, ranging from established players to innovative start-ups, is included via over 30 detailed company profiles that include discussion of both technology and business models along with SWOT analysis. Additionally, the report includes analysis of conductive ink parameter space, based on a database of over 100 conductive inks that includes curing time, conductivity, and viscosity. Together with segmentation of suppliers by ink type, this report provides a comprehensive picture of the global conductive ink market.
Conductive ink types and applications covered in the report.
Technical developments
Flake-based conductive inks are a longstanding technology, widely used for metallizing the upper surface of photovoltaic panels for charge extraction. However, this market is unlikely to keep up with growth in PV panels, with new technologies developing to reduce the amount of silver ink required. Instead, much of the growth will come from emerging applications across the printed flexible electronics space.
This broadening of the application space creates opportunities for emerging conductive ink formulations that aim to meet specific application requirements:
  • Particle-free conductive inks are metallized in situ, producing a smooth, thin conductive layer ideally suited to high frequency EMI shielding and antennas. The very low viscosity also makes these inks ideally suited to high resolution deposition techniques such as aerosol printing.
  • Nanoparticle-based conductive inks offer higher conductivity, enabling more compact circuit designs.
  • Liquid metal gel makes an ideal stretchable ink since there is no increase in resistance over time - the conductive liquid flows to accommodate the dimensional change. It is primarily targeted at wearable strain sensors.
  • Copper-based inks with additives that prevent oxidation during sintering are gaining significant traction, with major electronics manufacturers running qualification projects. Copper inks are especially suitable where cost is the main driver, such as RFID/smart packaging antennas.
Application opportunities
As a platform technology for printed electronics, conductive inks can be utilized in a remarkably wide range of applications, spanning market verticals ranging from healthcare to energy. This report divides the conductive ink application space into 15 segments, each outlining:
  • Introduction to the application.
  • Assessment of technological and commercial status.
  • Conductive ink requirements for that specific application.
  • Examples of conductive inks targeting that application.
  • Market forecast, including the adoption of different ink types where appropriate.
Some of the most promising conductive ink applications, due to the potential for both rapid growth and specialist ink requirements enabling differentiation, are electronic skin patches, strain sensors and in-mold electronics (IME).
The growth in printed/flexible/hybrid electronics, especially where it enables new applications, and even business models, such as electronic skin patches for remote health monitoring and smart packaging, will drive the growth of the conductive ink market over the next decade. Furthermore, many emerging applications, such is in-mold electronics, e-textiles and high-frequency antennas, have specific ink requirements that provide an opportunity for differentiation.
Key questions answered in this report
  • What types of conductive inks are produced by each supplier?
  • How will volatile silver prices impact the conductive ink market?
  • What are the requirements for each conductive ink application, and how much ink is used in each?
  • What is the technological and market readiness of each conductive ink application?
  • What are the key growth opportunities where there is scope for differentiation?
  • Who are the key players producing each type of ink?
IDTechEx has over 20 years of expertise covering printed and flexible electronics, including conductive inks. Our analysts have closely followed the latest developments in the technology and associated markets by interviewing many conductive ink suppliers and users and annually attending multiple printed electronics conferences such as LOPEC and FLEX. This report provides a complete assessment of the fragmented conductive ink landscape, helping to inform product development and positioning.
Key Aspects
This report provides the following information:
Technology trends & manufacturer analysis:
  • Comparison of 8 conductive ink types and suppliers across multiple metrics, including conductivity, curing time, and curing temperature.
  • Assessment of the specific requirements of 15 conductive inks applications, including emerging areas such as electronic skin patches and in-mold electronics (IME).
  • Outlook for each of the 15 conductive applications, including specific conclusions relevant to conductive inks.
  • Examples of conductive inks formulated for many different applications.
  • Segmentation of the fragmented conductive ink manufacturing landscape by both metal (silver, copper, etc) and formulation (flakes, nano-particles, particle-free etc).
  • Over 30 company profiles of conductive ink manufacturers, including SWOT analysis and size along with discussion of value proposition and target applications.
  • Discussion of how contract manufacturers and EMS companies are qualifying conductive inks for mass production.
  • Pricing for each conductive ink type, based on discussion with suppliers and analysis of published prices. This includes estimates of how the value is divided amongst materials and processing steps.
  • Assessment of how volatile silver prices will affect the conductive ink market.
  • Benchmarking of conductive ink types and application requirements, enabling assessment of suitability.
Market Forecasts & Analysis:
  • Market size and 10-year market forecasts segmented by both conductive ink types and applications.
  • Assessment of technological and commercial readiness level for different types and applications of conductive ink.
Report MetricsDetails
Historic Data2020 - 2023
Forecast Period2024 - 2034
Forecast UnitsVolume (wet tonnes), revenue (USD)
Segments CoveredFlexible hybrid electronics (FHE), in-mold electronics (IME), 3D electronics (partially/fully additive), e-textiles, circuit prototyping, capacitive sensors, pressure sensors, biosensors, strain sensors, wearable electrodes, photovoltaics (rigid/flexible), printed heaters, EMI shielding, antennas (for communication) and RFID & smart packaging.
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Table of Contents
1.1.Introduction to conductive inks
1.2.Market evolution and new opportunities
1.3.Key growth markets for conductive inks
1.4.Balancing differentiation and ease of adoption (I)
1.5.Balancing differentiation and ease of adoption (II)
1.6.Capturing value from conductive ink facilitated digitization via collaboration
1.7.Reducing adoption barriers by supplying both printer and ink
1.8.Strategies for conductive ink cost reduction
1.9.Rising material prices expected to drive alternatives to flake-based inks
1.10.Segmenting the conductive ink market
1.11.Segmentation of conductive ink technologies
1.12.Readiness level of conductive inks
1.13.Overview of flake-based silver inks
1.14.Overview of nanoparticle-based silver inks
1.15.Overview of particle-free conductive inks
1.16.Overview of copper inks
1.17.Overview of carbon-based inks (incl. graphene & CNTs)
1.18.Overview of stretchable/thermoformable inks
1.19.Overview of silver nanowires
1.20.Overview of conductive polymer inks
1.21.Overview of applications for conductive inks
1.22.Technological and commercial readiness of conductive ink applications
1.23.Forecast: Overall conductive ink volume (segmented by ink type)
1.24.Forecast: Overall conductive ink revenue (segmented by ink type)
2.1.Mapping conductivity requirements by application
2.2.Conductivity requirements by application
2.3.Challenges of comparing conductive inks
2.4.Converting conductivity to sheet resistance
2.5.Motivation for using printed electronics
2.6.Frequency dependent conductivity for antennas and EMI shielding
2.7.Conductive ink suppliers: Specialization vs broad portfolio
2.8.Conductive ink companies segmented by conductive material
2.9.Analysis of company segmentation by conductive material
2.10.Conductive ink companies segmented by ink composition
2.11.Analysis of company segmentation by ink composition
3.1.Market forecasting methodology
3.2.Forecasting across conductive ink applications (I)
3.3.Information acquired for conductive ink forecasts
3.4.Overall conductive ink volume (segmented by ink type)
3.5.Overall conductive ink revenue (segmented by ink type)
3.6.Conductive inks for flexible hybrid electronics (FHE)
3.7.Conductive inks for in-mold electronics (IME)
3.8.Conductive inks for 3D electronics (partially additive)
3.9.Conductive inks for 3D electronics (fully additive)
3.10.Conductive inks for e-textiles
3.11.Conductive inks for circuit prototyping
3.12.Conductive inks for capacitive sensors
3.13.Conductive inks for pressure sensors
3.14.Conductive inks for biosensors
3.15.Conductive inks for strain sensors
3.16.Conductive inks for wearable electrodes
3.17.Conductive inks for photovoltaics (conventional/rigid)
3.18.Conductive inks for photovoltaics (flexible)
3.19.Conductive inks for printed heaters
3.20.Conductive inks for EMI shielding
3.21.Conductive inks for antennas (for communications)
3.22.Conductive inks for RFID and smart packaging
4.1.1.Segmenting the conductive ink market
4.1.2.Segmenting the conductive ink market (incl. applications)
4.1.3.Segmentation of conductive ink technologies
4.1.4.Benchmarking conductive ink properties
4.2.Flake-based silver inks
4.2.1.Introduction to flake-based silver ink
4.2.2.Thinner flakes lead to increase in conductivity and durability
4.2.3.Silver flake producers
4.2.4.Flake-based silver ink value chain
4.2.5.High resolution functional screen printing
4.2.6.Silver electromigration
4.2.7.Comparing properties of flake-based silver inks
4.2.8.SWOT analysis: Flake-based silver inks
4.2.9.Flake-based silver inks: Conclusions
4.3.Nanoparticle-based silver inks
4.3.1.Introduction to nanoparticle-based silver ink
4.3.2.Key value propositions for silver nanoparticle inks
4.3.3.Cost on a "per ink" vs "per conductivity" basis
4.3.4.Microstructural homogeneity increases conductivity
4.3.5.Laser-Generated Inks
4.3.6.Additional benefits of nanoparticle inks
4.3.7.Price competitiveness of silver nanoparticles
4.3.8.Ag nanoparticle inks: Do they really cure fast and at lower temperatures?
4.3.9.Benchmarking parameters for silver nanoparticle production methods
4.3.10.Comparing silver nanoparticle production methods (I)
4.3.11.Comparing silver nanoparticle production methods (II)
4.3.12.Multiple application opportunities for nanoparticle inks
4.3.13.Overview of selected nanoparticle ink manufacturers
4.3.14.Comparing properties of nanoparticle-based silver inks
4.3.15.SWOT analysis: Nanoparticle inks
4.3.16.Nanoparticle-based silver inks: Conclusions
4.4.Particle-free inks
4.4.1.Introduction to particle-free (molecular) inks
4.4.2.Operating principle of particle-free inks
4.4.3.Conductivity close to bulk metals
4.4.4.Benefits of particle-free inks
4.4.5.Permeability of particle-free inks enables conductive textiles
4.4.6.Thermoformable particle-free inks for in-mold electronics
4.4.7.Application opportunities for particle free inks
4.4.8.Particle-free inks adopted for EMI shielding
4.4.9.Value propositions of particle-free inks
4.4.10.Particle-free conductive inks for different metals
4.4.11.Differentiating particle-free conductive inks with sintering requirements
4.4.12.Overview of particle free ink manufacturers
4.4.13.Comparing properties of particle-free silver inks
4.4.14.SWOT analysis: Particle-free conductive inks
4.4.15.Particle-free conductive inks: Conclusions
4.5.Copper inks
4.5.1.Introduction to copper inks
4.5.2.Challenges in developing copper inks
4.5.3.Differentiating particle-free conductive inks with sintering requirements
4.5.4.Commercially unsuccessful strategies to avoid copper oxidation
4.5.5.Strategies to avoid copper oxidation: Reducing agent additives
4.5.6.Strategies to avoid copper oxidation: Photonic sintering
4.5.7.Growing interest in utilizing copper ink for FHE (I)
4.5.8.Growing interest in utilizing copper ink for FHE (II)
4.5.9.Screen printing RFID copper inks
4.5.10.Collaborations utilizing copper inks
4.5.11.PrintCB: Two component copper ink based on micron-scale particles
4.5.12.A hybrid approach to making flexible circuits from copper ink
4.5.13.Copprint: Commercializing nano-particle based copper
4.5.14.Overview of early-stage copper ink companies
4.5.15.Comparing properties of selected copper inks
4.5.16.SWOT analysis: Copper-based inks
4.5.17.Copper inks: Conclusions
4.6.Carbon-based inks (including graphene & CNTs)
4.6.1.Introduction to carbon-based inks (incl. graphene & CNTs)
4.6.2.Carbon-based inks: Two distinct categories
4.6.3.CNTs as a transparent conductive ink
4.6.4.Material properties of transparent conductive materials
4.6.5.Graphene-based conductive inks
4.6.6.Overview of selected graphene/CNT ink manufacturers
4.6.7.Comparing properties of selected carbon inks
4.6.8.SWOT analysis: Carbon black conductive inks
4.6.9.SWOT analysis: Nanostructured carbon conductive inks
4.6.10.Carbon-based inks (incl. graphene & CNTs): Conclusions
4.7.Stretchable/Thermoformable Inks
4.7.1.Introduction to stretchable/thermoformable inks
4.7.2.Stretchable v Thermoformable conductive inks
4.7.3.The role of particle size in stretchable inks
4.7.4.TRL: Stretchable and thermoformable electronics
4.7.5.Innovations in stretchable conductive ink
4.7.6.Metal gel as a stretchable ink
4.7.7.Efforts to commercialize liquid metal inks continue
4.7.8.Comparing properties of stretchable/thermoformable conductive inks
4.7.9.Overview of stretchable/thermoformable ink manufacturers
4.7.10.SWOT analysis: Stretchable/thermoformable inks
4.7.11.Stretchable/Thermoformable inks: Conclusions
4.8.Silver Nanowires
4.8.1.Introduction to silver nanowires
4.8.2.Benefits of silver nanowire TCFs
4.8.3.Drawbacks of silver nanowire TCFs
4.8.4.Value chain for silver nanowires
4.8.5.Silver nanowire manufacturing: Polyol process
4.8.6.Important parameters for TCFs - Haze, transmission and sheet resistance
4.8.7.Silver nanowire TCFs - Haze, transmission and sheet resistance
4.8.8.Percolation threshold & Aspect ratio
4.8.9.Durability and flexibility of AgNW TCFs
4.8.10.Improving material properties: Gluing or "welding"
4.8.11.Improving material properties: Coating and encapsulation
4.8.12.Capacitive touch sensing for flexible displays
4.8.13.Silver nanowires gain traction in touchscreens
4.8.14.Silver nanowires for transparent heaters
4.8.15.Emerging applications for silver nanowires
4.8.16.TRL snapshot of silver nanowire technology
4.8.17.Global distribution of silver nanowire producers
4.8.18.SWOT analysis: Stretchable/thermoformable inks
4.8.19.Silver nanowires: Conclusions
4.9.Conductive polymers
4.9.1.Introduction to conductive polymers
4.9.2.Polythiophene-based conductive films for flexible devices
4.9.3.Applications for conductive polymers: transparent capacitive touch and e-textiles
4.9.4.Emerging sensitive sensor readout facilitates capacitive touch
4.9.5.Innovative n-type conductive polymer
4.9.6.Biobased conductive polymer inks
4.9.7.SWOT analysis: conductive polymer inks
4.9.8.Conductive polymer inks: Conclusions
5.1.Overview of applications for conductive inks
5.2.Benchmarking conductive ink requirements by application
5.3.Technological and commercial readiness of conductive ink applications
5.4.Applications for conductive inks: Included content
6.1.1.Conductive ink for circuit manufacturing
6.2.Flexible hybrid electronics (FHE)
6.2.1.Introduction to flexible hybrid electronics (FHE)
6.2.2.What can be defined as FHE?
6.2.3.FHE overcome the flexibility/functionality compromise
6.2.4.FHE value chain: Many materials and technologies
6.2.5.Wearable skin patches
6.2.6.Condition monitoring multimodal sensor array
6.2.7.Multi-sensor wireless asset tracking system demonstrates FHE potential
6.2.8.Conductive ink requirements for flexible hybrid electronics (FHE)
6.2.9.SWOT analysis: Flexible hybrid electronics (FHE)
6.2.10.Conclusions: Flexible hybrid electronics (FHE)
6.3.In-mold electronics (IME)
6.3.1.Introduction to in-mold electronics (IME)
6.3.2.IME manufacturing process flow
6.3.3.Commercial advantages of IME
6.3.4.IME value chain overview
6.3.5.IME requires a wide range of specialist materials
6.3.6.Silver flake-based ink dominates IME
6.3.7.Conductive ink requirements for in-mold electronics (IME)
6.3.8.SWOT analysis: In-mold electronics (IME)
6.3.9.Conclusions: In-mold electronics (IME)
6.4.3D electronics
6.4.1.Additive electronics and the transition to three dimensions
6.4.2.Introduction to 3D/additive electronics
6.4.3.Partially versus fully additive electronics electronics spans multiple length scales
6.4.5.Advantages of fully additively manufactured 3D electronics
6.4.6.Fully 3D printed electronics
6.4.7.Examples of fully 3D printed circuits
6.4.8.Structural dielectrics with matching thermal expansion coefficients
6.4.9.Conductive ink requirements for 3D electronics
6.4.10.SWOT analysis: 3D electronics
6.4.11.Conclusions: 3D electronics
6.5.1.Introduction to e-textiles
6.5.2.Industry challenges for e-textiles
6.5.3.Biometric monitoring in apparel
6.5.4.Sensing functionality woven into textiles
6.5.5.Conductive ink requirements for e-textiles
6.5.6.SWOT analysis: e-textiles
6.5.7.Conclusions: In-mold electronics (IME)
6.6.Circuit prototyping
6.6.1.PCB prototyping and 'print-then-plate' methodologies
6.6.2.Circuit prototyping and 3D electronics landscape
6.6.3.Conductive ink requirements for e-textiles
6.6.4.SWOT analysis: e-textiles
6.6.5.Conclusions: e-textiles
7.1.1.Sensing applications for conductive inks
7.1.2.Introduction to the printed and flexible sensor market
7.1.3.Multifunctional hybrid sensors are greater than the sum of their parts
7.1.4.Key markets for printed/flexible sensors
7.2.Capacitive sensing
7.2.1.Capacitive sensors: Working principle
7.2.2.Printed capacitive sensor technologies
7.2.3.Conductive inks for capacitive sensing directly applied to a 3D surface
7.2.4.Emerging current mode sensor readout: Principles
7.2.5.Readiness level of printed capacitive touch sensors materials and technologies
7.2.6.Conductive ink requirements for capacitive sensors
7.2.7.SWOT analysis: Capacitive sensors
7.2.8.Conclusions: Capacitive sensors
7.3.Pressure sensors
7.3.1.Introduction to printed piezoresistive sensors
7.3.2.Force sensitive inks
7.3.3.Manufacturing methods for printed piezoresistive sensors
7.3.4.Innovation in roll-to-roll manufacturing technology
7.3.5.Readiness level snapshot of printed piezoresistive sensors
7.3.6.Conductive ink requirements for pressure sensors
7.3.7.SWOT analysis: Piezoresistive sensors
7.3.8.SWOT analysis: Piezoelectric sensors
7.3.9.Conclusions: Capacitive sensors
7.4.1.Electrochemical biosensors present a simple sensing mechanism
7.4.2.Screen printing vs sputtering for biosensor electrode deposition
7.4.3.Challenges for printing electrochemical test strips
7.4.4.Printed pH sensors for biological fluids
7.4.5.Readiness level of printed biosensors
7.4.6.Conductive ink requirements for printed biosensors
7.4.7.SWOT analysis: Printed biosensors
7.4.8.Conclusions: Printed biosensors
7.5.Strain sensors
7.5.1.Strain sensors
7.5.2.Capacitive strain sensors using dielectric electroactive polymers (EAPs)
7.5.3.Resistive strain sensors
7.5.4.Emerging opportunities for strain sensors in motion capture for AR/VR
7.5.5.Technology readiness level snapshot of capacitive strain sensors
7.5.6.Conductive ink requirements for printed strain sensors
7.5.7.SWOT analysis: Printed strain sensors
7.5.8.Conclusions: Printed strain sensors
7.6.Wearable electrodes
7.6.1.Applications and product types
7.6.2.Key requirements of wearable electrodes
7.6.3.Wet vs dry electrodes
7.6.4.Skin patches use both wet and dry electrodes depending on the use-case
7.6.5.E-textiles integrate dry electrodes and conductive inks
7.6.6.Stretchable conductive printed electrodes
7.6.7.Technology readiness level snapshot of printed wearable electrodes
7.6.8.Conductive ink requirements for printed wearable electrodes
7.6.9.SWOT analysis: Printed wearable electrodes
7.6.10.Conclusions: Printed wearable electrodes
8.1.1.Overview of applications for conductive inks
8.2.Charge extraction from photovoltaics
8.2.1.Introduction to conductive pastes for photovoltaics
8.2.2.Conductive ink is major cost contributor for PVs
8.2.3.Transitioning from PERC to TOPCon and SHJ
8.2.4.Reducing silver content per wafer via ink innovations
8.2.5.Flake-based conductive inks face headwind from alternative solar cell connection technology
8.2.6.Photovoltaic market dynamics
8.2.7.Conductive ink requirements for photovoltaics
8.2.8.SWOT analysis: Photovoltaics
8.2.9.Conclusions: Photovoltaics
8.3.1.Introduction to printed heaters
8.3.2.Automotive applications for printed heaters
8.3.3.Emerging building-integrated opportunities for printed (and flexible) heaters
8.3.4.Stretchable conductive inks for wearable heaters
8.3.5.Technology comparison for e-textile heating technologies
8.3.6.Heated clothing is the dominant e-textile sector
8.3.7.Conductive ink requirements for printed heaters
8.3.8.SWOT analysis: Printed heaters
8.3.9.Conclusions: Printed heaters
8.4.EMI Shielding
8.4.1.Introduction to electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding
8.4.2.Transition from board to package level shielding
8.4.3.Process flow for EMI shielding
8.4.4.Spraying EMI shielding is a cost-effective solution
8.4.5.Overview of conformal shielding technologies
8.4.6.Particle size and morphology influence EMI shielding
8.4.7.Hybrid inks improve shielding performance
8.4.8.Suppliers targeting ink-based conformal EMI shielding
8.4.9.EMI shielding with particle-free Ag ink
8.4.10.EMI shielding and heterogeneous integration
8.4.11.Conductive ink requirements for EMI shielding
8.4.12.SWOT analysis: EMI shielding
8.4.13.Conclusions: EMI shielding
8.5.Printed Antennas
8.5.1.Segmenting printed antennas
8.5.2.Electronics on 3D surfaces with extruded conductive paste and inkjet printing
8.5.3.Extruded conductive paste for antennas
8.5.4.Addressable markets for transparent antennas
8.5.5.Automotive transparent antennas
8.5.6.Building integrated transparent antennas
8.5.7.Transparent antennas for consumer electronic devices
8.5.8.Transparent antennas for smart packaging
8.5.9.Conductive ink requirements for printed antennas
8.5.10.SWOT analysis: Printed antennas
8.5.11.Conclusions: Printed antennas
8.6.RFID & smart packaging
8.6.1.Introduction to RFID and smart packaging
8.6.2.RFID technologies: The big picture
8.6.3.Printed RFID antennas struggle for traction: Is copper ink a solution?
8.6.4.Smart packaging with flexible hybrid electronics
8.6.5.'Sensor-less' sensing of temperature and movement
8.6.6.Conductive ink requirements for RFID and smart packaging
8.6.7.SWOT analysis: RFID and smart packaging
8.6.8.Conclusions: RFID and smart packaging
9.1.ACI Materials
9.2.Advanced Nano Products (ANP)
9.3.Agfa-Gevaert NV
9.4.Bando Chemical
9.5.C3 Nano
9.6.Cambrios Film Solutions Corp
9.9.DuPont (Wearable Technology)
9.15.Henkel (Printed Electronics)
9.15.1.Henkel (Printed Electronics)
9.16.Heraeus — Conductive Inks
9.18.InkTec Co., Ltd
9.19.Liquid Wire
9.19.1.Liquid Wire
9.20.Liquid X — Functional Electronics Fabrication
9.20.1.Liquid X
9.23.Nano Dimension
9.23.1.Nano Dimension
9.23.2.Nano Dimension
9.23.3.Nano Dimension
9.25.Nanorbital Advanced Materials
9.28.1.PrintCB / Kundisch
9.29.Promethean Particles
9.30.PV Nano Cell
9.32.Sun Chemical
9.33.UT Dots Inc
9.35.ZeroValent Nanometals

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Conductive Inks Market 2024-2034: Technologies, Applications, Players

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Report Statistics

Slides 350
Companies 35
Forecasts to 2034
Published May 2024
ISBN 9781835700419

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