Electric Vehicles and Autonomous Vehicles in Mining 2018-2028: IDTechEx

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Electric Vehicles and Autonomous Vehicles in Mining 2018-2028

Technologies, Challenges, Benefits, Markets, Forecasts, Key Players and Opportunities

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Historic strategies focused on maximising production volumes during mining boom- bust cycles saw established process inefficiencies, with many operations adopting cost-cutting measures as the cycle turned. The recent upturn in the mineral demand, following the post- 2013 decline, has seen increased spending from mining companies largely due to growth markets such as electric vehicles. At present this a precursor to the industry's capacity to innovate opposed to a re-focus on maximising volume as perceived productivity.
Indeed investing in innovation through technology, costs upfront and takes time. In the case of mining this is essential in establishing longevity in productivity gains. Leading equipment manufacturers Komatsu, Caterpillar and Hitachi have had notable success in the role out of autonomous haulage systems, with economic and safety benefits identified as primary drivers and noted increase in productivity up to 30% in some operations.
As times change in face of countries and industries making ambitious commitments to phase out use of diesel and petrol- fuelled motor vehicles. Is it the case that these commitments are now extending to the industries that need it the most? The electrification of mining vehicles has an interesting role to play as mines age and operations continue to extract lower ore grades at deeper levels, a recent mine project feasibility featured in the report outlines reductions in capital and operational expenditure costs due to a reduction in ventilation/ cooling requirements of these machines up to 20% and 25% respectively. As the mining industry continues this focus on increased productivity, efficiency and improved safety, feasibility figures such as these can go some way to justify the profitability of a project.
The proliferation of electric mining equipment whether loaders or trucks will depend not only on the vehicles themselves but enabling and associated technologies. Advancements in Li-ion battery technology in terms of electric range, energy and power capacity will continue to lead a reduction in the cost of battery packs used in electric mining vehicles making the technology more viable. With companies Atlas Copco, Sandvik, BYD, Komatsu and Caterpillar currently in testing phase of different electric loader and truck concepts.
This report provides an analysis of key market players, equipment models and technology preferences of electric vehicles in mining, examining leading battery, motor and charger manufacturers. Evaluating questions such as which Li ion battery chemistries and manufacturers will dominate the industrial vehicles market? With which charging solutions? Will fast charging or slow charging prevail and to what power rating 50kW, 150kW, 300kW? The report also provides scope on trends in types of industrial vehicle motors (ASM, PSM, SRM) and case studies on the operational and duty cycle performance of electric mining equipment.
The report also provides a detailed overview of automation technologies in mining operations, addressing enabling technologies used in autonomous trucks; sensors (LIDAR, Radar, Ultrasound, Cameras), sensor fusion and system-on-chip, connectivity and software technologies.
Through primary research, technology insights, and an impressive resource base, IDTechEx has put together a unique report that details all of the above and includes ten year forecasts from 2018 through 2028 for mobile electric mining equipment and autonomous truck over the next decade.
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Table of Contents
1.1.Executive Summary
1.2.Mining industry spending driven by increased mineral demand
1.3.History of mineral demand in line with industry 1.0-4.0 growth
1.4.Drivers for the adoption of electric vehicles
1.5.Industry wide transition to diesel- and petrol- free vehicles
1.6.Why electrification and where?
1.7.Electrification in mining in the news
2.1.When did electrification in mining start?
2.2.A history of electrification in mining
2.3.Why does electrification in mining matter?
2.4.Debunking the efficiency myth- an outlook on diesel vs. electric haulage vehicle losses (%)
2.5.Electrification of mining equipment segment trends in 2018, 2020, and 2028
2.6.Electric Vehicles in Mining market forecasts 2018-2028 ($B/year)
2.7.Global electric mining vehicles market penetration (%)
2.8.Electric vehicles in mining manufacturers by location
2.9.Companies mentioned in this report
2.10.Automation in mining in the news
2.11.Why does automation in mining matter?
2.12.Trends of automation in Mining
2.13.Autonomous Vehicles (Haul Trucks) in Mining market forecasts 2018-2028 ($B/year)
2.14.Global autonomous mining trucks market penetration (%)
2.15.Autonomous Trucks market players (% share)
2.16.Autonomous Truck manufacturers by geography
2.17.Autonomous Vehicles (Haul Trucks)- Value chain- companies mentioned in this report
3.1.Electrification and automation in mining- challenges ahead?
3.2.Challenges in Mining- energy supply
3.3.Challenges in Mining- Mass and energy flow in mining
3.4.Challenges in Mining- Fuel Prices
3.5.Challenges in Mining- The Cost of Clean Air
3.6.Challenges in Mining- Air Quality- The road to Tier 5
3.7.Worldwide regulatory emissions roadmap for heavy duty diesel (by geography)
4.1.Why do we need battery electric and hybrid mining vehicles
4.2.1.Heat Generation
4.2.2.Noise Pollution
4.2.3.Cost Savings
4.2.4.Mine Site Logistics
5.1.Market overview
5.2.Mining equipment vehicle population
6.1.Definitions of mining vehicle segments
6.1.1.Mining equipment population by segment (surface/underground), 2017
6.1.2.Description mining segments (surface/underground)
6.1.3.Equipment classifications by segment
6.1.4.Equipment- manufacturers
6.1.5.Electric Vehicle Manufacturers
6.1.6.Electric vehicles in mining manufacturers by location
6.1.7.Mining equipment vehicle population
6.2.Forecast- Electric Vehicles in Mining
6.2.1.Segments of equipment electrification in 2018, 2023, and 2028
6.2.2.Electric Vehicles in Mining market forecasts 2018-2028 ($B/year)
6.2.3.Global electric mining vehicles market penetration (%)
6.2.4.Electric vehicles in mining manufacturers by location
6.2.5.Profitability of technology
6.3.Forecast- Autonomous Vehicles in Mining
6.3.1.Autonomous vehicle- wider market, just hype?
6.3.2.Autonomous vehicles
6.3.3.Trends of automation in Mining
6.3.4.Autonomous Vehicles (Haul Trucks) in Mining market forecasts 2018-2028 ($B/year)
6.3.5.Global autonomous mining trucks market penetration (%)
6.3.6.Autonomous Truck manufacturers by geography
6.3.7.Autonomous Trucks market players (% share)
7.1.Electric Vehicle Manufacturers
7.2.Electric vehicles in mining manufacturers by location
7.3.Autonomous Trucks market players (% share)
7.4.Autonomous Truck manufacturers by geography
7.5.Mining equipment vehicle population
7.6.Key market objectives
7.7.EV manufacturers
7.7.1.Electric Vehicle Manufacturers
7.7.2.EV Manufacturers by Type and Maturity
7.8.EVs in mine sites
7.8.1.EVs in operation by Mine
7.9.EVs in Mining- enabling technologies
7.9.1.Enabling Technologies
7.9.2.Timelines of Electrification and Automation in Mining
7.10.Energy Storage
7.10.1.Comparison of specific energy and energy density of various battery systems
7.10.2.Energy density of various battery systems by storage type 2017-2028
7.10.3.Battery requirements for electric vehicles in mining
7.10.4.Electric Vehicle Manufacturers
7.10.5.Advantages of Li-ion Batteries
7.10.6.Disadvantages of Li-ion Batteries
7.10.7.Li-ion battery manufacturers by location
7.10.8.Forecast of Li-ion battery cost (mining) (USD/kWh) Battery Packs
7.10.10.LIB Manufacturers
7.11.1.A123 - Heavy duty HEV applications
7.11.5.Battery Packs - Akasol
7.11.6.Battery Packs - Lithium storage GmbH
7.11.7.Battery Packs - Artisan Vehicle Systems
7.11.8.Battery Packs - Saminco
7.12.EV Motors
7.12.1.Technology preference by type of motor
7.12.2.What is a motor and how does it work?
7.12.3.Electric motors vs. ICE (Torque/ Power comparison)
7.12.4.Types of motors
7.12.5.Technology preference by type of motor
7.12.6.Performance characteristics by technology
7.12.7.What does a motor technology development look like?
7.12.8.Development of a model range of electric motors for industrial machines
7.12.9.Development of a model range of electric motors for industrial machines
7.12.10.Motors in Mining
7.12.11.Alternative technologies
7.13.EV Motors- manufacturers
7.13.1.Powertrain performance by manufacturer
7.13.2.Alternative technologies
7.13.3.Motors - BYD
7.13.4.Motors- Artisan Vehicle Systems
7.13.5.Motors- TM4
7.13.6.Motors- Parker Hannifin
7.13.7.Motors- Ricardo
7.13.8.Visedo Oy (hybrid system)
7.13.9.Motors- Smainco
7.13.10.Motors- Siemens
7.13.11.Motors- Tesla
7.14.EV charging
7.14.1.Charging Outlook
7.14.2.Charging- BYD
7.14.3.Charging- ABB
7.14.4.Charging- Siemens
7.14.5.Charging- Tritium
7.14.6.Charging- Battery Swapping
7.14.7.Mine design
7.15.Performance of BEVs
7.15.1.Challenges in performance of EVs in Mining
7.16.EVs in Mining- Case study: Onaping Depth
7.16.1.Onaping Depth Project
7.16.2.Mine design
8.1.Electric vehicles in mining- key players (Sales and R&D)
8.1.1.Electric Vehicle Manufacturers
8.1.2.Electric vehicles in mining- key players (Sales and R&D ($B))
8.1.3.Electric vehicles in mining- powertrain performance by manufacturer
8.2.1.Artisan Vehicle Systems
8.2.2.Atlas Copco
8.2.5.General Electric, GE
8.2.6.Komatsu Mining (Joy Global)
8.2.8.MacLean Engineering
8.2.9.Partisan Motors
9.1.1.Automation in mining in the news
9.1.2.Why does automation in mining matter?
9.1.3.Trends of automation in Mining
9.1.4.Autonomous vehicles
9.1.5.Autonomous Haul Trucks- Value chain- companies
9.1.6.LIDAR suppliers by technology type
9.1.7.Autonomous vehicle- wider market, just hype?
9.1.8.Autonomous Vehicles- Segments
9.1.9.Autonomous Vehicle- Segmentation methodology
9.1.10.ADAS- System architecture
9.1.11.Autonomous vehicles- segmentation by terrain
9.1.12.Drivers- Autonomous vehicles in mining
9.1.13.Benefits- Autonomous vehicles in mining
9.1.14.Trends of automation in Mining
9.1.15.Autonomous Vehicles (Haul Trucks) in Mining market forecasts 2018-2028 ($B/year)
9.1.16.Global autonomous mining trucks market penetration (%)
9.1.17.Autonomous Truck manufacturers by geography
9.1.18.Autonomous Trucks market players (% share)
9.1.19.Definitions- Levels of autonomy
9.1.20.EVs in operation by Mine
9.1.21.Autonomous Haul Trucks- global population
9.1.22.Autonomous Haul Trucks- Value chain- companies
9.1.23.Elements of autonomous mining
9.1.24.ADAS- System architecture
9.1.25.Autonomous vehicle- System architecture
9.1.26.ADAS- System architecture- Hitachi Haul Truck System
9.1.27.Summary Levels of autonomy
9.1.28.Description of levels of autonomy
9.1.29.Description of sensor technologies
9.1.30.Benchmarking- sensor technologies
9.2.Vision in autonomous vehicles: The emergence of LIDAR
9.2.1.LIDAR Technology- Advantages/Disadvantages
9.2.2.LIDAR Technology- Suppliers (funding and unit cost ($))
9.2.3.Technology comparison- LIDAR Solid-State/Mechanical, OPA, MEMS
9.2.4.Technology Trend- Velodyne Solid-State LIDAR
9.2.5.Technology Trend- Quanergy LIDAR Roadmap
9.2.6.Technology Trend- Quanergy S3 (Gen 3) Operation Principle
9.2.7.Technology Trend- Innoviz Solid-State Approach
9.2.8.Technology Trend- Innoluce MEMS based LIDAR
9.2.9.Technology Trend- Trilumina Solid-State LIDAR
9.2.10.Technology Trend- Xenomatix and the LIDAR revolution
9.4.System-on-Chip manufacturers
9.4.1.Autonomous Vehicles- Value Chain- Leading players
9.4.2.Competitive landscape
9.4.3.Market summary- System-on-Chip
9.5.1.Alight Mining
9.5.2.Autonomous Solutions Inc. (ASI)
9.6.Autonomous Haul Trucks
9.6.1.Autonomous Haul Trucks- manufacturers, population
9.6.2.Mining OEMs Sales Vs R&D ($B)
9.6.8.Mobile robots: AUVs- Bluefin AUV and Nautilus Mineral
9.6.9.Mining robots: Deep space industries
9.6.10.Case Study: Unmanned cargo ships
10.1.Time to rethink the obvious, mine safety
10.2.Barrick Gold- Digital Architecture
10.3.Barrick Gold- Condition-Based Maintenance - Haul Trucks
10.4.Rio Tinto
11.1.Conclusions and Outlook

Report Statistics

Slides 283
Forecasts to 2028

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