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Electrochemical Double Layer Capacitors: Supercapacitors 2015-2025

Ultracapacitors, EDLC, electrochemical capacitors, supercabatteries, AEDLC for electronics and electrical engineering

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This broad-ranging report on supercapacitors and supercabatteries has up to date ten year forecasts and analysis of market, applications, technology, patent and profit trends and the manufacturers and researchers involved.
55% of the manufacturers and intending manufacturers of supercapacitors/supercabatteries (EDLC, AEDLC) are in East Asia, 28% are in North America but Europe is fast asleep at only 7%. Yet, being used for an increasing number of purposes in electric vehicles, mobile phones, energy harvesting, renewable energy and other products of the future, this market is roaring up to over $11 billion in ten years with considerable upside potential.
This report concerns Electrochemical Double Layer Capacitors (EDLCs). For brevity, we mainly use the second most popular word for them - supercapacitors. The third most popular term for them - ultracapacitors - is often used in heavy electrical applications. Included in the discussion and forecasts are so-called Asymmetric Electrochemical Double Layer Capacitors (AEDLCs) better known as supercabatteries.
Supercapacitors are a curiously neglected aspect of electronics and electrical engineering with a multi-billion dollar market rapidly emerging. For example, for land, water and airborne electric vehicles, there are about 200 serious traction motor manufacturers and 110 serious traction battery suppliers compared to just a few supercapacitor manufacturers. In all, there are no more than 66 significant supercapacitor manufacturers with most concentrating on the easier small ones for consumer electronics such as power backup. However, in a repetition of the situation with rechargeable batteries, the largest part of the market has just become the heavy end, notably for electric and conventional vehicles.
Supercapacitors and supercabatteries mainly have properties intermediate between those of batteries and traditional capacitors but they are being improved more rapidly than either. That includes improvement in cost and results in them not just being used to enhance batteries but even replacing batteries and capacitors in an increasing number of applications from renewable energy down to microscopic electronics. For example, your mobile phone may have better sound and flash that works at ten times the distance because a supercapacitor has taken over these functions from conventional capacitors.
Global supercapacitor market $US billion % when used for electronics vs electrical engineering
Source: IDTechEx
Supercapacitors are replacing batteries where such properties as excellent low temperature performance, calendar and cycle life, fast charge-discharge and reliability are more dominant issues than size and weight. Examples of this include power backup opening bus doors in an emergency, working hybrid car brakes when power goes down and keeping electronic circuits running. Conventional trucks are having one to three of their lead acid batteries replaced with drop-in supercapacitor alternatives that guarantee starting in very cold weather, when lead acid batteries are very poor performers. The difference is dramatic- about 5% energy loss occurs at minus 25 degrees centigrade, compared to a battery's energy loss of more than 50%. Some pure electric buses even run on supercapacitors alone recharging through the road every five kilometres or so. Use of supercapacitors to protect batteries against fast charge and discharge and from deep discharge means smaller batteries are needed and they last longer, depressing battery demand and increasing supercapacitor demand.
The bottom line is that almost everywhere you see next generation electronic and power technology you see supercapacitors and supercabatteries being fitted or planned because of superior performance, cost-over-life and fit-and-forget.
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Table of Contents
1.1.A huge opportunity but a relatively neglected sector
1.1.66 manufacturers and putative manufacturers of supercapacitors/ supercabatteries % by continent
1.1.Supercapacitor advantages and disadvantages over rechargeable batteries
1.1.1.Relative pace of improvement
1.2.Objectives of further development
1.2.Supercapacitors and supercabatteries invade the battery space. Comparison of actual and planned parameters
1.2.66 manufacturers and putative manufacturers of supercapacitors/ supercabatteries by country
1.2.1.Most promising routes
1.2.2.Geographical and product emphasis.
1.3.Forecasting assumptions
1.3.Primary focus % of 66 manufacturers and putative manufacturers of supercapacitors and/or supercabatteries
1.3.Supercapacitor applications by manufacturer, for a variety of manufacturers. Grey: Transport, Green: Consumer goods, Blue: Industrial, Red: Other
1.4.Examples of supercapacitor and supercabattery applications envisaged by suppliers
1.4.Supercapacitor market 2015-2025 by market application
1.4.Market forecasts 2015-2025
1.5.Supercapacitor applications by manufacturer
1.5.Supercapacitors 10 year forecast: automotive and train
1.5.Comparison of EDLC, AEDLC and rechargeable battery properties
1.6.Examples of energy density figures for batteries, supercapacitors lithium-ion batteries and gasoline
1.6.Maxwell Technologies supercapacitor pack for electric vehicles
1.6.Reality Checks
1.7.Hybrid bus with supercapacitors on roof
1.7.Supercapacitor technology roadmap including lithium-ion capacitors (AEDLC) 2015-2025
1.7.1.Replacing some batteries
1.7.2.Supercapacitors extend battery and fuel cell life
1.7.3.Supercapacitors on batteries: more than meets the eye
1.8.2015 output value forecast by manufacturer of supercapacitors and supercabatteries.
1.8.US Department of Energy roadmap for lithium-ion batteries and their possible battery successor technologies
1.8.1.Supercapacitor technology roadmap including lithium-ion capacitors (AEDLC) 2015-2025
1.9.The technology and its future
1.9.Schematic of EDLC ie supercapacitor
1.9.Aqueous vs non aqueous electrolytes in supercapacitors
1.9.1.Timeline for supercapacitor market adoption and technical achievements
1.9.2.Comparison with capacitors and batteries
1.9.3.Replacing lead-acid and NiCd batteries
1.9.4.Most promising improvements ahead
1.9.5.Aqueous and non-aqueous electrolytes
1.9.6.Prospect of radically different battery and capacitor shapes
1.9.7.Fixing the limitations
1.10.Supercapacitor sales have a new driver: safety
1.10.Properties conferred by aqueous vs non-aqueous electrolytes in supercapacitors and supercabatteries
1.10.Comparison of an EDLC with an EADLC ie supercabattery
1.11.Probable timeline for market adoption by sector and technical achievements driving the growth of the market for supercapacitors and their derivatives 2014-2025 with market value projections for supercapacitors, cost and performanc
1.11.Change of leadership of the global value market?
1.12.Battery and fuel cell management with supercapacitors
1.12.Specific energy vs specific power for storage devices now and in the near future. Some developers even expect supercabatteries to match the energy density of lithium-ion batteries
1.13.Ragone plot showing charging time and the place of fuel cells, batteries, supercapacitors, supercabatteries and aluminium electrolytic capacitors and a simplified view of the main future potential given that supercabatteries and s
1.13.Graphene vs other carbon forms in supercapacitors
1.14.Environmentally friendlier and safer materials
1.14.Simplest equivalent circuit for an electrolytic capacitor
1.15.Transmission line equivalent circuit for a supercapacitor
1.15.Safer separators
1.16.Printing supercapacitors
1.16.Nippon Chemi-Con pollution-free Supercapacitor used for fast charge-discharge in a Mazda car exhibited May 2012
1.17.Summary of ultracapacitor device characteristics
1.17.New manufacturing site in Europe
1.18.Latest Performance Benchmark
1.18.Peugeot 308 - European Car of the Year 2014
1.19.Progress in adoption of Hybrid Supercapacitors
1.20.Supercapacitor Car is the European Car of the Year 2014
1.21.Structural Components are the Future
2.1.Construction of a battery cell
2.1.The confusing EDLC/ supercapacitor terminology
2.2.Five ways in which a capacitor acts as the electrical equivalent of the spring
2.2.MEMS compared with a dust mite less than one millimetre long
2.2.Batteries and capacitors converge
2.2.1.What is a battery?
2.2.2.Battery history
2.2.3.Analogy to a container of liquid
2.2.4.Construction of a battery
2.2.5.Many shapes of battery
2.2.6.Single use vs rechargeable batteries
2.2.7.What is a capacitor?
2.2.8.Capacitor history
2.2.9.Analogy to a spring
2.2.10.Capacitor construction
2.2.11.Supercapacitor construction
2.2.12.Limitations of energy storage devices
2.2.13.Battery safety
2.2.14.A glimpse at the new magic
2.3.Improvement in performance taking place with components
2.3.Power in use vs duty cycle for portable and mobile devices showing zones of use of single use vs rechargeable batteries but the single use territory is rapidly becoming rechargeable
2.3.Comparison of the three types of capacitor when storing one kilojoule of energy.
2.4.Advantages and disadvantages of some options for supplying electricity from a device
2.4.Principle of the creation and healing of the oxide film of an aluminium electrolytic capacitor in use
2.5.What does a supercapacitor for small devices look like?
2.5.Construction of wound electrolytic capacitor
2.6.TPL Enerpak
2.6.Supercapacitors and supercabattery basics
2.6.1.Basic geometry
2.6.3.Discharging and cycling
2.6.4.Energy density
2.6.5.Battery-like variants: Pseudocapacitors, supercabatteries
2.6.6.New shapes
2.6.7.Achieving higher voltages
2.6.8.Laminar biodegradable option
2.6.9.Regenerative braking
2.7.Structural components are the future
2.7.Can type of supercapacitor
2.8.Bikudo supercapacitor
2.9.Flat supercapacitors made by prismatic or pouch construction or banking of cylinders
2.10.Banked supercapacitor modules on the roof of a bus
2.11.Comparison of construction diagrams of three basic types of capacitor
2.12.Types of ancillary electrical equipment being improved to serve small devices
2.13.Rapid progress in the capabilities of small electronic devices and their photovoltaic energy harvesting
2.14.Where supercapacitors fit in
2.15.Current vs time for a battery with and without a supercapacitor across it at minus 40oC
2.16.Symmetric supercapacitor construction
2.17.Symmetric compared to asymmetric supercapacitor construction
2.18.Simplest scheme for vehicle regenerative braking
3.1.Natural celluslose electrodes: preparation method
3.1.1.Cost reduction
3.1.2.Most promising routes
3.2.Environmentally friendlier and safer materials in supercapacitors.
3.2.Flame test: saturated with electrolyte
3.2.1.Environmentally friendlier
3.2.2.Safer Separators that allow better performance.
3.3.Better electrolytes and electrodes
3.3.Silver AR low ESR prototypes
3.3.1.Oshkosh Nanotechnology
3.3.2.Better carbon technologies
3.4.Carbon nanotubes
3.4.Energy density vs power density
3.4.1.Carbon aerogel
3.4.2.Solid activated carbon
3.4.3.Y-Carbon USA
3.4.4.Carbide derived carbon
3.5.Carbon aerogel supercapacitors
3.5.2.Graphene Energy
3.5.3.Drexel University
3.5.4.Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute
3.5.5.Lomiko Metals Inc and Graphene Laboratories
3.6.Graphene vs other carbon forms in supercapacitors
3.6.The new principle for a lithium supercabattery
3.7.Scanning electron microscopy image of curved graphene sheets (scale bar 10 µm).
3.7.Prevention of capacity fading
3.8.Microscopic supercapacitors become possible
3.8.Single sheets of graphene material
3.9.Graphene supercapacitor cross section
3.10.Flexible, paper and transparent supercapacitors
3.10.Nano onions
3.10.1.University of Minnesota
3.10.2.University of Southern California
3.10.3.Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute USA
3.10.4.King Abdullah University of Science & Technology Saudi Arabia
3.11.Woven wearable supercapacitors
3.11.SEM image of the cross section of photo-thermally reduced graphene shows an expanded structure. The graphene sheets are spaced apart with an inter-connected network allowing for greater electrolyte wetting and lithium ion access f
3.11.1.University of South Carolina
3.12.Fiber supercapacitors
3.12.Hydrogen-insertion asymmetric supercapacitor
3.12.1.Drexel University USA
3.12.2.Imperial College London
3.12.3.Powerweave European Commission
3.12.4.Supercapacitor yarn in China
3.12.5.University of Delaware USA
3.12.6.University of Wollongong Australia
3.13.Skeleton and skin strategy improves supercapacitor
3.13.Flexible supercapacitor
3.14.Flexible, transparent supercapacitors - bend and twist them like a poker card
3.14.National University of Singapore: a competitor for supercapacitors?
3.15.Supercabattery developments
3.15.The UCLA printed supercapacitor technologies on a ragone plot
3.16.Illustration of a core-shell supercapacitor electrode design for storing electrochemical energy
3.16.Synthesizing enhanced materials for supercapacitors
3.17.Boost for energy storage of super capacitors
3.17.MnO2-CNT-sponge electrodes
3.18.Seamlessly knitted and woven carbon fiber electrodes.
3.18.Woven e-fiber supercapacitors
3.19.Textile supercapacitor
3.20.Stretchable supercapacitor composed of carbon nanotube macrofilms, a polyurethane membrane separator and organic electrolytes.
3.21.Integration of PV films into textile
3.22.Powerweave solar airship concept
3.23.Dip method fibre supercapacitor
3.24.Stretchable supercapacitor yarn
3.25.Two orthogonal carbon nanotube fiber supercapacitors woven into a textile.
3.26.Tsu-Wei Chou (left) with visiting scholar Ping Xu: University of Delaware
3.27.SWCNT/PANI hybrid film
3.28.The energy storage membrane
3.29.Schematic diagram showing the configuration of UltraBattery™
3.30.Appearance and dimensions of prototype UltraBattery™
3.31.Mesoporous graphene
3.32.Dr Javad Foroughi and Professor Gordon Wallace inspect nanostructured fibres produced at UOW's labs using knitting and braiding machines
4.1.Supercapacitors in Cars (Peugeot, Continental, Mazda, Chrysler, Caterpillar, Chrysler, EnerDel, FastCap Systems, Ioxus, Johnson Controls, JSR Micro, Maxwell Technologies, Saft, Tardec, United Chemicon and Toyota)
4.1.Stop-start system was rated as the best by the German magazine Autobild
4.1.Number of hybrid and pure electric cars sold and those that plug in thousands
4.1.1.Supercapacitors in Racing Cars (Toyota, Renault)
4.1.2.Supercapacitors as battery lifetime extenders in vehicles
4.1.3.Supercapacitors as Fuel Cell lifetime extenders (Riversimple, Imperial College London)
4.2.Buses and trucks
4.2.Some primary hybrid market drivers
4.2.CapXX stop start supercapacitor
4.2.1.Fast charge-discharge made possible
4.2.2.Much better cold start and battery use in trucks
4.2.3.Capabus: electric buses without batteries
4.2.4.Oshkosh military truck without batteries
4.2.5.Why supercapacitors instead of batteries?
4.2.6.Regenerative Braking Systems for industrial and commercial vehicles
4.2.7.Fork lifts, cranes regen, peak power, battery life improvement
4.3.Progress and adoption of hybrid supercapacitors
4.3.Mazda introduces supercapacitor-type regenerative braking (by Paul Weissler-SAE)
4.3.Three generations of range extender with examples of construction, manufacturer and power output
4.4.Toyota Motorsport
4.4.Range extender support
4.5.Ten year forecast for electric cars, hybrids and their range extenders
4.5.Toyota Yaris Hybrid-R concept car
4.6.Hybrid and pure electric vehicles compared
4.7.Hybrid market drivers
4.7.Riversimple fuel cell electric car
4.8.Schematic of fuel cell-supercapacitor passive hybrid powertrain test rig
4.8.What will be required of a range extender
4.9.Three generations of range extender
4.9."Don't leave starting to batteries. The Engine Start Module from Maxwell Technologies will provide the power to start your truck all the time, every time."
4.10.A bus that runs entirely on ultracapacitors charges up at a bus stop in Shanghai
4.10.Energy harvesting - mostly ally not alternative
4.11.Key trends for range extended vehicles
4.11.Oshkosh Heavy Expanded Mobility Tactical Truck (HEMTT) with no traction battery
4.12.See through of HEMTT
4.12.Electric vehicle demonstrations and adoption
4.13.Hybrid electric vehicles
4.13.Yunasko has the highest energy density hybrid supercapacitor with 30 Wh/kg (see performance benchmark section).
4.14.Advantages and disadvantages of hybrid vs pure electric vehicles
4.15.Racing cars
4.15.Indicative trend of charging and electrical storage for large hybrid vehicles over the next decade.
4.16.Evolution of construction of range extenders over the coming decade
4.16.Folding e-bike
4.17.Railway engine power recuperation
4.17.Examples of range extender technology in the shaft vs no shaft categories
4.18.Illustrations of range extender technologies over the coming decade with "gen" in red for those that have inherent ability to generate electricity
4.18.Siemens Germany
4.19.Supercapacitors for fuel cell vehicles - HyHEELS & ILHYPOS
4.19.The most powerful energy harvesting in vehicles
4.20.Kinetic Photovoltaic Vehicle folding e-bike
5.1.Thinner and lighter consumer electronics
5.1.Evolution of design (thickness) in mobile phones since the 1970's
5.1.Specifications of Selected Portable Devices
5.1.1.From iPad Air to Huawei Ascend P6, devices getting thinner
5.2.Increasing Multifunctionality: From Simon to IPhone.
5.2.Freerunner, G1 (HTC Dream) and N1 (Google Nexus 1) power (excluding backlight) for a number of benchmarks.
5.2.Inside IPad 3
5.3.Huawei Ascend P6 and its 6.18 mm thickness
5.3.Comparison of light energy between Xenon, BriteFlash and Low-Power LED Flash
5.3.An analysis of power consumption in smartphones
5.4.Supercapacitors as battery performance enhancers - battery life extension
5.4.Battery compartment inside IPad Air
5.5.The IBM Simon, IPhone's grandfather, the first "smartphone"
5.5.Supercapacitors in consumer electronics going to mass production - recent market announcements
5.5.2.Paper Battery Co.
5.6.Supercapacitors integration in consumer electronics by Cambridge University /Nokia Research Centre
5.6.Increasing portability and functionality
5.6.1.High Frequency Supercapacitors
5.6.2.Stretchable Capacitors
5.6.4.Embedding with Flexible Printed Circuits
5.7.Supercapacitors used to improve mobile camera's flash
5.7.Different power profiles for different smartphone uses
5.8.Web browsing average power... etc.
5.8.Laptop solid state drives use supercapacitors
5.9.Wireless systems and Burst-Mode Communications
5.9.Mobile phone power breakdown in suspended state, the aggregate power consumed is 68.6 mW.
5.10.Mobile phone power breakdown in idle state
5.10.Energy harvesting
5.10.1.Bicycles and wristwatches
5.10.2.Industrial electronics: vibration harvesters
5.10.3.Extending mobile phone use
5.10.4.Human power to recharge portable electronics
5.11.Display backlight power for varying brightness levels. Average power consumption while in the idle state with backlight off. Aggregate power is 268.8 mW
5.12.Power consumption of Wi-Fi and GSM modems, CPU, and RAM for the network benchmark
5.13.GPS Energy Consumption
5.14.Audio playback power breakdown. Aggregate power consumed is 320 mW
5.15.Video playback power breakdown. Aggregate power excluding backlight is 453.5 mW.
5.16.GSM phone call average power. Excluding backlight, the aggregate power is 1054.3 mW
5.17.Power breakdown for sending an SMS. Aggregate power consumed is 302.2 mW, excluding backlight.
5.18.Power consumption for an email. Aggregate power consumption (excluding backlight) is 610.0 mW over GPRS, and 432.4 mW for Wi-Fi.
5.19.Web browsing average power over Wi-Fi and GPRS. Aggregate power consumption is 352.8 mW for Wi-Fi, and 429.0 mW for GPRS, excluding backlight.
5.20.Ragone Plots for an array of energy storage and energy conversion devices
5.21.Advances in computer and battery technology since 1990 (Paradiso and Starner, 2005).
5.22.Options for extending battery life including supercapacitors
5.24.Cambridge University approach to supercapacitor integration in consumer electronics
5.25.Carbon nanowires in electrode
5.26.Cambridge U. stretchable supercapacitor
5.27.Micro capacitor by Cambridge University
5.28.Mobile phone modified to give much brighter flash thanks to supercapacitor outlined in red
5.29.High Power LED Supercapacitor Solution Block Diagram
5.30.CAP-XX Supercapacitor Solution Circuit Implementation
5.31.Photos in low light with normal phone (left) and phone modified with CAP-XX supercapacitor-based solution (right)
5.32.Battery current, LED current and supercapacitor voltage for the CAP-XX solution"
5.33.Perpetuum energy harvester with its supercapacitors
5.34.University of Cambridge harvester for phones. A thin-film system harvests energy from wasted light in an OLED display.
6.1.Renewable energy
6.1.Wind power electricity storage Palmdale California
6.2.Quantum Wired vision of supercapacitors managing wind turbine power surges.
6.2.The Challenges and Solutions
6.3.Schematic diagram showing the electricity flow between wind turbine, UltraBattery™ pack and power grid in a grid-connected wind energy system
6.4.UltraBattery™ pack providing energy storage to the wind turbine at CSIRO Energy Technology, Newcastle, Australia.
6.4.Quick Charge Hand Tools
6.5.Innotek DC-DC converters
6.5.Schematic diagram showing the connection of batteries to each phase of the wind turbine.
7.1.The PatAnalyse/ IDTechEx patent search strategy
7.1.Top 50 Assignees vs Technical categories
7.1.1.Revealing many underlying business and scientific trends
7.1.2.Absolute and normalised patent maps
7.2.Generic Supercapacitor technologies
7.2.Top 50 Assignees vs Priority Years
7.2.1.Top 50 Assignees vs Technical categories
7.2.2.Top 50 Assignees vs Priority Years
7.2.3.Technical categories vs Priority Years
7.2.4.Countries of origin vs Priority Years
7.2.5.Technical categories vs Countries of origin
7.3.Technical categories vs National Patent Office Country
7.3.Technical categories vs Priority Years
7.4.Countries of origin vs Priority Years
7.4.About PatAnalyse
7.5.Technical categories vs Countries of origin
7.6.Technical categories vs National Patent Office Country
8.1.ABSL EnerSys
8.1.ACT Premlis lithium-ion capacitors (Supercabatteries AEDLC)
8.1.Primary focus of manufacturers and putative manufacturers
8.2.Targeted applications for ACT lithium-ion supercapacitor
8.2.Comparison of ACT Premlis lithium-ion capacitors with early symmetric supercapacitors
8.2.Ada Technologies USA
8.3.Advanced Capacitor Technologies Japan
8.3.Comparison of Premlis discharge energy with early activated carbon EDLCs
8.3.Cap XX single cells organic flat supercapacitors vs alternatives
8.4.Representative customers for commercial use
8.4.AVX high power pulse supercapacitors.
8.4.Asahi Kasei-FDK Japan
8.5.AVX Mexico
8.5.Bainacap supercapacitors
8.6.Beijing HCC Energy Tech supercapacitor
8.6.Bainacap China
8.7.Bolloré France
8.7.CapXX product range
8.8.The Cap-XX supercapacitor structure
8.8.Baoding Yepu New Energy China
8.9.Beijing HCC Energy Tech China
8.9.Front and back close-up of components of energy harvester with supercapacitor and full module below
8.10.CDE Cornell Dubilier supercapacitors
8.10.Cap-XX Australia
8.11.CDE Cornell Dubilier USA
8.11.Chaoyang Liyuan large 3000F supercapacitor
8.12.Daying Juneng Technology and Development supercapacitors
8.12.Cellergy Israel
8.13.Chaoyang Liyuan New Energy China
8.13.Dongguan WIN WIN Supercap Electronic 1F supercapacitor
8.14.ELBIT timeline as presented at the IDTechEx "Electric Vehicles Land Sea Air" event in San Jose California 2012
8.14.Cooper Bussmann USA
8.15.Daying Juneng Technology and Development China
8.15.Electric Urban Public Transportation (EUPT) concept for using supercabatteries with a relatively small traction battery in a bus
8.16.Applications envisaged
8.16.Dongguan Amazing Electronic China
8.17.Dongguan Fuhui Electronics Sales China
8.17.Civil market - additional energy solutions
8.18.ELBIT Systems combined energy storage system concept
8.18.Dongguan Gonghe Electronics China
8.19.Dongguan WIN WIN Supercap Electronic China
8.19.Evans Capacitors supercapacitors
8.20.Evans Capacitor Capattery. RES 160504 Shock hardened Capattery 16V 0.5F for high Shock / Impact
8.20.East Penn Manufacturing Co. USA
8.21.Ecoult Australia
8.21.The FDK EneCapTen large lithium-ion supercabattery
8.22.The regular EneCapTen lithium-ion supercabattery
8.22.Elbit Energy Israel
8.23.ELIT Russia
8.23.GHC supercapacitors
8.24.Handong Heter Battery supercapacitor
8.24.ESMA Russia
8.25.Evans Capacitor Company USA
8.25.Heter Electronics supercapacitors on display at The battery Show Novi Michigan September 2013
8.26.Hitachi lithium-ion capacitors
8.26.FastCAP Systems USA
8.27.FDK Corp Japan
8.27.Illinois Capacitor supercapacitor range
8.28.Ioxus supercapacitors
8.28.Furukawa Battery Co Japan
8.29.GHC Electronic Co China
8.29.Ioxus supercapacitors
8.30.KAMCAP supercapacitor
8.30.Graphene Energy Inc USA
8.31.Handong Heter Battery China
8.31.Korchip supercapacitor range
8.32.Benefits cited by Korchip
8.32.Harbin Jurong Newpower China
8.33.Hitachi Japan
8.33.LS Mtron Korea Ultracapacitor
8.34.Maxwell Technologies ultracapacitor engine start module
8.34.Honda Japan
8.35.Illinois Capacitor USA
8.35.Maxwell Technologies supercapacitors
8.36.Supercapacitor made using Aluminium Celmet.
8.36.Ionova USA
8.37.Ioxus USA
8.37.Murata supercapacitors
8.38.Nanotecture nanoporous supercabattery electrode material
8.38.JM Energy Corp Japan
8.39.KAM China
8.39.NEC Tokin supercapacitor
8.40.Nesscap supercapacitors
8.40.Kankyo Japan
8.41.Korchip Korea
8.41.Nichicon supercapacitors
8.42.Nippon Chemi-Con ELDCs - supercapacitors
8.42.LS Mtron Korea
8.43.Maxwell Technologies USA
8.43.Nippon Chemi-Con supercapacitors for material handling vehicles and cars
8.44.Nippon Chemi-Con poster from EVS26
8.44.Meidensha Corp. Japan
8.45.Murata Japan
8.45.First generation product: PowerPatch™
8.46.Non-Hazardous materials
8.46.Nanotecture, UK (now only licensing)
8.47.Nanotune Technologies USA
8.47.Acceleration of drum warming-up
8.48.Peak power assistance & utilizing regenerative energy
8.48.NEC Tokin Japan
8.49.Nesscap Energy Inc Korea
8.49.Reduction of Exhaust Gas
8.50.Reduction of total cost
8.50.Nichicon Japan
8.51.Nippon Chemi-con Japan
8.51.Energy density vs power density showing the positioning of Quantum Wired's supercapacitor / micro fuel cell device
8.52.SAFT view of the supercapacitor and supercabattery opportunity
8.52.Panasonic Japan
8.53.Paper Battery Company USA
8.53.Shandong Heter Lampson Electronic supercapacitors
8.54.Shanghai Green Tech supercapacitors
8.54.PowerSystem Co Japan
8.55.Quantum Wired USA
8.55.Shenzhen Forecon supercapacitor
8.56.Sino Power Star supercapacitor
8.56.Ryan Technology Taiwan
8.57.SAFT France
8.57.Skeleton Technologies supercapacitors
8.58.SPL CP15 15 Farad supercabattery and 8 Farad supercabattery
8.58.Shandong Heter Lampson Electronic China
8.59.Shanghai Aowei Technology Development China
8.59.Tavrima supercapacitors
8.60.Vinatech supercapacitors
8.60.Shanghai Green Tech China
8.61.Shanghai Power Oriental International Trade China
8.61.WIMA large supercapacitors
8.62.Double Layer Capacitors developed by WIMA
8.62.Shenzhen Forecon Super Capacitor Technology China
8.63.Sino Power Star China
8.63.Yo-Engineering energy storage
8.64.Skeleton Technologies Estonia
8.65.SPL USA
8.66.Taiyo Yuden Japan
8.67.Tavrima Canada
8.68.Vina Technology Co Korea
8.69.WIMA Spezialvertrieb Elektronischer Bauelemente Germany
8.70.Yo-Engineering Russia
8.71.Yunasko Ukraine
9.1.Aowei Technology
9.4.Elbit Systems
9.6.Hutchinson SA
9.8.Maxwell Technologies Inc
9.9.Nesscap Energy
9.10.Paper Battery Company
9.11.Saft Batteries
9.12.Skeleton Technologies
9.13.WIMA Spezialvertrieb elektronischer Bauelemente

Report Statistics

Pages 398
Tables 23
Figures 195
Forecasts to 2025

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