16.3% CAGR for EV Battery Fire Protection Materials from 2023 to 2034

Fire Protection Materials for EV Batteries 2024-2034: Markets, Trends, and Forecasts

Fire protection and thermal runaway propagation limiting materials for electric cars, buses, vans, trucks, and micromobility. Ceramics, mica, aerogels, foams, encapsulants, coatings, phase change materials, and more. Benchmarking and forecasts.

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Electric vehicle (EV) fire safety continues to be a critical topic. Data continues to support the fact that EVs are less likely to catch fire than internal combustion engine vehicles. However, as a new technology, EVs get more press, and besides, even a very low occurrence rate still poses significant risks to vehicle occupants and surroundings. Effective thermal management, quality control, and battery management systems minimize the risk of thermal runaway occurring, but fire protection materials are the primary method of either preventing the propagation of thermal runaway or delaying its progression long enough to meet regulations and provide safety for occupants.
IDTechEx's report on Fire Protection Materials for Electric Vehicle Batteries analyzes trends in battery design, safety regulations, and how these will impact fire protection materials. The report benchmarks materials directly and in application within EV battery packs. The materials covered include ceramic blankets/sheets (and other non-wovens), mica, aerogels, coatings (intumescent and other), encapsulants, encapsulating foams, compression pads, phase change materials, and several other materials. 10-year market forecasts are included by material and vehicle category.
Whilst automotive markets provide the largest battery demand, there are large opportunities for material suppliers in other vehicle segments such as buses, trucks, vans, 2-wheelers, 3-wheelers, and microcars. Some of these smaller vehicle sectors present an even greater risk to owners, as they are often charged or kept inside the home.
Variety in battery design and evolution
Various cell formats and battery structures are used in the EV market. In 2022, 55% of new electric cars sold used prismatic battery cells, with pouch cells accounting for 24% and the rest using cylindrical. Each of these cell formats has different needs in terms of inter-cell materials which has led to trends in fire protection material adoption. For example, cylindrical systems have largely used encapsulating foams, whereas prismatic systems typically use materials in sheet format such as mica.
Many manufacturers are also moving towards a cell-to-pack design where module housings (and a host of other materials) are removed, leading to improved energy density, but potentially more challenging thermal runaway propagation prevention. These design choices all greatly impact the choice and deployment of fire protection materials and hence are covered in IDTechEx's report to aid in determining material demands.
Many materials are applicable for fire protection in EV batteries. Source: IDTechEx - "Fire Protection Materials for EV Batteries 2024-2034: Markets, Trends, and Forecasts"
Ceramic blankets have been a common choice to provide protection above the cells and below the lid and to delay the propagation of fire outside the pack. Mica sheets are another popular choice with excellent dielectric performance at thin thicknesses between cells but are often used in thicker sheets above modules. Aerogels are continuing to see market progress with significant adoption in China, but also now globally with adoption from GM, Toyota, and Audi to name a few.
The use of encapsulating foams has also seen significant adoption for cylindrical cell battery packs with the likes of Tesla, to provide lightweight thermal insulation and structure. For pouch cells, compression pads are commonplace to accommodate cell swelling and several material suppliers are starting to combine this functionality with fire protection to provide a multifunctional solution.
There are many material options in addition to the ones discussed above, and polymer suppliers are making a big push to provide major components of the battery pack with fire-retardant polymers or even polymers with intumescent properties. These have the potential to be lighter, more customizable in geometry, and lower cost that metals and fire protection materials combined. However, there are still significant challenges here, such as integrating EMI shielding and providing the necessary crash performance.
Developments in safety regulations
Many will be aware that China was an early adopter of thermal runaway specific regulations, with, among other requirements, a need to prevent fire or smoke exiting the battery pack for 5 minutes after the event occurs.
The regulations in other regions are getting closer to being formalized with the UN ECE regulation continuing to be revised. Whilst the specific targets are still in flux, it is very likely that detection of thermal runaway will be required, followed by an "escape time" for vehicle occupants. The 5-minute escape time is unlikely to be sufficient for future regulations and more effective thermal runaway propagation measures will be necessary. Therefore OEMs have started to target longer escape times in order to pre-empt future regulations and improve overall safety.
IDTechEx's report discusses the regulations that are currently in place and those being discussed. These feed into IDTechEx's market forecasts showing a greater adoption of fire protection materials per vehicle. However, this must be paired with trends around battery development that can often reduce material use per vehicle. The variety of battery designs and material solutions presents a large opportunity across several markets and suppliers. IDTechEx predicts this market will grow at 16.3% CAGR from 2023 to 2034.
Key aspects of this report
Overview and evolution of:
  • Electric vehicle fires and thermal runaway
  • Electric vehicle recalls related to fires
  • Regulations in different global regions
Material analysis and trends including thermal conductivity, dielectric strength, density, and more for:
  • Ceramics (and other non-wovens)
  • Mica
  • Aerogels
  • Coatings (intumescent and other)
  • Encapsulants
  • Encapsulating foams
  • Compression pads (with fire protection properties)
  • Phase change materials
  • Polymers as fire protection materials
  • Other material categories
10 year market forecasts & analysis:
  • EV battery demand for cars, buses, trucks, vans, scooters, and motorcycles (GWh)
  • Cell-to-cell protection by material (kg)
  • Pack-level protection by material (kg)
  • Total fire protection by material (kg)
  • Total fire protection by material (US$)
  • Total fire protection by vehicle category (kg)
  • Total fire protection by vehicle category (US$)
Report MetricsDetails
Historic Data2021 - 2023
Forecast Period2023 - 2034
Forecast Unitskg, US$
Regions CoveredWorldwide
Segments CoveredCars, buses, trucks, vans, 2 wheelers, 3 wheelers, microcars, ceramics, aerogels, mica, encapsulants, foams, compression pads, coatings, phase change materials
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Table of Contents
1.1.Thermal Runaway and Fires in EVs
1.2.Battery Fires and Related Recalls (automotive)
1.3.Automotive Fire Incidents: OEMs and Situations
1.4.EV Fires: When do They Happen?
1.5.Conclusions on Solid-state Battery Safety
1.6.Summary of Na-ion Safety
1.8.Cell Format Market Share
1.9.Drivers and Challenges for Cell-to-pack
1.10.Thermal Runaway in Cell-to-pack
1.11.Fire Protection Materials: Main Categories
1.12.Material Comparison
1.13.Market Shares in 2023 and 2034
1.14.Density vs Thermal Conductivity - Thermally Insulating
1.15.Material Intensity (kg/kWh)
1.16.Pricing Comparison in a Cylindrical Cell Battery (inter-cell)
1.17.Pricing Comparison in a Pouch Cell Battery (inter-cell)
1.18.Pricing Comparison in a Prismatic Cell Battery (inter-cell)
1.19.Pricing Comparison in a Battery (pack-level)
1.20.Cell-level Fire Protection Materials Forecast (mass)
1.21.Pack-level Fire Protection Materials Forecast (mass)
1.22.Total Fire Protection Materials Forecast (mass)
1.23.Total Fire Protection Materials Forecast (value)
1.24.Total Fire Protection Materials by Vehicle (value)
2.1.1.Thermal Runaway and Fires in EVs
2.2.Fires and Recalls in EVs
2.2.1.Battery Fires and Related Recalls (automotive)
2.2.2.GM's Bolt Recall
2.2.3.Hyundai Kona Recall
2.2.4.VW PHEV Recall
2.2.5.Ford Kuga PHEV Recall
2.2.6.Automotive Fire Incidents: OEMs and Situations
2.2.7.Electric Scooter Fires in India
2.2.8.Electric Bus Fires
2.2.9.EV Fires Compared to ICEs (1)
2.2.10.EV Fires Compared to ICEs (2)
2.2.11.Issues with EV and ICE Fire Comparisons
2.2.12.Severity of EV Fires
2.2.13.EV Fires: When do They Happen?
2.3.Causes and Stages of Thermal Runaway
2.3.1.Causes of Failure
2.3.2.The Nail Penetration test
2.3.3.Stages of Thermal Runaway (1)
2.3.4.Stages of Thermal Runaway (2)
2.3.5.LiB Cell Temperature and Likely Outcome
2.3.6.Cell Chemistry and Stability
2.3.7.Cell Chemistry Impact on Fire Protection
2.3.8.Cathode Market Share for Li-ion in EVs (2015-2034)
2.3.9.Thermal Runaway Propagation
2.3.10.The Impact of Solid-state Batteries
2.3.11.Are Solid-state Batteries Safer?
2.3.12.Conclusions on Solid-state Battery Safety
2.3.13.Na-ion Battery Safety V Capability of Na-ion Systems
2.3.15.Summary of Na-ion Safety
2.4.4.Europe (Revision 3, 2022)
2.4.6.UN-GTR20 Phase 2 Standard Act and Beyond
2.4.7.Regulation Landscape
2.4.9.What Does it all Mean for EV Battery Design?
3.1.1.Cell Types
3.1.2.Which Cell Format to Choose?
3.1.3.Cell Format Market Share
3.1.4.Li-ion Batteries: from Cell to Pack
3.1.5.What's in a Battery Module? (pouch/prismatic)
3.1.6.What's in a Battery Module? (cylindrical)
3.1.7.What's in an EV Battery Pack?
3.2.Cell-to-Pack, Cell-to-Chassis, and Large Cell Formats
3.2.1.What is Cell-to-pack?
3.2.2.Drivers and Challenges for Cell-to-pack
3.2.3.What is Cell-to-chassis/body?
3.2.4.Gravimetric Energy Density and Cell-to-pack Ratio
3.2.5.Volumetric Energy Density and Cell-to-pack Ratio
3.2.6.Outlook for Cell-to-pack & Cell-to-body Designs
3.2.7.Thermal Runaway in Cell-to-pack
3.2.8.Material Intensity Changes in Cell-to-pack
4.1.1.What are Fire Protection Materials?
4.1.2.Thermally Conductive or Thermally Insulating?
4.1.3.Fire Protection Materials: Main Categories
4.1.4.Composition and Application of Each Material Category
4.1.5.Advantages and Disadvantages
4.1.6.Market Maturity, OEM Use-cases, and Suppliers
4.1.7.Material Comparison
4.1.8.Material Market Shares 2023
4.1.9.Market Shares in 2023 and 2034
4.2.Material Testing for Thermal Runaway
4.2.1.How to Screen Materials for Thermal Runaway
4.2.2.UL Torch and Grit Test
4.2.3.UL BETR
4.3.Material Benchmarking: Thermal, Electrical, and Mechanical Properties
4.3.1.Thermal Conductivity Comparison
4.3.2.Density Comparison
4.3.3.Density vs Thermal Conductivity - Thermally Insulating
4.3.4.Density vs Thermal Conductivity - Cylindrical Cell Systems
4.3.5.Dielectric Strength Comparison
4.3.6.Fire Protection Temperature Comparison
4.3.7.Material Intensity (kg/kWh)
4.4.Material Benchmarking: Costs
4.4.1.Pricing Comparison: Volumetric and Gravimetric
4.4.2.Pricing Comparison in a Cylindrical Cell Battery (inter-cell)
4.4.3.Pricing Comparison in a Pouch Cell Battery (inter-cell)
4.4.4.Pricing Comparison in a Prismatic Cell Battery (inter-cell)
4.4.5.Pricing Comparison in a Battery (pack-level)
4.5.Ceramics and Other Non-Wovens
4.5.1.Typical Properties of Ceramic Blankets/papers
4.5.2.Challenges with Ceramic Blankets
4.5.5.Dongguan Taiya Electronic Technology Co., Ltd.
4.5.6.Luyang Energy-Saving Materials Co., Ltd.
4.5.7.MAFTEC Concept (EDAG, Mitsubishi Chemical Group, Kreisel)
4.5.8.Morgan Advanced Materials
4.6.1.Muscovite and Phlogopite Mica
4.6.2.Typical Properties of Mica Sheets
4.6.3.Challenges with Mica
4.6.4.Asheville Mica
4.6.5.Axim Mica
4.6.8.Von Roll
4.7.1.Why aerogels?
4.7.3.Concerns for Aerogels in EV Batteries and How They're Addressed
4.7.4.Historic Uptake
4.7.5.Current Applications of Aerogels in China
4.7.6.Current Applications of Aerogels in China (2)
4.7.7.Aspen Aerogels
4.7.8.JIOS Aerogel
4.7.11.SAIC/GM: Aerogels
4.7.12.Cabot Corporation
4.8.1.Coatings (intumescent and other)
4.8.2.Challenges for Coatings
4.8.4.H.B. Fuller
4.8.5.Parker Lord
4.8.8.NeoGraf - Graphite Additives for Reactive Coatings
4.8.9.WEVO Chemie
4.8.10.Other Examples of EV Battery Fire Protection Coatings
4.9.Encapsulants (excluding foams)
4.9.2.DEMAK - resin potting for batteries
4.9.4.Epoxies, Etc.
4.9.6.Von Roll
4.10.Encapsulating Foams
4.10.2.Challenges with Encapsulating Foams
4.10.3.Asahi Kasei - Cell Holder Foams
4.10.4.Solimide/Polyimide Foam
4.10.5.CHT Silicones
4.10.6.Dow Silicones
4.10.8.H.B. Fuller
4.10.9.Parker Lord
4.10.10.Zotefoams - Nitrogen Foam
4.11.Compression Pads with Fire Protection
4.11.1.Compression Pads
4.11.3.Freudenberg Sealing Technology
4.11.4.Rogers Corporation
4.12.Phase Change Materials
4.12.1.Phase Change Materials (PCMs)
4.12.2.PCM Categories and Pros and Cons
4.12.3.Phase Change Materials - Players
4.12.4.PCMs - Players in EVs
4.12.5.AllCell (Beam Global)
4.12.6.PCMs - Use-case and Outlook
4.13.1.Tapes for Fire Protection
4.13.2.ATP Adhesive Systems
4.13.3.Avery Denison
4.13.4.Coroplast Tape
4.13.5.Lohmann Tapes
4.13.7.Tesa Tapes
4.14.Polymers as Fire Protection
4.14.1.Fire Retardant Additives (1)
4.14.2.Fire Retardant Additives (2)
4.14.3.How Polymers Can Address Thermal Runaway (1)
4.14.4.How Polymers Can Address Thermal Runaway (2)
4.14.5.How Polymers Can Address Thermal Runaway (3)
4.14.6.Covestro - Flame-retardant Plastics
4.14.7.LG Chem - Fire Protection Plastic
4.15.Other Fire Protection Materials
4.15.2.Elven Technologies
4.15.3.Alternative Thermal Barriers - Thermal Barriers
4.15.5.ADA Technologies
4.15.6.AOK Technology
4.15.8.DuPont - Nomex
4.15.9.H.B. Fuller - Flame-resistant Pack Seal
4.15.10.HeetShield - Ultra-thin Insulations
4.15.11.KULR Technology - NASA's solution
4.15.12.Pyrophobic Systems
4.15.13.Stokvis Tapes - Fire Protection Materials
4.15.14.svt Group
4.16.1.Fire Protection Materials Outlook
5.1.Immersion Cooling: introduction
5.2.Immersion Cooling Fluids Requirements
5.3.Immersion Cooling Architecture
5.4.Players: Immersion Fluids for EVs (1)
5.5.Players: Immersion Fluids for EVs (2)
5.6.Immersion Fluids: Density and Thermal Conductivity
5.7.Immersion Fluids: Summary
5.8.SWOT Analysis
5.9.IDTechEx Outlook
5.10.What Does it Mean for Fire Protection Materials?
6.1.Use-Cases: Automotive
6.1.1.Faraday Future FF91
6.1.2.Ford Mustang Mach-E
6.1.3.GAC Aion
6.1.4.GMC Hummer EV Example
6.1.5.Hyundai E-GMP
6.1.6.Jaguar I-PACE
6.1.7.Lucid Air
6.1.8.MG ZS
6.1.9.Mercedes EQS
6.1.10.Mercedes GLC300e PHEV
6.1.13.Tesla 4680 pack
6.1.14.Tesla Model 3/Y
6.1.15.Tesla Model 3/Y prismatic LFP pack
6.1.16.Tesla Model S P85D
6.1.17.Tesla Model S Plaid
6.1.18.Voyah (Dongfeng)
6.1.19.VW MEB Platform
6.2.Use-Cases: Heavy Duty and Commercial Vehicles
6.2.1.American Battery Solutions
6.2.2.Ford Transit
6.2.3.Lion Electric - self extinguishing modules
6.2.4.Nissan e-NV200
6.2.5.Romeo Power
6.2.8.XING Mobility
6.3.Use-Cases: Other
6.3.1.Cadenza Innovation - stationary energy storage
6.3.2.Hero Maxi (lead-acid)
6.3.3.Ola Hyperdrive battery
7.1.Impact of Enclosure Material on Fire Protection
7.2.Battery Enclosure Materials and Competition
7.3.From Steel to Aluminium
7.4.Towards Composite Enclosures?
7.5.Composite Enclosure EV Examples (1)
7.6.Composite Enclosure EV Examples (2)
7.7.Alternatives to Phenolic Resins
7.8.Are Polymers Suitable Housings?
7.9.Plastic Intensive Battery Pack from SABIC
7.10.Polymers Replacing Metals
7.11.Composites with Fire Protection
7.12.Examples of Fire Protection with Composite Enclosure Players
7.13.Adding Fire Protection to Composite Parts
7.14.Envalior - Plastic Enclosure for HV Battery
7.15.Composite Enclosure Outlook
8.1.Why Busbars and Cables Need Fire Protection
8.2.Busbar Insulation Materials
8.3.HV Cable Insulation Operating Temperature Benchmark
8.4.Polymer Players in Busbar Insulation (1)
8.5.Polymer Players in Busbar Insulation (2)
8.6.Polymer Players in Busbar Insulation (3)
8.7.Polymer Players in Busbar Insulation (4)
8.8.Busbar, Interconnect, and HV Cable Insulation Demand Forecast 2021-2034 (kg)
9.1.EV Battery Demand Forecast (GWh)
9.2.Methodology: Material Intensity (kg/kWh)
9.3.Methodology: Cell Formats
9.4.Cell-level Fire Protection Materials Forecast (mass)
9.5.Pack-level Fire Protection Materials Forecast (mass)
9.6.Total Fire Protection Materials Forecast (mass)
9.7.Material Pricing
9.8.Total Fire Protection Materials Forecast (value)
9.9.Fire Protection Materials Forecast by Vehicle Type (mass)
9.10.Total Fire Protection Materials by Vehicle (value)
9.11.Comparison with Previous Forecasts
10.1.ADA Technologies
10.3.Aerogel Core Ltd
10.4.AllCell Technologies (Beam Global): Phase Change Material for EVs
10.5.Amphenol Advanced Sensors
10.7.Asahi Kasei: Fire Retardant Plastics
10.8.Ascend Performance Materials: High Temperature PA66
10.9.Aspen Aerogels: Aerogels for EV Battery Packs
10.10.Axalta Coating Systems
10.11.Cadenza Innovation
10.12.Carrar: Two-Phase Immersion Cooling for EVs
10.14.Elven Technologies: Fire Protection Materials
10.15.Freudenberg Sealing Technologies: EV Inter-Cell Fire Protection
10.16.FUCHS: Dielectric Immersion Fluids for EVs
10.17.H.B. Fuller: Fire Protection Materials for EV Batteries
10.18.IBIH Advanced Materials
10.19.JIOS Aerogel
10.20.Johnson Controls: Thermal Runaway Detection and Prevention
10.21.Keey Aerogel
10.22.KULR Technology
10.23.LG Chem
10.24.Pyrophobic Systems: Fire Protection Materials for EVs
10.25.Rogers Corporation: Compression Pads With Fire Protection
10.26.WEVO Chemie: Battery Thermal Management Materials

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Fire Protection Materials for EV Batteries 2024-2034: Markets, Trends, and Forecasts

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Report Statistics

Slides 311
Companies 27
Forecasts to 2034
Published Feb 2024
ISBN 9781835700167

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