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Graphene Market & 2D Materials Assessment 2023-2033

Granular ten-year graphene market forecasts for 18 key application areas, data-driven application assessment, & benchmarking studies. 150+ companies interviewed, full profiles for 60+ key players included, & market research on graphene for over 10 years.

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This report offers a detailed independent analysis of the technological and commercial progress of graphene and other 2D materials.
Why use IDTechEx for research on graphene and other nanomaterials?
This report is the result of more than a decade of ongoing market research. IDTechEx launched the first version of the report on CNTs and graphene in 2011 and 2012, respectively, and has been tracking the industries ever since. IDTechEx has interviewed hundreds of companies across the value chain to provide the most comprehensive view of the market.
IDTechEx has extensive in-depth coverage of many end-use markets for these materials, including a series of independent reports on such topics including energy storage, composites, conductive inks, flexible electronics, and more. This expertise on the end-use markets enables us to better understand the landscape in which these materials compete in and provide realistic outlooks.
Graphene: Finally moving out of the lab and into the market
Graphene-related materials are progressing through their own hype curve. The commercialization has been making steady progress and IDTechEx expect the graphene market to significantly grow over the next decade.
  • Graphene-related materials take a wide range of types, grades and forms, each with their own commercial outlook. There is some progression towards standardisation and safety legislation/qualification, but this challenge still prevails. Extensive analysis and benchmarking studies are shown in the report across the complete range of graphene materials.
  • Graphene nanoplatelets (GNP), graphene oxide (GO), and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) are the closest forms to significant commercial uptake. There are increasing signs that we are now in the rapid growth phase, with significant applications observed for polymer composites for automotive, heatspreaders for smartphones, industrial elastomers, anti-corrosion coatings and many more.
  • There is no "best graphene" with each application having different multifunctional requirements, the end-users now accept that the winning materials cannot be determined a priori as final application-level results are influenced by many parameters such as graphene morphology and purity. Players understand there is key know-how in both dispersing graphene and introducing valuable functionality, companies are competing to fill that crucial stage of the value chain (externally and in-house) to provide a range of intermediate products.
  • There are numerous strengths and weaknesses to the different graphene production processes with top-down approaches of liquid phase exfoliation and oxidation-reduction processes dominant. The report explores these processes in detail and also explores emerging alternatives looking to use alternate feedstocks, improve the efficiency and/or enhance the final product.
  • There are a very large number of graphene manufacturers, which will not be the case in the long term as major success will result in consolidation. This report tracks the manufacturers' progress in detail including their revenue, profitability, capacity, price, properties, partnerships and more. Significant production plants have now been installed giving the oppportunity for volume orders, but uptake still takes time and for now capacity far outstrips demand. Interestingly, and as is now familiar in many industries, China has become a significant territory in terms of production capacity and research, which is explored throughout the report. Given that a lage proportion of activity is for additives in volume application, price and cost are key considerations; graphene prices span orders or magnitude and many try to avoid the "race-to-the-bottom" or highlight the low loadings required, but given the incumbent materials this dynamic is not to be overlooked.
  • Our data suggest that revenue for graphene companies has been rising steadily for many years and this will accelerate as we pass through this inflection point. The rise, however, has not always been accompanied with increasing profit. Indeed, the industry, as a whole, is still loss making with only a handful of profitable companies and certainly some disillusionment arising as a result. Public and private funding still plays an important part of this nascent industry; this is tracked an discussed within the market report.
  • Advanced materials often suffer from being a material push rather than a market pull. The report looks at key sectors in detail to understand some of the business cases solving unmet needs. Market drivers include the necessity for improved thermal management, sustainability, lightweighting, product lifetime, and more.
  • With such an extensive potential application list, a key question is: where will there be success? Composites, energy storage, concrete, coatings, thermal management, and textiles all represent a very large potential and promising results have been seen. An outlook on the revenue progression can be seen in the chart below and this roadmap is discussed in detail throughout the report.
Graphene Market and 2D Materials Assessment 2023-2033. We forecast that the graphene market will grow from <$100m in 2020 to exceed $1bn by 2032.
  • Graphene films and wafers, typically grown via a CVD process, have had a very different history and outlook. Given the obvious potential, transistore and TCFs were extensively targeted, but the lack of band gap and high-performance incumbent materials challenges has led to an inevtitable realistion of limitations. However, with manufacturing improvements and further developments, commercial successes are being observed mostly for sensors and optoelectronic applications. Expansions are being observed and the next 10-years looks very promising for certain key end-user markets.
  • The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic and broader supply chain disruption has been felt by the graphene industry in delaying scale-ups, development trials, and general operations. This may be irreversibly consequential for some, but for many it will just delay the commercial success.
What about 2D materials beyond graphene?
Beyond graphene there is an emerging family of 2D materials, each with unique properties and potential across a range of commercial applications. Nearly all are at a very early-stage of development. IDTechEx provides a detailed assessment and outlook with a specific focus on boron nitride, transition metal dichalcogenides, MXenes, and Xenes. Key technical progressions, prospective market applications, profiles of early-stage commercial companies, and detailed insights are all included within the report.
What about other advanced carbons?
Graphene is not the first nanocarbon, or indeed nanomaterial, to emerge out of the lab and, given that most applications see graphene used as an additive, understanding the competitive market is essential. Carbon black is the incumbent conductive carbon powder, of which there are numerous grades, and presents a likely long-term future for GNPs and rGO if high-volume killer applications are found. For a mature sector like this, the number of manufacturers are consolidated, a global presence established, and the margins significantly reduced.
There is also a lot to be learned from the commercial progression of multi-walled and single-walled carbon nanotubes. MWCNTs went through a premature period of capacity expansion when finding some niche and modest applications, and it is only in the last few years that the signiciant revenues and next stages of expansion are beginning to emerge, owing to their role in the cathode of lithium-ion batteries; meanwhile, SWCNTs hold much promise but have yet to find their key commercial use-case. This report covers these comparative markets in detail.
What does this report provide?
  • Introduction to graphene and market trends
  • Disparity between ideal and non-ideal graphene
  • Diversity of graphene on the market
  • Pricing evolutions, trends and strategies worldwide for graphene
  • Nominal production capacity by supplier worldwide for graphene
  • Categorization of graphene manufacturers by production processes
  • Grannular analysis into the patent landscape
  • Trends in company revenue and profit/loss
  • Companies valuation trends
  • Specific look on China (for graphene) covering key emerging Chinese suppliers, applications and prices
  • Applications examples, pipeline and readiness levels for graphene.
  • Benchmarking studies and market comparison to CNTs
Ten-year segmented market forecasts
  • Ten-year application-segmented market projections for graphene (in different forms) in volume and value. Segmented by 18 end-use applications.
This report has dedicated chapters for key end-use applications. End-use applications include energy storage (lithium-ion, silicon anode, LiS, supercapacitors and other); polymer composites (mechanically-enhanced, permeation-enhanced, electrically conductive, thermally conductive, EMI shielding, 3D printing filaments, tires, other); inks and coatings (anti-corrosion coating, RFID antenna, other); transistors; transparent conductive films; sensors; thermal interface materials; concrete & asphalt; textiles; metal matrix composites; filtration; and more.
IDTechEx has interviewed hundreds of companies across the value chain for this analysis. This report includes a large number of key company profiles and updates for the reader.
Analyst access from IDTechEx
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Table of Contents
1.1.Graphene - Introduction
1.2.Advanced Carbon: Overview
1.3.Understanding Graphene: Production process
1.4.Understanding Graphene: Material grades & forms
1.5.Does anyone mass produce true graphene?
1.6.Not all graphenes are equal: benchmarking study
1.7.What is the next generation of graphene?
1.8.The hype curve of the graphene industry
1.9.Market entry from major players
1.10.IP and regulatory landscape
1.11.Comparison of business models
1.12.Supply chain for GNP/rGO enabled polymer product
1.13.Market leaders emerge and consolidation anticipated
1.14.Private graphene investments
1.15.Mergers and acquisitions
1.16.Value creation for graphene companies: a look at public valuation trends
1.17.Revenue of graphene companies
1.18.Profit and loss trend of graphene companies
1.19.Profitable graphene companies
1.20.Graphite players see opportunity in graphene
1.21.Graphene platelet-type: global production capacity
1.22.The rise of China in graphene?
1.23.The importance of intermediaries
1.24.Is graphene green?
1.25.Graphene prices by suppliers
1.26.Is there a commoditization risk for the graphene?
1.27.Overview of Graphene Manufacturers
1.28.Main graphene oxide manufacturers
1.29.Graphene in China
1.30.Main Chinese manufacturers
1.31.Learning from the capacity progression of MWCNTs
1.32.CVD graphene manufacturers
1.33.Graphene film production - technical challenges remain
1.34.CVD graphene - applications are shifting
1.35.Expanding graphene wafer capacity and adoption
1.36.Application Overview - GNP and rGO
1.37.Competitive Landscape - Application
1.38.Graphene applications going commercial?
1.39.Market breakdown by revenue and volume
1.40.Commercial Indicators of the inflection point
1.41.Nanoinformatics - Accelerating R&D
1.42.Overview of 2D materials beyond graphene
1.43.Company Profiles
2.1.Forecast methodology and assumptions
2.2.Granular ten year graphene market forecast segmented by 18 application areas
2.3.Ten-year forecast for volume (MT) demand for graphene material
2.4.Progression of the graphene market
2.5.Ten-year forecast for graphene platelet vs sheets
2.6.CNT market forecast comparison
2.7.Assessment of TAMs
3.1.Advanced Carbon: Overview
3.2.Carbon Black - Overview
3.3.Specialty Carbon Black Analysis
3.4.Carbon Nanotubes - Overview
3.5.Progression and Outlook for MWCNT Capacity
3.6.Graphite - Overview
3.7.Carbon Fiber - Overview
3.8.Incumbent material - graphene competition
4.1.Graphene Patent Trends
4.2.Top Patent Holders: Dominance of Asia is Clear
4.3.Key Historic Patent and New Entrants
4.4.Graphene patent classification
4.5.Geographic Patent Distribution and Outlook
5.1.Explaining the main graphene manufacturing routes
5.2.Quality and consistency issue
5.3.Expanded graphite
5.4.Reduced graphene oxide
5.5.Oxidising graphite: processes and characteristics
5.6.Reducing graphene oxide: different methods
5.7.Direct liquid phase exfoliation: process and characteristics
5.8.Direct liquid phase exfoliation under shear force
5.9.Electrochemical exfoliation
5.10.Properties of electrochemical exfoliated graphene
5.11.Plasma exfoliation
5.12.Increasing number of plasma processes
5.13.Substrate-less CVD (chemical vapour deposition)
5.14.Substrate-less CVD: growth of flower like graphene
5.15.Advanced carbon structures made from CO2: Technology
5.16.Producing graphene as an electronic substrate or material
5.17.Chemical Vapour Deposited (CVD) Graphene
5.18.Growth process of CVD graphene
5.19.The key role of oxygen in CVD graphene growth
5.20.CVD graphene: cm scale grain domains possible
5.21.Roll to roll (R2R) growth of CVD graphene film
5.22.The transfer challenge: a showstopper?
5.23.Roll-to-roll transfer of CVD graphene
5.24.Novel methods for transferring CVD graphene
5.25.Using R2R joule heating to enable CVD growth
5.26.Epitaxial: high performance but high cost
5.27.Graphene from SiC
5.28.Metal on silicon CVD (then transfer)
5.29.Transfer-FREE metal on Si graphene
5.30.Single crystal wafer scale graphene on silicon
5.31.CVD Graphene Progress
6.1.Energy storage: Graphene overview
6.2.Graphene batteries introduction
6.3.Graphene-enabled energy storage devices: Overview
6.4.Lithium-ion battery market outlook
6.5.Types of lithium battery
6.6.Battery technology comparison
6.7.Timeline and outlook for Li-ion energy densities
6.8.Main Graphene Players - Energy Storage
6.9.LFP cathode improvement
6.10.Why graphene and carbon black are used together
6.11.Results showing graphene improves LFP batteries
6.12.Results showing graphene improves NCM batteries
6.13.Results showing graphene improves LTO batteries
6.14.Why silicon anode battery and key challenges?
6.15.Silicon anodes
6.16.Electrolyte and current collectors
6.17.Fast charging lithium-ion batteries
6.18.Motivation - why Lithium sulphur batteries?
6.19.The Lithium sulphur battery chemistry
6.20.Why graphene helps in Li sulphur batteries
6.21.State of the art use of graphene in LiS batteries
6.22.Mixed graphene/CNT in batteries
6.23.Graphene-enabled lead acid battery
6.24.Aluminum-ion batteries
6.25.Graphene battery announcements
6.26.Conclusions: graphene role in batteries
7.1.Energy Storage Priorities
7.2.Supercapacitor fundamentals
7.3.Batteries vs supercapacitors
7.4.Competition from other carbon nanostructures
7.5.Challenges with graphene: poor out-of-plane conductivity and re-stacking
7.6.Graphene supercapacitors players
7.7.Graphene supercapacitor Ragone plots
7.8.Promising results on GO supercapacitors
7.9.Key Player: Skeleton Technologies
7.10.Targeted high-volume production
7.11.Graphene supercapacitor products and outlook - new product launches over the full range
7.12.Graphene supercapacitor products and outlook - wide range of applications
7.13.Future iterations - graphene hydrogels and aerogels?
7.14.Conclusions: graphene role in supercapacitors
8.1.Thermal Management
8.2.Thermal management applications
8.3.Introduction to Thermal Interface Materials (TIM)
8.4.Advanced Materials for TIM - Introduction
8.5.Summary of TIM utilising advanced carbon materials
8.6.Achieving through-plane alignment
8.7.Graphene heat spreaders: commercial success
8.8.Graphene heat spreaders: performance
8.9.Graphene heat spreaders: suppliers multiply
8.10.Graphene as a thermal paste additive
8.11.Graphene as additives to thermal interface pads
8.12.Graphene: heat conductivity boosters
8.13.Nanofluidic coolant
9.1.1.General observation on using graphene additives in composites
9.2.1.Evidence for mechanical property improvement
9.2.2.Results showing Young's Modulus enhancement using graphene
9.2.3.Commercial results on permeation graphene improvement
9.2.4.Permeation Improvement
9.2.5.Graphene providing enhanced fire retardancy
9.3.1.Graphene platelet-based conductors: polymer composites
9.3.2.Thermal conductivity improvement using graphene
9.3.3.Electrical conductivity improvement using graphene
9.3.4.EMI Shielding: graphene additives
9.3.5.Commercial studies
9.4.Commercial applications
9.4.1.Key adoption examples - sports & leisure
9.4.2.Key adoption examples - automotive
9.4.3.Key adoption examples - industrial
9.4.4.Mechanical Polymer: Adoption Examples - Packaging
9.4.5.Mechanical Polymer: Adoption Examples - Elastomers
9.4.6.Graphene-enhanced conductive 3D printing filaments
9.4.7.Intermediate players
10.1.Role of nanocarbon as additives to FRPs
10.2.Routes to incorporating nanocarbon material into composites
10.3.Routes to electrically conductive composites
10.4.Technology adoption for electrostatic discharge of composites
10.5.Nanocarbon for enhanced electrical conductivity - Graphene
10.6.Enhanced thermal conductivity - application overview
10.7.Electrothermal de-icing - Nanocarbon patents
10.8.Electrothermal de-icing - Graphene research
10.9.Nanocomposites for enhanced thermal conductivity - graphene
10.10.Embedded sensors for structural health monitoring of composites - introduction
10.11.Embedded sensors for structural health monitoring of composites - types
10.12.Nanocarbon Sensors for embedded SHM
11.1.Graphene platelet/powder-based conductors: conductive inks
11.2.Applications of conductive graphene inks
11.3.Results of resistive heating using graphene inks
11.4.Heating applications
11.5.Uniform and stable heating
11.6.Results of de-frosting using graphene inks
11.7.Results of de-icing using graphene heaters
11.8.Transparent EMI shielding
11.9.ESD films printed using graphene
11.10.Graphene inks can be highly opaque
11.11.RFID types and characteristics
11.12.Graphene RFID tags
12.1.Industry examples of graphene-based sensors
12.2.Graphene Sensors - Gas Sensors
12.3.Gas sensors - Overview
12.4.Graphene sensor for food safety monitoring
12.5.Biosensor - electrochemical transducer overview
12.6.Graphene-based BioFET
12.7.Graphene Sensors - Biosensors
12.8.Graphene Sensors - COVID-19
12.9.Graphene Quantum Dots
12.10.Hall-effect sensor
12.11.Graphene's optical properties
12.12.Fast graphene photosensor
12.13.Commercial example of graphene-enabled photodetector
12.14.Emberion: QD-Graphene-Si broadrange SWIR sensor
12.15.Emerging role in silicon photonics
12.16.New graphene photonic companies
12.17.Academic research: Twisted bilayer graphene sensitive to longer wavelength IR light
12.18.QD-on-CMOS with graphene interlayer
12.19.Graphene humidity sensor
12.20.Optical brain sensors using graphene
12.21.Graphene skin electrodes
12.22.Graphene-enabled stretch sensor applications
13.1.Transparent conducting films (TCFs)
13.2.Different Transparent Conductive Films (TCFs)
13.3.ITO film shortcomings: flexibility
13.4.ITO film shortcomings: limited sheet conductivity
13.5.Indium's single supply risk: real or exaggerated?
13.6.Graphene performance as TCF
13.7.Doping as a strategy for improving graphene TCF performance
13.8.Be wary of extraordinary results for graphene
13.9.Graphene transparent conducting films: thinness and barrier layers
13.10.LG Electronics: R2R CVD graphene targeting TCFs?
13.11.Hybrid materials (I) : Properties
13.12.Hybrid materials (II): Chasm
14.1.Introduction to transistors
14.2.Transistor Figures-of-Merit (transfer characteristics)
14.3.Transistor Figures-of-Merit (output characteristics)
14.4.Why graphene transistors?
14.5.First graphene FET with top gate (CMOS)- 2007
14.6.High performance top gate FET
14.7.Graphene FET with bandgap
14.8.Opening a bandgap: e-field induced bandgap bilayer graphene
14.9.Opening bandgap: No free lunch!
14.10.Graphene wafer scale integration
14.11.Can graphene FETs make it as an analogue high frequency device?
14.12.So what if we print graphene? Poor competition gives hope!
14.13.Fully inkjet printed 2D material FETs
14.14.Fully inkjet printed 2D material FETs on TEXTILE
14.15.Fully inkjet printed on-textile 2D material logic!
14.16.Graphene transistor conclusions
15.1.Introduction to membranes
15.2.Stacked Graphene Oxide
15.3.Applications in paper/pulp industry
15.4.Lockheed Martin graphene membrane
15.5.Printed GO membranes
15.6.Lithium extraction
15.7.Emulsion separation
15.8.Membrane players
15.9.Filtration - Commercial launches
15.10.Latest research for water filtration
15.13.Fuel cells
16.1.Concrete & asphalt: Overview
16.2.Concrete & asphalt: Research and demonstrations
16.3.Concrete & asphalt: Graphene outlook
16.4.Graphene textiles
16.5.Graphene textile uptake
16.8.Engine oil
16.9.Copper nanocomposites - introduction
16.10.Production of copper nanocomposites
16.11.Graphene platelet-based conductors: metal composites
16.12.Metal composite developments
16.13.Metal additive manufacturing
16.14.Hot extrusion nanoalloy
16.15.Multilayer copper nanocomposites
16.16.Ceramic composite developments
16.17.Graphene as additive in tires
16.18.Results on use of graphene in silica loaded tires
16.19.Graphene-enabled vehicle tire
16.20.Graphene-enabled bike tires
16.21.Anti-corrosion coating
16.22.Other coatings
16.23.Graphene UV shielding coatings
16.24.Antimicrobial: graphene research
16.25.Antimicrobial: graphene applications
17.1.Comprehensive list and analysis of graphene manufacturers
18.2D MATERIALS BEYOND GRAPHENE materials beyond graphene: A GROWING family!
18.1.2.Computation suggests thousands available
18.1.3."Atomic lego" - the future of material science? materials beyond graphene: a GROWING family!
18.1.5.Publication rate is astronomical
18.1.6.A range of 2D materials exist with bandgaps!
18.2.Nano Boron Nitride
18.2.1.Introduction to Nano Boron Nitride
18.2.2.BNNT players and prices
18.2.3.BNNT property variation
18.2.4.BN nanostructures in thermal interface materials
18.2.5.BNNT developments
18.2.6.BN vs C nanostructures: Manufacturing routes
18.2.7.BNNS - manufacturing status
18.2.8.BNNS - research advancements
18.3.Transition Metal Dichalcogenides
18.3.1.TMD overview
18.3.2.TMD - Novel manufacturing method for MoS2
18.3.3.MoS2: Change in band structure from bulk to 2D materials working: top gate FET
18.3.5.Wafer scale uniform TMD growth
18.3.6.Latest research to 300mm wafers
18.3.7.TMDs: Major players
18.4.1.MXenes: A rapidly emerging class
18.4.2.MXenes - Application opportunities
18.4.3.MXenes - Latest research
18.4.4.MXenes - Latest Research (2)
18.5.2.Phosphorene - Manufacturing
18.5.3.Phosphorene - Manufacturing (2)
18.5.4.Phosphorene - Biomedical applications
18.6.Other 2D Materials
18.6.1.Other 2D materials Materials
18.6.3.Materials SWOT comparison

Report Statistics

Slides 400
Forecasts to 2033
ISBN 9781915514080

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