The global quantum dot material market will reach US$550 million by 2034

Quantum Dot Materials and Technologies 2024-2034: Trends, Markets, Applications

Materials, markets and applications such as displays (edge optic, enhancement film, colour filter (LCD,OLED, μLED), on-chip), QLED, lighting, image sensor, photovoltaics, and agricultural film


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Quantum dots (QDs) are semiconductor nanocrystals in the range of 2-10 nanometers (10-50 atoms) with size-tunable features. They exhibit quantum confinement effects due to their nanoscale dimensions, leading to remarkable optical and electrical characteristics. The quantum dot features can be adjusted by particle size, material, and compositions. QD materials such as Cd-based, In-based, PbS, perovskites, as well as emerging CuInS2, InAs, ZnTeSe QDs have varied bandgap and thus absorption and emission spectra. This fine-tune ability has resulted in quantum dots having significant application potential, notably in display, image sensor, photovoltaic, lighting and various other use cases.
 
 
Since they were first discovered in 1980, QDs have demonstrated immense potential in transforming display, image sensor, photovoltaic, lighting, and greenhouse film technologies with commercial products.
 
This report provides IDTechEx's technology roadmap considering how the technology mix in various applications will be transformed with time.
 
Display: Successful Application?
In display technology, QDs have found extensive use as a color-enhancing component offering a wider color gamut, higher color accuracy, and increased brightness compared to a traditional liquid crystal display (LCD). The unique photoluminescent property of emitting specific wavelengths of light upon excitation enables QDs to convert blue light from LEDs into pure red and green, thus achieving a more extensive and precise color palette.
 
The evolution of QD integration approaches in displays is examined in the report, highlighting the dominance of the film-type adoption over the obsolete edge optic. Nevertheless, emerging approaches such as QD color filters for OLED and micro-LED (μLED) or on-chip type are gaining momentum, facilitated by material advancements and fabrication technique improvement, which could eventually surpass the film-type. Additionally, this analysis recognizes QDs as the ultimate emissive material for displays, tracking efficiency and lifetime improvements while delving into persistent challenges regarding performance, lifetime, deposition/patterning, and device design.
 
Various QD adoption in displays
Source: IDTechEx
 
Emerging Dominance: Quantum Dots in Image Sensors?
Lead sulfide QDs offer the advantage of tunability across an extensive spectrum of wavelengths, making them suitable for near-infrared (NIR) or short-wave infrared (SWIR) sensing applications. An intriguing possibility arises as they can be combined with a silicon Read-Out Integrated Circuit (ROIC) to form a hybrid QD-Si NIR/SWIR image sensor. This innovative integration presents a potential pathway towards achieving high-resolution small-pixel silicon-based NIR/SWIR sensors, eliminating the necessity for heterogeneous hybridization of indium gallium arsenide (InGaAs) sensors with Si ROIC. The low-cost hybrid QD-based image sensors can not only target applications traditionally realized by InGaAs SWIR image sensors, but also help to reach new applications.
 
With the first generation of products already on the market and giants also getting involved in this area, the promise of this technology remains strong. This report explores hybrid QD-Si image sensors that can simultaneously achieve high resolution, low pixel pitch and global shutter with potentially low-costs. Technology analysis and player introductions are provided as well.
 
Quantum Dots: Illuminating the Future of Lighting?
Existing commercial products are based on QDs' photoluminescent features and have demonstrated remarkable potential in lighting technologies. They can be integrated into LED lighting systems as color converters, enabling the production of tunable and high-quality white light. QD-based LEDs can achieve excellent color rendering indices (CRI) and color temperatures, making them suitable for a variety of lighting applications, including indoor and automotive lighting. Moreover, the narrow emission spectra of QDs reduce the need for complex filtering, enhancing energy efficiency and reducing light pollution.
 
Quantum Dots in Photovoltaics: Yes or No?
QDs can be potentially integrated into photovoltaic (PV) devices, leading to the emergence of third-generation solar cells. By engineering the bandgap of quantum dots to match specific regions of the solar spectrum, these cells can efficiently capture a broader range of light wavelengths, as well as enable multiple exciton generation (MEG) effect, allowing improved light harvesting, higher conversion efficiencies, and better performance under low-light conditions. They can also offer the potential for flexible and transparent photovoltaic applications. The report benchmarked various PV technologies, exploring commercial and technical challenges that need to be overcome.
 
QD PV efficiency records
Data sourced from NREL Solar PV Efficiency Chart, plotted by IDTechEx
 
Quantum Dots: Changing and Expanding Applications?
QDs can provide added values to existing technologies in various applications from both their photoluminescent and electroluminescent features. The potential to reshuffle the supply chain for different case cases also brings up new opportunities to relevant players.
 
With in-depth technological research and analysis on the QD topic, the report provides data-driven evaluation, insights from our years of accumulation on QD topic research. Our roadmap comprehensively examines the integration of QDs for various applications with outlook. Challenges such as toxicity concerns, long-term stability, and large-scale manufacturing techniques and costs must be addressed. Researchers are actively exploring non-toxic and more stable materials to overcome these hurdles. Additionally, advancements in QD synthesis techniques and manufacturing processes are likely to drive down production costs and promote widespread adoption in commercial applications.
 
This report also provides 10-year market forecasts in area (square meter), weight (ton) and value, and at material level, for 11 application sectors including LCD TV, miniLED backlight displays, QD-OLED TVs, QD-μLED TVs, on-chip type, emissive QLED displays, photodetectors, lighting, agricultural films, research and other.
 
IDTechEx's forecasts draw heavily from its technology analysis which gives realistic and expert views of when and how various technologies can become commercially viable compared incumbents, as well as detailed interviews, deep market insights, and close trend tracking.
 
IDTechEx forecast of global QD materials market. Source: IDTechEx
 
IDTechEx Research has been analyzing the technologies and markets for quantum dots since 2013. Since that time, it has stayed extremely close to the latest research and market developments via its interview program and company and conference visits.
 
Furthermore, IDTechEx Research has engaged closely with many of its clients, helping them better understand the technology and market landscape and helping them set up their innovation and commercialization strategies.
 
In its analysis of quantum dots, IDTechEx Research brings its wealth of expertise in analyzing advanced electronic materials and devices. Over the past 20 years IDTechEx has closely observed the rise and/or fall, and the success and/or disappointment, of many emerging technologies.
 
This gives IDTechEx uniquely experienced eye when it comes to analyzing emerging electronic material technologies. This is crucial because it helps us establish a realistic market and technology roadmap that reflects the true potential of the technology based on its intrinsic characteristics and on the true level of technical and commercial challenges that it faces.
Report MetricsDetails
CAGRThe global market for quantum dot materials will reach $548 million by 2034, which represents a CAGR of 12.3% of the value compared with 2022.
Forecast Period2023 - 2034
Forecast UnitsVolume (ton), value (US million)
Regions CoveredWorldwide
Segments CoveredLCD TV, MiniLED backlight display, QD-OLED TV, QD-MicroLED TV, on-Chip Type, emissive QLED display, photodetector, lighting, agricultural film, research and others
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Table of Contents
1.EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
1.1.Quantum dot mode of operation
1.2.Quantum dot material choices
1.3.QD material trends
1.4.Snapshot of readiness level of various QD applications
1.5.QD application roadmap
1.6.Illustrations of QDs applied in displays (QDEF, QDOG)
1.7.Illustrations of QDs applied in displays (QDCC, emissive)
1.8.Summary of QD adoption in displays
1.9.Summary of QD on edge solution
1.10.Summary of QDEF solution
1.11.Summary of XQDEF solution
1.12.Summary of QD-Mini-LED-BLU solution
1.13.Summary of Eyesafe QD solution
1.14.Summary of QD on Chip solution
1.15.Summary of QDCC solution for OLED displays
1.16.Summary of QDCC solution for micro-LED displays
1.17.Summary of QD emissive display solution
1.18.Strategies for high performed RGB EL-QLED: Materials
1.19.Strategies for high performed RGB EL-QLED: Device
1.20.Strategies for high performed RGB EL-QLED: Fabrication
1.21.Summary of QD for lighting application
1.22.Summary of QDs for Photovoltaics
1.23.CQD photodetector pros and cons
1.24.SWIR QD-on-CMOS imager application summary
2.MARKET FORECAST
2.1.10-year global quantum material market forecasts in various applications by weight
2.2.10-year global quantum material market forecasts in various applications by value
2.3.10-year forecast of displays with QDs by volume
2.4.10-year forecast of QDs in displays by area
2.5.10-year forecast of change in QD technology in display sector
2.6.10-year forecast of QD film market value in Display by value
2.7.QD loading estimated for display forecast in various formats
2.8.10-year forecast of QD material in displays by weight
2.9.10-year forecast of QD material in displays by value
2.10.10-year forecast of QD-based photodetectors by volume
2.11.10-year forecast of QD-based photodetectors by value
2.12.10-year forecast of QD-based photodetectors by value (data table)
2.13.10-year forecast of QD-based photodetectors for consumer electronics
2.14.QD-on-CMOS photodetector market application comparison
2.15.QDs for photodetector application
3.INTRODUCTION TO QUANTUM DOTS
3.1.Introduction to quantum dots
3.2.Quantum dot structure
3.3.Quantum dot material options
3.4.Key material requirements
3.5.Introduction to RoHS
3.6.RoHS compliant QDs
3.7.Heavy-metal-free QD materials
3.8.Cd-based vs Cd-free QDs
4.QUANTUM DOT MATERIAL OPTIMIZATION
4.1.QDs optimization
4.2.Shell thickness adjustment
4.3.Alloying
4.4.Quantum dots: Improving conductivity via ligand exchange
4.5.Quantum dots: Improving conductivity via fusing
4.6.Other ways to increase PLQY by adjusting the dots
4.7.Metal halide perovskites: Comparison
4.8.Metal halide perovskites: Blue challenge
5.DISPLAYS: QD PHOTO-ENHANCED DISPLAYS
5.1.QD technology development roadmap for displays
5.2.Value propositions of QDs in displays
5.3.QD-based display types
5.4.Photoluminescence of quantum dots
5.5.First commercialization: Sony in 2013
5.6.Color IQ™ from QD Vision
5.7.Summary of QD on edge solution
5.8.Introduction to QDEF
5.9.QDEF fabrication processes
5.10.QDEF's location in the display
5.11.QDEF for efficiency improvement
5.12.Protecting the dots
5.13.Summary of QDEF solution
5.14.Quantum Dot on Glass
5.15.Summary of QDOG solution
5.16.Introduction to xQDEF
5.17.Air-stable xQDEF film
5.18.QDEF cost trend and structure
5.19.Summary of XQDEF solution
5.20.QD layer for backlight units
5.21.QD for mini-LED backlight unit
5.22.Why QD for mini-LED BLU?
5.23.Summary of QD-Mini-LED-BLU solution
5.24.Introduction to Eyesafe QD
5.25.Summary of Eyesafe QD solution
5.26.Samsung QLED
5.27.LG's Nano Cell Display
6.COMPARISON WITH PHOSPHORS
6.1.Understand the color gamut
6.2.Understanding colour standards
6.3.FWHM and color gamut
6.4.Introduction to phosphors 1
6.5.Introduction to phosphors 2
6.6.Requirements for phosphors in LEDs
6.7.Replacing phosphors with quantum dots
6.8.Table of phosphor materials
6.9.Common and emerging red-emitting phosphors
6.10.Search for narrow FWHM red phosphors
6.11.Red phosphor options: TriGainTM from GE
6.12.Reliability of TriGain
6.13.Red phosphor options: Sr[LiAl3N4]:Eu2+ (SLA) red phosphor
6.14.Commercial progress of GE's narrowband red phosphor
6.15.Small sized PFS phosphor
6.16.Value propositions of red KSF
6.17.Evolution of KSF phosphors
6.18.GE alternative red phosphors in development
6.19.Thermal stability of common RGY phosphors
6.20.Narrow-band green phosphor
6.21.High performance organic phosphors
6.22.Toray's organic colour conversion film
6.23.Colour coverage of Toray's colour conversion films
6.24.Stability of Toray's colour conversion films
6.25.Response time feature of Toray's colour conversion films
6.26.Suppliers of phosphors
6.27.Phosphors and quantum dots
6.28.QDs vs. phosphors: Particle size
6.29.QDs vs. phosphors: Response time
6.30.QDs vs phosphors: Colour tunability
6.31.QDs vs phosphors: Stability
6.32.QDs vs phosphors: Absorption
6.33.QDs vs phosphors: FWHM
6.34.Summary: QDs vs phosphors
6.35.Phosphor and QD in harmony
7.DISPLAYS: QD PHOTO-EMISSIVE DISPLAYS
7.1.1.Photo-emissive QDs in displays
7.1.2.Using quantum dots as colour filter
7.1.3.Disadvantages and challenges of QD color filters
7.1.4.QDs depolarize light
7.1.5.Additional required components?
7.1.6.Trade-off between efficiency and leakage
7.1.7.Efficiency drop and red shift
7.1.8.Thickness of the QD layer for absorption
7.1.9.Emission tails overlap
7.1.10.High blue absorptive QD materials
7.1.11.QD on Chip
7.1.12.Summary of QD on Chip solution
7.2.QDs for OLED Displays
7.2.1.Emergence of QD-OLED displays
7.2.2.Introduction to QD-OLED displays
7.2.3.QD-OLED structure comparison
7.2.4.Conventional display vs. QD-OLED display
7.2.5.WOLED display vs QD-OLED display
7.2.6.Summary of LCD / WOLED vs QD-OLED displays
7.2.7.Samsung QD-OLED display
7.2.8.QD-OLED display supply chain
7.2.9.Summary of QDCC solution for OLED displays
7.3.QDs for Micro-LED Displays
7.3.1.Quantum dots used for micro-LED displays
7.3.2.QD converters for µLED displays
7.3.3.Basic requirements of QDs for micro-LED displays
7.3.4.Display structure with QDs
7.3.5.Taiwan Nanocrystals: Photo-patternable QDs for µLED displays 1
7.3.6.Taiwan Nanocrystals: Photo-patternable QDs for µLED displays 2
7.3.7.Taiwan Nanocrystals: Photo-patternable QDs for µLED displays 3
7.3.8.Taiwan Nanocrystals: Photo-patternable QDs for µLED displays 4
7.3.9.Taiwan Nanocrystals: Photo-patternable QDs for µLED displays 5
7.3.10.Taiwan Nanocrystals: Photo-patternable QDs for µLED displays 6
7.3.11.Plessey
7.3.12.Quantum wells
7.3.13.Summary of QDCC solution for micro-LED displays
8.DISPLAYS: ELECTRO-LUMINESCENT QUANTUM DOT LIGHT EMITTING DIODE DISPLAYS
8.1.Overview of EL-QLED Displays
8.1.1.Introduction to an EL-QLED Displays
8.1.2.Main advantages of QLED over OLED
8.1.3.Basic device structure
8.1.4.Working mechanism of QLED
8.1.5.QLED development
8.1.6.QLED records in literature
8.1.7.Device lifetime
8.1.8.Major challenges of emissive QD LEDs
8.1.9.Quenching mechanisms
8.1.10.Holy grail of blue QLED
8.1.11.Blue material challenges
8.1.12.Summary of QD emissive display solution
8.1.13.Charge transporting layers for EL-QLED
8.1.14.Band energy levels of some commonly used CTLs
8.1.15.HTL options
8.1.16.Hindering electron charge injection/transport
8.2.Case Studies of EL-QLED and Research Efforts
8.2.1.Sharp's contributions
8.2.2.BOE's efforts
8.2.3.Samsung's all ink-jet printed QLED display
8.2.4.Samsung: CdZnS/ZnS system
8.2.5.Samsung: Red QD-LED with customized shell thickness
8.2.6.Samsung: Device performance improvement by surface passivation
8.2.7.Nanosys: Colloidal Zn(Te,Se)/ZnS core/shell QDs
8.2.8.Nanosys: Cubic QDs with improved performance
8.2.9.Rapid progress of heavy-metal-free QDs
8.2.10.Other Case Studies of Research Efforts
8.2.11.CdZnS/ZnS system and ligand exchange
8.2.12.CdSe/ZnSe core/shell structure
8.2.13.Zn-Cu-Ga-S/ZnS QDs 1
8.2.14.Zn-Cu-Ga-S/ZnS QDs 2
8.2.15.ZnO‐MgO QDs in QLED
8.2.16.PMMA to reduce electron injection for blue QLED
8.2.17.Introducing TBS-PBO EBL
8.2.18.ZnO: CsN3 to reduce electron flow
8.2.19.PVP doping to reduce electron injection and transport
8.2.20.Al:Al2O3 electrode helps with electron injection
8.2.21.Control of post-annealing
8.2.22.Enhanced electron injection by LiF tunnelling layer
8.2.23.PEI to facilitate electron injection and reduce defects
8.2.24.Double-layer HTL can facilitate hole injection
8.2.25.Improve hole injection and electron confinement with DNA
8.2.26.Positive aging introduced by the use of acidic resin encapsulation
8.2.27.The use of asymmetrically modified ligands
8.2.28.Doping of charge transport layers
8.2.29.Single-layer gradient HTL
9.QUANTUM DOTS PRODUCT MANUFACTURING
9.1.1.Typical nuclei-based growth process
9.1.2.Example of a typical two-pot growth process for InP core-shell QDs
9.1.3.Basic approaches to synthesis: Continuous QD growth
9.1.4.QD display pixel patterning techniques
9.2.Transfer Printing
9.2.1.Transfer printing
9.2.2.Pros and cons of transfer printing
9.2.3.Transfer printing process
9.2.4.Intaglio transfer-printing 1
9.2.5.Intaglio transfer-printing 2
9.2.6.Immersion transfer printing
9.2.7.Transfer of multi-layers
9.3.Ink-Jet Printing
9.3.1.Introduction to ink-jet printing (IJP)
9.3.2.Ink formation
9.3.3.Curing methods
9.3.4.Pros and cons of ink-jet printing
9.3.5.Ink-jet printed QD colour converters
9.3.6.DIC's work
9.3.7.Performance of IJP QDCC
9.3.8.Inkjet-printed QD
9.3.9.Inkjet-printed QD (continued)
9.3.10.South China University of Technology 1
9.3.11.South China University of Technology 2
9.3.12.Seoul National University
9.4.Photolithography
9.4.1.Photolithography
9.4.2.Pros and cons of photolithography
9.4.3.Patterning challenges
9.4.4.QD photoresist fabrication
9.4.5.Photoresist approach
9.4.6.QD photoresist
9.4.7.Successive patterning of red and green QD of various sizes
9.4.8.QD performance by photolithography
9.4.9.Photolithography of color conversion layers
9.4.10.Southern University of Science and Technology 1
9.4.11.Southern University of Science and Technology 2
9.5.Other Techniques
9.5.1.Electrohydrodynamic jet printing 1
9.5.2.Electrohydrodynamic jet printing 2
9.5.3.Electrohydrodynamic jet spray
9.5.4.Full-colour emission of quantum-dot-based micro-LED display by aerosol jet technology
9.5.5.Fraunhofer IAP'S ESJET printing
10.QDS FOR LIGHTING
10.1.The first commercial Quantum Dot-LED lamp line
10.2.Quantum dots for lighting
10.3.Necessity for narrow down-converters
10.4.Tune the quality of white lighting
10.5.Color converters for LED chips
10.6.Remote QDs for warm colors of lighting
10.7.On-chip QD integration: Different LED types and performance requirements
10.8.On-chip QD-LED by LumiLEDs
10.9.Drop-in solution for high-CRI high-efficiency LED lighting
10.10.Efforts on QD materials for lighting
10.11.Processes of QD drop-in solution for LED lighting
10.12.Flowchart of PLT's QD drop-in solution
10.13.Cd-based QD stability for lighting application
10.14.QDs in horticulture lighting
10.15.Summary of QD for lighting application
11.QDS FOR PHOTOVOLTAICS
11.1.Classifications of PV technologies
11.2.Best efficiencies of research solar cell
11.3.QD PV efficiency records
11.4.Solar PV technology status
11.5.Summary of QDs for Photovoltaics
12.QD PHOTODETECTORS
12.1.Introduction
12.1.1.Introduction to photodetectors
12.1.2.Working principle of an image sensor
12.1.3.Sensor architectures: Front and backside illumination
12.1.4.Key components of an image sensor
12.1.5.Electromagnetic spectrum
12.1.6.Short-wave infrared spectrum
12.2.SWIR Sensing
12.2.1.Value propositions of SWIR imaging
12.2.2.Introduction to SWIR detection technologies
12.2.3.Material choices for infrared sensors
12.2.4.InGaAs for incumbent image sensors
12.2.5.Issue with current infrared image sensors
12.2.6.Technology comparison of various image sensor technologies
12.3.Hybrid QD-on-CMOS Image Sensor
12.3.1.CQD photodetector pros and cons
12.3.2.Quantum dots: Absorption dependence
12.3.3.Quantum dots: PbS
12.3.4.Types of commercial QD sensor arrays
12.3.5.Hybrid QD-on-CMOS image sensor architecture
12.3.6.QD-on-CMOS pixelation
12.3.7.Manufacturing of QD-on-CMOS
12.3.8.QD-on-CMOS fabrication processes
12.3.9.Solution processing techniques
12.3.10.QD-on-CMOS: From solution to photodiode
12.3.11.Business model for producing QD-on-CMOS sensors
12.3.12.Pixel pitch evolution
12.3.13.Alternative QDs
12.3.14.Value propositions of QD-on-Si imager
12.3.15.Other ongoing challenges for QD-on-CMOS sensors
12.3.16.Evolution of the development focuses
12.4.Case Studies of Hybrid QD-on-CMOS Image Sensors
12.4.1.Early efforts from RTI International
12.4.2.SWIR Vision Systems' 2-layer QD system
12.4.3.SWIR Vision Systems' CQD photodetectors
12.4.4.Emberion's VS20 VIS-SWIR camera
12.4.5.Emberion's QD-graphene SWIR photoconductor
12.4.6.ST Microelectronic's QD image sensor technology
12.4.7.ST Microelectronic's QD image sensor technology (continued)
12.4.8.ICFO's graphene/QD image sensor
12.4.9.Wide spectrum image sensor enabled by Qurv Technologies
12.4.10.Imec's TFPD image sensor
12.4.11.IMEC outline QD-on-CMOS architecture roadmap
12.4.12.Pixel engine improvement to increase SNR
12.4.13.Specs of existing QD-on-CMOS image sensors
12.5.Potential Applications for QD-on-Si SWIR Detection
12.5.1.Applications for QD-on-CMOS image sensors
12.5.2.SWIR imaging for silicon wafer inspection
12.5.3.SWIR imaging for water content identifying
12.5.4.SWIR imaging for ADAS and autonomous vehicles
12.5.5.SWIR imaging for road condition sensing
12.5.6.SWIR imaging for foreign material detection
12.5.7.SWIR detection to identify different materials
12.5.8.SWIR detection for plastic sorting
12.5.9.SWIR imaging for counterfeit detection
12.5.10.SWIR imaging for temperature difference measurement
12.5.11.SWIR for live animal imaging
12.5.12.SWIR imaging for laser profiling and tracking
12.5.13.Laser profiling and tracking in medical application
12.5.14.Laser profiling and tracking in military and security application
12.5.15.SWIR detection for wearable applications
12.5.16.Battery inspection using SWIR imaging
12.5.17.SWIR QD-on-CMOS imager application summary
12.6.Visible light
12.6.1.QD-Si hybrid image sensors: Increased sensitivity and reduced thickness
12.6.2.TFPD vs Si PD
12.6.3.QD-Si hybrid image sensors: Enabling high resolution global shutter
12.6.4.Global shutter image sensor comparison
12.7.UV Imaging
12.7.1.Motivation
12.7.2.QD can improve sensitivity in the UV region
12.7.3.Integration with the image sensors
12.7.4.Perovskite QDs for UV sensors
12.7.5.QD-on-CMOS for UV imaging is emerging
12.7.6.Potential applications
13.BIOLOGICAL AND MEDICAL APPLICATIONS
13.1.Quantum dots as fluorescent tags
13.2.Advantages of QDs over organic dyes
13.3.Nanowire field effect transistor
13.4.Quantum dots as an alternative to fluorescent labels
13.5.Major milestones in academic research for QD
13.6.QDs for enzyme biosensing
13.7.Commercial biosensor with quantum dots
14.OTHER APPLICATIONS
14.1.Hydrogen production
14.2.Visible light photocatalysis
14.3.Sunscreen
14.4.Electrically pumped colloidal quantum dot lasing
 

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Slides 374
Forecasts to 2034
Published Aug 2023
ISBN 9781915514820
 

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