Smart City Materials, Systems, Markets 2022-2042: IDTechEx

Smart cities now have budgets up to $600 billion. Hardware & systems will become $trillions yearly

Smart City Materials, Systems, Markets 2022-2042

Food, water, energy independence, resilience, conservation, zero emission, electrification, desert, sea. Smart materials, infrastructure, transport, multifunctional composites. UHPC, VTOL, robot shuttle, energy harvesting, off grid, ICT, IOT, 6G


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Commercially-oriented and newly prepared by PhD level IDTechEx analysts worldwide, the 339 page IDTechEx report, "Smart City Materials, Systems, Markets 2022-2042" identifies gaps in the market, potential partners, lessons from success and failure, business cases for new materials, devices and systems. It has many new technology explanations, case studies, roadmaps, ideas and forecasts. Emphasis is required materials, devices and systems, identifying gaps in the market.
 
Understand the massive new challenges of desertification, rising sea levels, starvation, increasingly violent weather, dysfunctional national governments and the accelerating move to cities can be tackled on a human scale. With trillions of dollars about to be spent on smart cities, priorities need to be entertainment, inclusiveness, safety, security, adaptability, zero-emission, efficiency and affordability. The report details how we can achieve this with independence of water, food and energy supply, new faster, inclusive forms of multipurpose transport and appropriate city location and layout.
 
Enablers include 100% electrification and the startling advances in multifunctional smart materials explained in the report. Examples are 3D printed graphene concrete in new tunnels under London and solar bodywork of smart shuttles. Renaming a video doorbell as Internet of Things will not change the fate of mankind but a seawall that is made of the new "everlasting" concrete and makes ample electricity just might. Metamaterials may be more key to success with 6G Communications than big data.
 
Compact food production in cities replaces traditional farming with its problems of manpower, emissions, water pollution, space, cost, security and transport. You can understand relevance of saline and vertical farming, solar greenhouses, xeriscaping, cultivated cellular meat and milk. Aquaponics grows vegetables and fish together, agrivoltaics marries electricity and food production and bioswales prevent flooding, clean water, grow food. Biocrete architecture nourishes plants. Food production delightfully integrates into living space - see examples.
 
The report finds that, ironically, Disney EPCOT Florida is nearer to an ideal smart city than most of the dehumanised ones now being erected with massively wide streets, empty skyscrapers, no center and no soul. The report compares many, finding another irony. Most of the really-impactful, imaginative approaches are not taking place in new cities but in existing cities like London, Beijing and New York. The most appealing newcomers are mostly tiny - like Toyota Woven City - but could have lessons for large cities needed. Best practice is identified and new ideas are proposed in the report.
 
The Executive Summary and Conclusions is sufficient for those in a hurry. Infograms interpret pollution, desertification, sea level rise, responses including food, water, energy independence, resilience, conservation, zero-emission, electrification. Here are required smart materials, infrastructure, transport, multifunctional composites, ultra-high-performance concretes, new air taxis, robot shuttles, energy harvesting, off-grid city electricity, indoor food production. It summarises supporting ICT, IOT, 6G, sensors, case studies and best practice. 25 of its 57 dense pages are new roadmaps and forecasts, mostly 2022-2042. Chapter 2 is a smart cities appraisal - old, new and planned - illustrated with new images and commentary, lessons of failure.
 
Chapter 3 extensively covers reinvented concrete and smart materials for smart cities. Most attention is given to cement and its derivatives such as concrete, the most-used man-made material in cities, because they are more of the problem (10% of global warming) and more of the solution (many routes to decarbonisation, higher strength very long life means less needed and least carbon of all, 3D printed buildings and more). However, 10 of its 42 very detailed pages cover the emerging multi-mode roads, sidewalks, parking areas and airport runways, new metamaterials, city cooling materials and more with a key startup appraised.
 
The 46 pages of Chapter 5 concern food independence for cities - why, where, how, when, best practice, making the required electricity where it is needed and new ideas with many actual layouts and successes. It ends with four pages on the robotics for the trend to unmanned facilities. Water independence takes 12 pages as Chapter 6.
 
Raghu Das of IDTechEx points out, "Cities may never practice independence in food production or even electricity and drinking water but resilience against the much tougher challenges ahead requires them to move towards independence as a capability. Even tiny Singapore now targets one third of food made internally."
 
Many smart cities target layouts that require no more than 15 minutes to get from home to work or shops. However, we shall still want to get to the historic city center, the countryside, the next cities and attractions and that is why Chapter 7 concerns new forms of zero-emission transport eliminating congestion and getting even the poor or disabled to get to precisely where they want as with robot shuttles on plazas paths and into buildings, Hyperloop at airline speed, vertical takeoff air taxis and more. What is doomed to fail? What is promising and when? Given their relative importance, the 43 pages cover mainly new city land and air travel but touching on marine.
 
The report finds independence of electricity production, zero-emission, to be easier for most cities than independence of food and water because so many technologies are now available for purchase with many more coming soon.
 
Das explains, "A windy city may have very large wind turbines where one revolution charges a house for three days but the primary trend is making electricity where it is needed, notably with solar everywhere from windows to paths, walls, vehicles and park benches. A new challenge arises from solar weak in winter so we cover energy storage delaying electricity supply up to seasonal."
 
The 56 pages of this chapter embrace options for cities from both batteries and non-battery storage. Learn mostly about generation from water, wind and daylight in many new forms but also see the place of hydrogen.
 
The latest, full picture, professional analysis and 20 year view is only available in this unique IDTechEx report, "Smart City Materials, Systems, Markets 2022-2042".
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Table of Contents
1.Executive summary and conclusions
1.1.Smart cities must prioritise major threats
1.2.The move to cities and the growing need for independence
1.3.Factors accelerating city growth and independence
1.4.Killing the sea near cities
1.5.Cities drowning
1.6.Desertification
1.7.15 primary conclusions
1.8.Examples of smart cities meeting many of the criteria 2022-2042
1.9.Smart city solutions are subtly changing as projects come and go
1.10.Major materials and system opportunities in smart cities 2022-2042
1.11.Primary materials and equipment markets created by major smart cities 2022-2042
1.12.Some materials and systems transforming future zero-emission cities
1.13.Cognitive smart city
1.14.6G Communications
1.15.Food and power systems merging and doing less damage
1.16.New smart city materials
1.16.1.3D printed concrete - faster, better
1.16.2.Membranes for desalination, water recycling, electronics, batteries, fuel cells, architecture
1.16.3.Smart paint, structural and edit-able electronics for smart cities
1.16.4.Multi-mode roads, sidewalks, parking areas, airport runways
1.17.Winning types of new electric aircraft for cities
1.18.Scope for improving battery vehicle range / endurance land, water, air
1.19.Roadmaps and trends
1.19.1.Cement and concrete industry roadmap 2022-2042
1.19.2.Roadmap for ZE off grid desalination 2022-2042
1.19.3.6G Communications roadmap 2022-2042
1.19.4.Manned electric aircraft roadmap 2021-2041
1.19.5.Robot shuttle technology and launch roadmap 2022-2042
1.20.Sensor trends
1.21.Smart materials forecasts
1.21.1.Global cement market billion tonnes by five regions 2022-2042
1.21.2.Smart glass (darkening, cooling metamaterial or photovoltaic electricity) $ million 2021-2041
1.21.3.Solar ground surface cladding $ billion 2021-2041
1.21.4.Cultured meat grown without animals $ million 2019-2030
1.21.5.Vertically farmed produce global market $million 2019-2030
1.21.6.Emerging photovoltaics 2042
1.21.7.6G reprogrammable intelligent surfaces area, price, market value 2022-2042
1.21.8.RIS total operating area year end 2029-2041 billion square meters
1.21.9.6G RIS value $/sq. meter to 2041
1.22.Devices, vehicles, aircraft and systems forecasts
1.22.1.6G smartphone sales forecast 2030-2042
1.22.2.5G and 6G communications impact 2022-2042
1.22.3.Low power WAN connections 2018-2029
1.22.4.Sensor market size: intersecting market segments 2032
1.22.5.Self-treating autonomous toilets $ billion 2021-2041
1.22.6.Robot shuttles number 2019-2041
1.22.7.Robot shuttles market value $ million 2019-2041
1.22.8.Fixed-wing conventional takeoff/ landing battery aircraft <20 passengers 2021-2041 number sold
1.22.9.eVTOL air taxi sales forecast units 2018-2041
1.22.10.eVTOL air taxi market revenue forecast $ billion 2018-2041
2.Smart cities appraisal: old, new and planned
2.1.City design of the future
2.2.The special case of China
2.2.1.Overview
2.2.2.Beijing
2.2.3.Net City Shenzhen
2.2.4.Ningpo Smart City
2.2.5.Xiong'an New Area
2.2.6.China BRI Project St Sofia Bulgaria
2.3.Babcock Ranch smart city in Florida USA
2.4.Belmont USA
2.5.Fujisawa Sustainable Smart Town
2.6.Dubai Sustainable City near Dubai
2.7.London as a smart city
2.8.New York as a smart city
2.9.NEOM The Line Saudi Arabia
2.10.Songdo South Korea
2.11.Telosa smart city USA
2.12.Tengah Singapore
2.13.Toyota Woven City Japan
3.Reinvented concrete and smart materials are key
3.1.Advanced concrete for smart cities
3.1.1.Introduction
3.1.2.Carbon dioxide emissions are being tackled
3.1.3.Concrete benefits
3.1.4.High performance cement and concrete HPC
3.1.5.Future cement and concrete feedstock and processing
3.1.6.3D printed concrete - faster, better
3.1.7.3D printing concrete from desert sand
3.1.8.Graphene concrete
3.1.9.Other new concrete capabilities creating new markets 2022-2042
3.1.10.Replacing concrete
3.1.11.Concrete and cement production in or near smart cities
3.1.12.Quarries and processing sites leverage assets to sell surplus power storage and electricity
3.1.13.Site issues and solutions
3.1.14.Conclusions on cement and concrete for smart cities
3.1.15.Conclusions concerning Ultra High Performance Concrete 2022-2042
3.1.16.Conclusions concerning radically new cement products and processes
3.1.17.Conclusions concerning process decarbonisation
3.1.18.World's largest cement producers and notable innovators
3.2.Smart materials and multifunctional structures for smart cities
3.2.1.Introduction
3.2.2.Multi-mode roads, sidewalks, parking areas, airport runways
3.2.3.Metamaterials
3.2.4.Next materials for city cooling
3.2.5.Radi-Cool USA metamaterial cooling film
4.Cognitive cities, hardware for 6G, IoT, sensors and privacy and security issues
4.1.Introduction
4.2.EAS, RFID, cameras
4.3.EnOcean smart node approach
4.4.Other advances in building and renewable energy controls
4.5.Cognitive smart city
4.6.ICT centric approaches can miss the big things
4.7.6G Communications
4.7.1.Anatomy
4.7.2.Purpose
4.7.3.Envisaged applications and implications
4.7.4.Frequency, data rate, latency, ubiquity
4.7.5.Reality check
4.7.6.The case against 6G
4.7.7.Reprogrammable Intelligent Surfaces essential
4.7.8.Choices for 6G RIS metasurface functionality
4.7.9.Progress with standards
4.8.Internet of Things in smart cities
4.9.Sensors and sensor fusion in smart cities
4.9.1.Introduction
4.9.2.Global sensor market drivers for cities and leading players
5.Food independence for cities
5.1.Food problems
5.1.1.Growing population and growing demand for food
5.1.2.Major crop yields are plateauing using conventional approaches
5.1.3.Environmental concerns
5.1.4.Food wastage
5.2.Solving the problems and creating food independence
5.3.Solving the meat problem
5.3.1.Plant-based substitutes
5.4.Solving the milk problem: Turtle Tree Laboratories
5.5.Conventional farms get more efficient
5.6.Ultra precision agriculture
5.6.1.Variable-rate technology route
5.6.2.Upheaval
5.7.Vertical farms
5.7.1.Healthier, fresher and more productive
5.7.2.Limitations of today's vertical farms: variety, cost
5.8.City greenhouse technology advancing rapidly
5.8.1.World's biggest rooftop greenhouse in Montreal
5.8.2.Multifunctional photovoltaic glass for optimal plant growing
5.9.China: agricultural integrated into city life Shanghai
5.10.Robotics for smart city agriculture
5.10.1.RaaS or robotic equipment sales
5.10.2.Market and technology readiness by agricultural activity
5.10.3.Examples in action
6.Water independence
6.1.Overview and water from the air
6.2.Global map of regions of water stress and zero-emission energy sources
6.3.Desalination need, technology, materials, economics
6.3.1.Need and technology
6.3.2.Solar RO desalination winning in number of ZE plants
6.3.3.Economics
6.4.Large desalinators: big is beautiful but vulnerable
6.4.1.Global situation
6.4.2.Onerous requirements for large city desalination plants force rethink?
6.5.OffGridBox
7.VTOL air taxis, drones, smart shuttles, robotaxis, Boring Co tunnels, Hyperloop, other new transport
7.1.Air travel in cities
7.1.1.Introduction
7.1.2.Companies bringing autonomy land water and air to cities
7.2.Drones in cities
7.2.1.Serious drone dangers and tightening laws
7.2.2.Amazon
7.3.Passenger electric aircraft for cities VTOL, CTOL
7.4.eVTOL as urban mass mobility?
7.5.Robot shuttles have considerable potential
7.5.1.Overview
7.5.2.Electric efficiency compromises in cities
7.5.3.Robot shuttles: off-road , indoors and carrying delivery robots
7.5.4.The dream and the basics for getting there
7.5.5.Specification of a robot shuttle
7.5.6.Robotaxis compared to robot shuttles
7.5.7.Benefits and business cases
7.5.8.The leaders so far
7.5.9.Upfront cost and other impediments
7.5.10.Dramatic improvements are coming
7.5.11.Building on the multi-purposing of the past
7.5.12.Robot shuttles: the bad things
7.6.Water transport for smart cities
7.7.Tesla Boring Company fast vehicle tunnels under cities
7.8.Hyperloop between cities
8.Smart city electricity independence: zero-emission generation and storage
8.1.Introduction
8.2.City power needs and solutions
8.2.1.The energy positive house
8.3.Levelised Cost of Electricity generation LCOE comparisons
8.4.Zero-emission energy storage - delayed electricity
8.4.1.Levelised cost of energy storage comparison $/MWh
8.4.2.Latest energy storage options for cities
8.4.3.Where hydrogen might fit in
8.5.Modular, zero-emission diesel genset and grid replacement
8.6.Making electricity where you need it: photovoltaics
8.6.1.Mobile microgrids very important now
8.6.2.Photovoltaics everywhere - locations, technologies, economics
8.6.3.EV ARC solar-tracking car charger
8.6.4.Ground surface solar lessons of failure
8.6.5.Light duty ground solar succeeds: Solaroad, Platio, Solar Roadways
8.6.6.Gantry solar very successful alternative
8.6.7.Scara Brae hospital Scotland compared to Dharan Saudi Arabia
8.7.Wind power for smart cities
8.7.1.Overview
8.7.2.Ground turbine wind power does not downsize well: physics, poorer wind
8.7.3.Wind turbine choices
8.8.Wind with solar
8.9.Buildings and environs as zero-emission microgrids 2020-2040
8.10.Wireless, self-powered building controls: EnOcean and 8Power
8.11.Active smart glass in buildings
8.12.Water power for smart cities
8.12.1.Introduction
8.12.2.Swansea UK: tidal with floating solar
8.12.3.Hydro power in a wider sense
8.12.4.Open tide "tide stream" power mimics wind power
8.12.5.Orbital Marine Power
8.12.6.Wello 600 kW units for Bali wave farm
8.12.7.Seabased wave power in operation 80kW each = 100MW order Ghana
8.12.8.Best locations globally for tidal and wave ocean power
8.12.9.Best sites for tidal power with little intermittency / energy storage need
8.12.10.Electricity from city water pipes: Lucid Power
 

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Report Statistics

Slides 338
Forecasts to 2042
Published Nov 2021
ISBN 9781913899783
 

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