Solar Vehicles 2021-2041: IDTechEx

Solar Vehicles 2021-2041


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This report primarily concentrates on the largest prospect - road vehicles that get at least 10% of their motive power from solar bodywork, mainly cars. There is coverage of solar agribots, trucks, buses, trains, aircraft, boats and more. We reveal how some never need plugging in but others have trivial amounts of solar power. Learn how retrofit solar wrap is being welcomed as is the prospect of Toyota/ Sharp bodywork making three times as much electricity so you never plug in. Understand the huge opportunity on battery electric vehicles with startling new vehicles from Lightyear, Sono Motors, Tesla and others and the equally large opportunity on hybrids with Hyundai widely committed. See why they should include the great need on the new 48V mild and full hybrid cars peaking at a massive 20+ million 48V vehicles yearly in 12 years from now.
 
This report is intended to be useful to all in the vehicle value chain from consultants, researchers and materials suppliers to product and system integrators, operators and facilities managers. Uniquely we look at the full commercial picture worldwide including benchmarking best practice in adjacent activities such as electric vehicles, minor uses of photovoltaics in vehicles and energy harvesting of other types. The emphasis is on creating successful business and ongoing benefits to society not solar racers built by students other than where these have wider lessons.
 
Chapter 1 Executive Summary and Conclusions is sufficient in itself for those in a hurry as it has the basics, primary conclusions, technology roadmap and forecasts. Chapter 2 Introduction gives more depth and historical trends in context. Chapter 3 is the longest as it covers on-road solar cars worldwide for commercial sale. Chapter 4 reveals Solar Buses, Trucks and Precursors, Chapter 5 Solar for Trains, Chapter 6 analyses "Photovoltaics: The Big Picture" with allied applications, technologies and trends leveraging this one. Chapter 7 is Solar Agribots, Aircraft and Boats, many of these already being energy independent - no plugging in. Some are energy positive. The report ends with a thorough look at Future Enabling Technologies such as bodywork that will combine solar and supercapacitor storage with progress on both. No other up to date report on these topics both takes into account the effect of COVID-19 and has this full picture. For example, by popular request, we now forecast 20 years ahead. Uniquely, IDTechEx has tracked and advised on it for 20 years. Only IDTechEx uses PhD level multilingual analysts travelling intensively and interviewing in local languages. As experts in the subject we carry out consultancy and lecture globally and we obtain privileged access to information.
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Table of Contents
1.EXECUTIVE SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS
1.1.Purpose of this report
1.2.Basics
1.2.1.Definitions and history
1.3.Primary conclusions
1.3.1.Importance of solar vehicles
1.3.2.Tipping points for sales of solar cars
1.3.3.Tipping points for sales of solar trucks, buses and trains
1.3.4.Corporate and geographical positioning
1.3.5.Chemistry
1.3.6.Format
1.3.7.Leading solar cars compared: Sono, Lightyear, Toyota
1.3.8.Tesla solar Cybertruck
1.3.9.Squad - solar city car
1.3.10.Solar buses and trucks
1.3.11.Trains
1.3.12.Patent analysis: solar car
1.3.13.Patent analysis: solar vehicle
1.3.14.New directions
1.4.Market forecasts
1.4.1.Solar energy-independent cars 2021-2041
1.4.2.Solar energy-independent cars 2021-2041 - number of vehicles (thousand)
1.4.3.Solar energy-independent cars 2021-2041 - unit value (US$ thousand) - ex factory
1.4.4.Solar energy-independent cars 2021-2041 - market value (US$ billion)
1.4.5.Major solar opportunity on 20 million 48V hybrid cars yearly
1.4.6.Technology timeline for solar cars
2.INTRODUCTION
2.1.Extreme vehicles and weak light create new markets
2.2.How an Electric Vehicle EV works
2.3.Photovoltaics for electric vehicles
2.3.1.Definition and background
2.3.2.Choice of chemistry
2.3.3.Future chemistry and efficiency trends
2.3.4.Choice of format
2.4.Solar racers show the future
2.5.Solar aircraft and boats show the future
2.6.The big picture: Energy Independent Electric Vehicles
2.6.1.Definition and derivation
2.6.2.Types of Energy Independent Electric Vehicle EIEV
2.6.3.EIEV operational choices
2.6.4.Key EIEV technologies
2.6.5.Examples of EIEV technologies on land past, present and concept
2.6.6.Technologies of marine EIEVs past, present and concept
2.6.7.Technologies of airborne EIEVs past, present and concept
2.6.8.Characteristics of the High Power Energy Harvesting essential to EIEVs
2.6.9.Chasing affordable, ultra-lightweight conformal PV for EIEVs
2.7.Solar vehicles: Australia joins the party
2.8.A Solar Tray Cover for Pickup Trucks
3.SOLAR CARS WORLDWIDE
3.1.Armenia
3.2.Australia
3.2.1.Sunswift
3.2.2.Immortus passenger concept car, Australia
3.2.3.University of Melbourne AIMES
3.3.Canada
3.3.1.University of Waterloo
3.4.China
3.4.1.Dalian Sengu tourist bus
3.4.2.Amthi Solar 3 wheeler
3.4.3.Hanergy
3.5.Cyprus
3.6.France
3.6.1.Bolloré Group
3.6.2.Venturi Eclectic
3.7.Germany
3.7.1.Fraunhofer ISE
3.7.2.Sono Motors
3.8.Greece
3.8.1.Sunnyclist
3.9.India
3.9.1.Manipal IT
3.9.2.Neeraj and other solar rickshaws
3.9.3.Team BHP
3.9.4.Vikram Solar
3.10.Italy
3.10.1.University of Bologna
3.10.2.I-FEVS
3.10.3.POLYMODEL
3.10.4.eTrikes
3.11.Japan
3.11.1.Toyota
3.12.Korea
3.12.1.Hyundai
3.13.Netherlands
3.13.1.Stella Lux
3.13.2.Stella Era
3.13.3.Lightyear One vs Tesla Model 3
3.14.Pakistan
3.14.1.Economia
3.15.Rwanda
3.16.Spain
3.16.1.Evovelo
3.17.Sweden
3.17.1.Midsummer
3.18.UK
3.18.1.Cargo Trike
3.18.2.Cambridge University
3.19.USA
3.19.1.Ford
3.19.2.Karma
4.SOLAR BUSES, TRUCKS AND PRECURSORS
4.1.Austria
4.1.1.K-Bus
4.2.Canada
4.2.1.Group Robert
4.3.China
4.3.1.BYD and others
4.3.2.Nanowinn Technologies
4.4.Japan
4.4.1.Solarve
4.4.2.Akita prefecture
4.5.Korea
4.6.Netherlands
4.6.1.Solar-powered vehicle to South Pole
4.7.Norway
4.7.1.Green Energy
4.8.Slovenia
4.9.Sweden
4.9.1.Wheelys
4.10.Switzerland
4.10.1.E-FORCE
4.11.Uganda
4.11.1.Kiira Motors
4.12.USA
4.12.1.Detleffs
4.12.2.Mesilla Valley Transportation and K&J Trucking
4.12.3.Navistar and Volvo
4.12.4.Ecosphere Technologies
4.13.Sunew Brasil
5.SOLAR FOR TRAINS
5.1.Overview
5.2.India
5.2.1.Indian Railways
5.3.UK
5.3.1.Network Rail Hampshire
5.4.USA
5.4.1.Byron Bay railroad
5.4.2.Solar Bullet
6.PHOTOVOLTAICS: THE BIG PICTURE
6.1.Purpose of this chapter
6.2.Two worlds
6.3.Anatomy of the photovoltaic business 2020-2040
6.4.Primary conclusions: photovoltaics top ten manufacturers chemistry
6.5.Primary conclusions: price-volume sensitivity by application
6.6.Primary conclusions: cost progression 1976-2040
6.7.Primary conclusions: thin film PV market
6.8.Primary conclusions: cadmium telluride
6.9.Primary conclusions: geographic PV materials demand
6.10.CIGS PV forecasts
6.10.1.Global output of thin film CIGS photovoltaics $M and MWp 2000-2018
6.10.2.Global market for thin film CIGS photovoltaics $ billion and GWp 2020-2040
6.11.Global market for lll-V compound semiconductor PV $ billion and GWp 2020-2040
7.SOLAR AGRIBOTS, AIRCRAFT AND BOATS
7.1.Lessons from solar agribots
8.FUTURE ENABLING TECHNOLOGIES
8.1.Solar with integral energy storage
8.2.Colloidal quantum dot spray on solar
8.3.Multi-mode energy harvesting
8.4.Harvesting technologies now and in future for air vehicles
8.5.Mechanical with electrical energy independent vehicles
8.6.Systems for EIEVs
8.7.Energy positive large vehicles
8.8.Solar vehicles replace diesel gensets
 

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