Funding for the vertical farming industry exceeded $1 billion in 2021

Vertical Farming 2022-2032

Controlled Environment Agriculture including hydroponics, aeroponics, aquaponics, automation, sensors, LEDs, and container farms. Analysis by region and business model. Forecast of produce by region.

Show All Description Contents, Table & Figures List Pricing Related Content
With a global population expected to reach 10 billion by 2050, paired with a decreasing amount of arable land caused by climate change and growing urbanisation, the agriculture industry faces major challenges over the coming years. To this end, vertical farms have attracted much interest over the last few years as a possible solution. By growing plants indoors under fully controlled environments in many stacked layers, using artificial lighting instead of the sun, vertical farms can tune their growing environments to the exact needs of the plant. When combined with soil-free growing techniques and high growing densities from their layout, vertical farming can achieve yields hundreds of times above that of conventional agriculture, 365 days a year and without requiring pesticides.
Vertical farms use a combination of sensors, HVACs and lighting systems to maintain a controlled environment. Source IDTechEx
Supporters of vertical farming claim it could revolutionise global food production, practically eliminating food miles by enabling crop growth right next to urban population centres. Currently, fruit and vegetables often travel thousands of miles to reach consumers, losing freshness and quality along the way and increasing the risk of contamination. This has been a particular issue in the US, where recent E. coli outbreaks from contaminated produce have led to hundreds of hospitalisations in recent years. This has been further exacerbated by recent disruptions to the supply chain caused by the pandemic and geopolitical issues, highlighting concerns with a notoriously complex supply chain. By disrupting the highly centralised model for fresh produce, vertical farming could help overcome these issues, while capitalizing on the broader consumer trend towards local production.
The traditional agriculture market is associated with a notoriously complex supply chain, and vertical farms could simplify this drastically by cutting out several middlemen. Source IDTechEx
The vertical farming industry has attracted much interest from investors over the last few years. The industry raised over $1 billion in 2021, a record high that exceeded the combined funding generated in 2018 and 2019. Of note is California-based vertical farm Plenty, which has raised over $900 million in funding to date; this included $400 million in a 2022 Series E funding supported by retail giant Walmart and SoftBank Vision Fund. Across the Pacific, the industry is already well-established - in Japan there are over 200 vertical farms currently operating, with industry leader Spread Co. Ltd. producing 30,000 heads of lettuce every day in its highly automated Techno Farm Keihanna plant.
However, the industry is also facing many challenges. The sector is littered with bankruptcies - PodPonics and FarmedHere, once operators of the largest vertical farms in the world, closed their doors in 2016 after struggling with spiralling power and labour costs and organisational complexities. Part of these challenges are the high cost of crop production commonly associated with vertical farms. Maintaining a controlled environment requires a great deal of energy, and the use of artificial lighting over sunlight accounts for a large part of this energy usage. The running of a vertical farm can also require much manual labour often in environments not designed for growing crops (such as inside shipping containers); human intervention is required for many aspects within the farm, ranging from crop monitoring to system maintenance. The associated energy and labour costs can contribute significantly to the high prices associated with vertically farmed produce, which may discourage consumers from these products.
Nevertheless, enthusiasm remains high and technology is helping to decrease the costs of vertical farming and make large scale urban food production a reality. This report provides an in-depth discussion of the key technology areas that are helping to make vertical farming a reality, identifying areas that could be key to the success of the industry, such as:
  • Growing methods
  • LEDs and lighting
  • Environmental controls
  • Sensors
  • Automation
  • Container farming
Based on interviews with 17 major players throughout the sector, including executives from 80 Acres, Kalera, Crop One Holdings and Jones Food Company and profiles of over 30 companies, this report draws insight into the state of the vertical farming industry, discussing the challenges that the industry faces and the factors involved in creating a successful vertical farming company. The report considers the economics of vertical farming in comparison to conventional agriculture and identifies opportunities for players in the industry and the wider value chain.
The report goes on to describe the value chain for vertical farming, as well as business models and how the markets for vertical farming change across geographies, contrasting the rapidly emerging markets in North America with the established markets in East Asia. The report then forecasts the future of the vertical farming industry covering produce in key geographies and business types up to 2032.
Analyst access from IDTechEx
All report purchases include up to 30 minutes telephone time with an expert analyst who will help you link key findings in the report to the business issues you're addressing. This needs to be used within three months of purchasing the report.
Further information
If you have any questions about this report, please do not hesitate to contact our report team at or call one of our sales managers:

AMERICAS (USA): +1 617 577 7890
ASIA (Japan): +81 3 3216 7209
EUROPE (UK) +44 1223 812300
Table of Contents
1.1.Report overview
1.2.The problem with agriculture
1.3.Is vertical farming the answer?
1.4.Components of a vertical farm
1.5.Technologies: key findings
1.6.Vertical farming: expectations vs reality
1.7.Vertical farms: SWOT analysis
1.8.Production and running costs (OPEX) of a vertical farm
1.9.Challenges in vertical farming
1.10.Vertical farming's struggle with profitability
1.11.What crops do vertical farms grow?
1.12.The effects of rising oil prices and supply chain disruptions
1.13.Vertical farming facilities: better to go big or small?
1.14.The vertical farming value chain
1.15.The three main business models in vertical farming
1.16.Investments in vertical farming
1.17.Vertically farmed produce: global forecast
2.1.1.The problem with agriculture
2.1.2.Is vertical farming the answer?
2.1.3.How does vertical farming work?
2.1.4.The case for vertical farming
2.1.5.Drivers of vertical farming
2.1.6.Challenges in vertical farming
2.1.7.What crops can vertical farming grow?
2.1.8.Vertical farming vs other production methods
2.1.9.The definition of a vertical farm for this report
2.2.Components of a vertical farm
2.2.2.Growing systems
2.2.4.Nutrient supply: Hydroponics
2.2.5.Nutrient supply: Aeroponics
2.2.6.Nutrient supply: Aquaponics
2.2.7.Air conditioning
2.2.8.CO2 supply unit
2.2.9.Environmental control units
3.1.1.What is needed for a vertical farm?
3.2.Growing techniques
3.2.1.Hydroponics vs aeroponics
3.2.2.Aeroponics technologies
3.2.4.How does AeroFarms' system work?
3.2.5.LettUs Grow
3.2.6.Vertical growth walls and towers
3.2.7.Are vertical growth towers more efficient?
3.2.8.Are vertical growth towers more efficient?
3.2.10.Aquaponics: overview
3.2.11.Historical precedents for aquaponics
3.2.12.Upward Farms
3.2.13.The trouble with aquaponics
3.2.14.Reasons why aquaponics is often unprofitable
3.2.15.The differences between aquaponics vertical farms and rice-fish farms
3.2.16.How much fish can aquaponics farms produce?
3.2.17.Are aquaponics systems economically viable?
3.3.LEDs and lighting
3.3.1.LEDs and photosynthesis
3.3.2.Photosynthesis and yield
3.3.3.Maximising photosynthesis
3.3.4.Light "recipes" for indoor crop growth
3.3.5.Light recipe has a major impact on the crop
3.3.6.Choosing the right LEDs for a vertical farm
3.3.7.Choosing LED grow lights for vertical farming
3.3.9.Signify GreenPower production module specifications
3.3.12.Heliospectra's product families
3.3.13.Improving LED technology and vertical farming
3.3.14.Sherpa Space
3.4.Environmental control
3.4.1.Heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC)
3.4.2.Factors in HVAC systems
3.4.3.The importance of sensors and data
3.4.4.Where can sensors be used in a vertical farm?
3.4.5.CO2 sensors are essential for vertical farms
3.4.6.The importance of light sensors
3.4.7.Light sensors - complete spectrum vs. multispectral
3.4.8.Smart sensor companies in horticulture
3.4.10.IDTechEx reports on sensors
3.5.Automation in vertical farming
3.5.1.Automation levels in vertical farming
3.5.2.Automation is not yet widespread in vertical farming
3.5.3.Technology adoption in vertical farming
3.5.4.Industry leaders look towards increasing automation
3.5.5.Automation: environmental control
3.5.8.Automation: nutrient control
3.5.9.Imagination Garden
3.5.10.Automation: light recipes
3.5.11.Bowery Farming
3.5.12.Taking automation beyond level 2
3.5.14.Is automation worth it?
3.5.15.Intelligent Growth Solutions
3.5.16.SananBio US
3.5.17.Jones Food Company
3.5.18.What could automation provide? - 1
3.5.19.What could automation provide? - 2
3.5.20.Automation and robotics in conventional agriculture
3.6.Pests and diseases
3.6.1.Pests and diseases
3.6.2.Pest management
3.6.3.Common diseases in vertical farming
3.7.Container farming
3.7.1.Container farming
3.7.2.Freight Farms
3.7.3.Advantages of container farming
3.7.4.Disadvantages of container farming - 1
3.7.5.Disadvantages of container farming - 2
3.7.6.Vertical Crop Consultants
3.7.7.Is container farming a good idea?
3.7.8.A comparison of container farms
3.7.9.Cubic Farm Systems Corp.
3.7.10.Urban Crop Solutions
3.7.11.FarmBox Foods
4.1.Challenges in vertical farming
4.2.The risks of vertical farming
4.3.Vertical farming: ambitious expectations
4.6.Upwards Farms is scaling up: is this a good idea?
4.7.The argument against vertical farming
4.8.The argument for vertical farming
4.9.Vertical farming's struggle with profitability
4.10.Case study: AeroFarms
4.11.Vertical farming's high start-up costs
4.12.Can vertical farming save cropland?
4.13.The cost of labour
4.14.The cost of power
4.15.Vertical farming: expectations vs reality
4.16.Is all well at Plenty?
4.17.The importance of location
4.18.Growing Underground
4.19.To succeed, vertical farms must be productive
4.20.Vertical farming facilities: better to go big or small?
4.21.Marketing and pricing products
4.22.Vertical farming: the food industry, not the tech industry
4.23.The importance of company direction
4.24.Crop One Holdings
4.25.The need for collaboration
4.26.80 Acres
4.27.Infinite Acres
5.1.Vertical farming vs conventional agriculture
5.1.1.What crops do vertical farms grow?
5.1.2.Vertically farmed produce has a cost premium
5.1.3.The price of non-organic vegetables in the USA
5.1.4.The retail price of iceberg lettuce in the USA
5.1.5.How productive is an average farm?
5.1.6.The costs of growing romaine lettuce on a farm
5.1.7.The impact of fuel prices on fruit and vegetable prices
5.1.8.The impact of fuel prices on fruit and vegetable prices
5.1.9.Could rising oil prices make vertical farming economical?
5.1.10.Vertical farming and the fruit and vegetable supply chain
5.1.11.The effects of supply chain disruptions
5.1.12.A breakdown of food dollars: fresh vegetables at retail
5.1.13.Pricing vertically farmed crops: the Starbucks approach?
5.1.14.Vertical farmed produce vs. organic produce
5.1.15.Beyond iceberg lettuce
5.1.16.Industry leaders are looking to move beyond leafy greens
5.1.17.What crops are vertical farming companies looking to grow?
5.1.18.Oishii : luxury strawberries
5.1.20.Could mushrooms be an important crop for vertical farms?
5.1.22.Should vertical farms change their focus?
5.2.The benefits of local production
5.2.1.The growing market for local food
5.2.2.Organic certification: worth the investment?
5.2.3.How much will consumers pay for local food?
5.2.4.Will consumers pay more for vertically farmed produce?
5.2.5.Presenting vertically farmed produce
5.2.8.The value of growing at home
5.2.9.The economics and sustainability of food miles
5.2.10.Food miles are a poor measure of sustainability
5.2.11.Is local production economically beneficial?
5.3.Running costs of a vertical farm
5.3.1.Production and running costs (OPEX) of a vertical farm
5.3.2.The power requirements for vertical farming
5.3.3.Vertical farms generally use more electricity than greenhouses
5.3.4.The lighting costs of different crops
5.3.5.Could photovoltaics improve the energy costs?
5.3.6.LED costs vary by colour
5.3.7.Is vertical farming sustainable?
5.3.8.The global feasibility of vertical farming
6.1.Business Models in vertical farming
6.1.1.The vertical farming value chain
6.1.2.Retailers for major vertical farms *
6.1.3.The three main business models in vertical farming
6.1.4.Turnkey farm solutions: Infarm
6.1.5.Turnkey farm solutions: Agrilution
6.1.6.AeroFarms: the Amazon model?
6.1.7.Investments in vertical farming
6.1.8.Connecting with citizens: vertical farming and social innovation
6.2.Vertical farming across geographies
6.2.1.Consumer perceptions with geography
6.2.2.Vertical farming in the USA
6.2.4.Square Roots
6.2.5.Food recalls in the USA
6.2.6.Vertical farming in Europe
6.2.7.The state of farming in Europe
6.2.8.The Netherlands leads the world in greenhouse growing
6.2.9.Dutch agritech - implications for vertical farming
6.2.11.Vertical farming in the Middle East
6.2.12.Badia Farms
6.2.13.Vertical farming in Japan
6.2.14.Vertical farming in Japan - top 20 producers
6.2.15.Spread Co., Ltd.
6.2.16.Spread Co., Ltd. Production facilities
6.2.17.Vertical farming in China
6.2.18.Is China ready for vertical farming?
6.2.19.Fujian Sanan Sino-Science Photobiotech Co., Ltd
6.2.20.Singapore: ripe for vertical farming?
6.2.21.Urban farming in Singapore
7.1.Vertical farming: outlook
7.2.Vertically farmed produce
7.2.1.Organic fruit and vegetable sales in the USA and EU+UK
7.2.2.Assessment of previous forecasts
7.2.3.Vertically farmed produce: global forecast
7.2.4.Vertically farmed produce: global forecast data
7.2.5.Vertically farmed produce forecast: North America
7.2.6.Vertically farmed produce forecast: Europe
7.2.7.Vertically farmed produce forecast: Japan
7.2.8.Vertically farmed produce forecast: China
7.3.Vertical farming hardware
7.3.1.Container farming forecast (global)
7.3.2.Turnkey vertical farming hardware forecast (not container farms, global)
8.1.Access to over 30 company profiles from the IDTechEx Portal

Ordering Information

Vertical Farming 2022-2032

Electronic (1-5 users)
Electronic (6-10 users)
Electronic and 1 Hardcopy (1-5 users)
Electronic and 1 Hardcopy (6-10 users)
Electronic (1-5 users)
Electronic (6-10 users)
Electronic and 1 Hardcopy (1-5 users)
Electronic and 1 Hardcopy (6-10 users)
Electronic (1-5 users)
Electronic (6-10 users)
Electronic and 1 Hardcopy (1-5 users)
Electronic and 1 Hardcopy (6-10 users)
Electronic (1-5 users)
Electronic (6-10 users)
Electronic and 1 Hardcopy (1-5 users)
Electronic and 1 Hardcopy (6-10 users)
Electronic (1-5 users)
Electronic (6-10 users)
Electronic and 1 Hardcopy (1-5 users)
Electronic and 1 Hardcopy (6-10 users)
Click here to enquire about additional licenses.
If you are a reseller/distributor please contact us before ordering.
お問合せ、見積および請求書が必要な方は までご連絡ください。

Report Statistics

Slides 252
Forecasts to 2032
ISBN 9781915514028

Preview Content

pdf Document Webinar Slides
pdf Document Sample pages

Subscription Enquiry