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Printed, Organic & Flexible Electronics Forecasts, Players & Opportunities 2009-2029

Printed and potentially printed - the complete picture

Updated Q3 for 2009

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Most comprehensive quantative assessment of the industry
This 2009 report is no longer available, click here for details of the 2010 version
This report provides the most comprehensive view of the topic, giving detailed ten year forecasts by device type and a 20 year outlook. The market is analyzed by territory, printed vs non printed, rigid vs flexible, inorganic vs organic, cost of materials vs process cost and much more, with over 200 tables and figures. Activities of over 700 leading companies are given.
The report specifically addresses the big picture - including all thin film photovoltaics, relevant display technologies and much more. Importantly, it includes not only electronics which are printed, organic and/or flexible now, but it also covers those that will be. Realistic timescales, case studies, existing products and the emergence of new products are given, as are impediments and opportunities for the years to come. It is all here.
2009 to 2029 market size
The market for printed and potentially printed electronics, including organics, inorganics and composites, will rise from $1.92 billion in 2009 to $57.16 billion in 2019. The majority of the market in 2009 - 71% - is for electronics which are relatively mature - conductive inks (for membrane keyboards, Printed Circuit Boards (PCBs), flex connectors, membrane keyboards), sensors (e.g. disposable blood glucose sensors for those with diabetes) and Organic Light Emitting Displays (OLEDs) which are on glass substrates and not printed as yet. These three products will be overtaken in terms of market value as hundreds of companies develop, for example, OLEDs on flexible substrates which are printed, Thin Film Transistor Circuits (TFTCs) etc.
Photovoltaics such as CIGS account for a market of $0.41 Billion in 2009, but even this is not the full picture. CdTe and aSi photovoltaics, which are not printed today and are not included in the above figures, are now a substantial markets and both have been demonstrated to be printed and/or flexible. Over the coming years they will also make an impact in this topic. In 2009, those two technologies result in $2.8 Billion of sales and in this report we look at their future impact in printed electronics too. IDTechEx bring you the big picture.
$80 million will be spent on e-paper displays and $60 million on electroluminescent displays. On the other hand, most effort is going into technologies that are barely commercial today. For example, over 500 companies are developing thin film transistor circuits, and revenues this year will be only $10 million. Most of these companies are working on organic semiconductors but that is changing - printed inorganic semiconductors have leapfrogged organics in terms of performance.
In particular, the following components are addressed, and for each one twenty year forecasts are given, along with companies and their activities, case studies, impediments to commercialization and timescales.
  • Logic
  • Memory
  • OLED display
  • OLED light
  • Electrophoretic display
  • Electrochromic display
  • Electroluminescent display
  • Other displays
  • Batteries
  • Photovoltaics
  • Sensors
  • Conductors (ink only)
  • Other
Market value by component type to 2029
Source: IDTechEx
Printed and conformal/flexible analyzed
Of all the technologies covered in the $1.92 Billion market in 2009, only 35% of the components will be predominately printed in 2009, rising to 76% in 2019. Similarly, in 2009 only 18% of the components are on a non rigid substrate (such as sensors and EL displays), rising to 73% in 2019. The greatest opportunity is for devices which can be printed and are flexible.
Forecasts for electronics that are predominately printed
Source: IDTechEx
Market by territory
If we look at the market size by territory, IDTechEx find that most work is taking place in Europe, the USA and Japan. In many respects Europe is in the lead. For instance, the first printed electronics factories are appearing there. However, we note that the creation of new companies is low given the huge academic effort going on there. The USA is proving better at creating new companies. In East Asia while the number of organizations working on the topic is slightly less than the other two continents, it disguises the fact that those companies tend to be huge conglomerates. By spend, we see that in 2009 53% of the market spend is in East Asia. This is because the biggest component - OLED display modules - are made there and bought by companies making devices, such as MP3 players. However, it disguises the fact that many of the devices are then sold to North America and Europe. Indeed some manufacturing will be moving to East Asia in due course but we also see a higher than expected market in Europe and USA given the dispersed manufacture capability of this new electronics.
Organic, inorganic, composite covered
In assessing the market size over the next few years, this report looks at the big picture - organic electronics and printed inorganics and the majority of devices which are combinations of both. Similarly, while most agree that printing of these electronics and electrics is the end game, many are created today by non printing techniques such as spin coating, and many use combinations of manufacturing techniques, such as inkjet printing and laser ablation. All these manufacturing techniques will be employed to some extent.
It is important, therefore to recognise that companies will focus on the end product, its cost, performance and suitability for the application, and if these criteria are met the end user will not be concerned about how it was made or using what materials. We therefore cover printing and non-printing technologies that form a route to products that will be primarily printed in due course.
Lessons, Successes and Opportunities
The report covers case studies of where printed electronics has been used, why and the results. It looks at new products that are imminently emerging and their prospects for success. The technical barriers and commercial barriers are listed and prioritised, as well as progress to overcome these
Currently there are three main ways the technology is being applied, as shown in the following image. There are applications where companies intend to compete on cost, such as replacing the silicon chip in an RFID tag to reach lower price points enabling much higher numbers of items that can be tagged; those that compete on other benefits such as flexibility or robustness, such as those involved in flexible e-book readers that intend to sell these as a premium over rigid versions. In both cases, creative product design is needed. We also see that printed electronics know how is being used in conventional electronics manufacture to reduce the cost, such as the move to inkjet printing of conductors enabling smaller circuits compared to etched versions.
How printed electronics is being applied to products
Source: IDTechEx
Exclusive matrix of over 700 companies and research organizations
The report contains a list of over 700 companies and research organizations involved in printed electronics and what aspects they are involved in. No one else has compiled such a comprehensive survey.
How IDTechEx researched this report
The report is the summation of extensive global research by IDTechEx since 1999. IDTechEx has profiled hundreds of companies in this field, and has visited companies and attended relevant events in Japan, Korea, China, Australia, Europe, North America and Canada. Users/potential users have been interviewed. Forecasts have been devised by looking at existing sales and assessing roadmaps to commercialisation taking into account technology and market challenges based on interviews with those in the industry. All stages of the value chain are looked at - and gaps identified and reported. Other important factors are addressed and interpreted in our forecasts, such as key materials running out, market needs and progress in East Asia. Please do not hesitate to speak to the authors for more detail about our methodology.
Stay Updated with Free IDTechEx Research
The report price also includes free access to the electronic version of the IDTechEx Encyclopedia of Printed Electronics with over 380 definitions and 30 illustrations. This 110 page report is normally sold for $1500.00.
In addition, all report purchases include one hour free consulting with a report author from IDTechEx, by email or telephone. This needs to be used within 3 months of purchasing the report.
Also the report (available in PDF or optional printed format) includes an excel spreadsheet of the forecasts for you to download and use.
Analyst access from IDTechEx
All report purchases include up to 30 minutes telephone time with an expert analyst who will help you link key findings in the report to the business issues you're addressing. This needs to be used within three months of purchasing the report.
Further information
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Table of Contents
1.1.Market volume in Euro billions
1.2.Smart iontophoretic skin patches
1.2.Twenty year forecasts of unusual breadth
1.2.End user markets relevant to printed electronics
1.3.Some of today's disposable electronics and why inorganic technology is needed to make it more saleable and useful
1.3.Terminology and definitions
1.3.Esquire magazine with animated display September 2008
1.4.Plastic Logic E-reader
1.4.Scope for printed electronics and electrics
1.4.Some of the technical constraints of printed electronics and the exciting recent history of breakthroughs that give credibility to more being overcome in the next few years
1.5.Primary assumptions of organic electronics in full production 2009 to 2029
1.5.There is a bigger picture
1.5.T-equaliser animated t-shirt
1.6.XEL-1 by SONY
1.6.Printed electronics products today
1.6.1.New technologies, more opportunity
1.6.2.With or without a silicon chip
1.6.3.Highest volume products with no silicon chip
1.6.4.Printed electronics with silicon chips
1.6.5.Electronic apparel
1.6.6.Display and lighting
1.6.7.Photovoltaic power by the mile
1.6.8.Stretchable electronic products for sale
1.6.9.A view from Toppan Forms
1.7.Displays are the main sector for now
1.7.Active Matrix OLED Fab ramp-up in 2006/07 - most in East Asia
1.8.How printed electronics is being applied to products
1.8.Photovoltaics beyond conventional silicon are the second largest market
1.9.How printed electronics is being applied
1.9.Printed Electronics Applications
1.10.Typical price breaks for high volume electronics and examples of potential advances.
1.10.Surprisingly poor progress with low cost electronics so far
1.11.Threat - silicon chips keep getting cheaper
1.12.Printed electronics for smart packaging
1.13.Driving forces for disposable electronics
1.14.Balance of reporting on printed and organic electronics
1.15.Inorganic patterning shows the way
1.16.Great uncertainty
1.17.Challenging conventional electronics
1.18.Flexible is a Big Market
1.19.Assumptions for our forecasts
1.20.Despite recession, finance for printed electronics is not drying up
2.1.Logic and Memory Market Forecasts 2009-2029
2.1.Traditional geometry for a field effect transistor
2.1.Global market for printed electronics logic and memory 2009-2029 in billions of dollars, with % printed and % flexible
2.1.1.Logic and memory forecasts 2009-2019
2.2.Impact on silicon
2.2.Transistors - first significant commercial product in 2009
2.2.Scope for printed TFTCs to create new markets or replace silicon chips
2.3.Advantages of printed and thin film transistors and memory vs traditional silicon
2.3.Performance of Kovio's ink versus others by mobility
2.3.Transistor design
2.3.2.New TFT geometry
2.3.3.Advantages of printed and thin film transistors and memory vs traditional silicon
2.3.4.The main options for the printed semiconductor
2.3.5.Benefits and applications envisaged for TFTCs in general
2.3.6.Development path
2.3.7.Obtaining higher frequency performance
2.3.8.Breakthrough in printed inorganic performance in from Kovio
2.3.9.Progress towards p-type metal oxide semiconductors
2.3.10.Do organic transistors have a future? printed silicon transistors - Japan
2.3.12.Choice of printing technologies
2.3.13.Company strategy and value chain
2.4.Road map
2.4.Comparison of some of the main options for the semiconductors in printed and potentially printed transistors
2.5.Envisaged benefits of TFTCs in RFID and other low-cost applications when compared with envisaged silicon chips
2.5.Transparent Zinc Oxide transistors
2.5.1.Market for RFID
2.5.2.Ultimate potential for highest volume RFID
2.5.3.Penetration of chipless/printed RFID
2.6.3D printing of silicon from Seiko Epson
2.6.Overall choices of semiconductor
2.7.Typical carrier mobility in different potential TFTC semiconductors (actual and envisaged) vs higher mobility silicon, not printable.
2.7.Options for high speed, low-cost printing of TFTCs
2.8.Value chain for TFTCs and examples of migration of activity for players
2.8.Objectives and challenges of organisations developing printed and potentially printed transistor and/ or memory circuits and/or their materials
2.9.Some of the small group of contestants for large capacity printed memory.
2.9.An all-organic permanent memory transistor
2.10.TFE memory compared with the much more complex DRAM in silicon
2.11.Structure of TFE memory
2.11.Total value of tags by application 2009-2019 (US Dollar Millions)
2.12.Chipless versus Chip RFID, in numbers of units (billions) (Chip includes Active RFID tags)
2.12.TFE priorities for commercialisation of mega memory
2.13.Prototype 13.56 MHz RFID smart labels from reel to reel production of organic TFTCs by PolyIC
2.13.Market size of various chipless solutions, 2009-2019
2.14.Potential, in billions yearly, for global sales of RFID labels and circuits printed directly onto products or packaging. Item level is shown in red. These are examples.
2.15.Chipless versus Chip RFID, in numbers of units (billions)
3.1.Market drivers
3.1.Basic structure of an OLED
3.1.Some new and established display technologies compared
3.2.Comparison of the features of various technologies for advertising and signage
3.2.Samsung OLED television, Philips OLED shaver and Eastman Kodak OLED camera.
3.2.OLEDs as displays for electronic products
3.2.2.Developers of OLEDs
3.2.3.Mobile phones and OLEDs
3.2.4.Digital Cameras and OLEDs
3.2.5.Audio/Visual players and OLEDs
3.2.6.TV sets and OLEDs
3.2.7.OLED market forecasts 2009-2029
3.2.8.Impediments to OLED adoption
3.2.9.Unmet technical needs for OLEDs
3.3.Concept of apparel that illuminates with flexible OLED displays
3.3.Examples of OLED materials and displays investment until the beginning of 2009
3.3.2.Applications of E-paper displays
3.3.3.The Killer Application
3.3.4.Electrophoretic displays market forecasts 2009-2029
3.4.LEP process flow
3.4.Examples of companies developing OLEDs
3.4.2.Electrochromic displays market forecasts 2009-2029
3.5.AC Electroluminescent
3.5.An OLED display from Samsung which folds in the middle. More than half of Samsung's stand was previewing OLED displays.
3.5.Market forecasts for OLED panel displays 2009-2029
3.5.2.Electroluminescent displays market forecasts 2009 2029
3.6.Other display technologies
3.6.A 4" flexible AM OLED from LG on stainless steel.
3.6.Advantages and disadvantages of electrophoretic displays
3.6.2.Electrowetting displays
3.6.3.Electrochemical displays on paper
3.6.4.Other displays market size 2009-2029
3.7.A Sony OLED display illustrating its thinness
3.7.Comparison between OLEDs and E-Ink of various parameters
3.8.Electrophoretic displays market forecasts 2009-2029
3.8.WOLED displays from Samsung
3.9.Principle of operation of electrophoretic displays
3.9.Electrochromic displays market forecasts 2009-2029
3.10.Electroluminescent displays market forecasts 2009-2029
3.10.E-paper displays on a magazine sold in the US in October 2008
3.11.Retail Shelf Edge Labels from UPM
3.11.Other displays market size 2009-2029
3.12.Secondary display on a cell phone
3.13.Amazon Kindle 2, launched in the US in February 2009
3.14.Electrophoretic display on a commercially sold financial card
3.15.A Polymer Vision display
3.16.Electrochromic display on a Valentine's card sold by Marks and Spencer in the UK in 2004 and electrochromic display with drive circuits in a laminate for smart cards..
3.17.Boardroom lighting in Alcatel France that switches to various modes
3.18.EL décor, signage and instrumentation in the new Jaguar concept model
3.19.Animated EL artwork in a two meter suspended ball for event lighting
3.20.Educational AC electroluminescent floor covering
3.21.Coyopa rum with four segment sequentially switched pictures
3.22.TV controller
3.23.Switched image on face of Fossil watch
3.24.Car instrument illumination by electroluminescent display
3.25.Duracell battery tester
3.26.Interactive game on a beer package by VTT Technologies in Finland
3.27.The dollhouse. When energy is added to the system the colour of the wallpaper changes and a picture appears on the wall
3.28.Two state electrolytic display on paper
3.29.Seven segment display printed with bi-stable inks
4.1.Significance of lighting and challenges
4.1.Impact of the various forms of lighting, with the overlap showing degree of competition
4.1.Incandescent, fluorescent, inorganic LED and the potential performance of OLED lighting compared
4.2.Some relevant statistics in millions of units sold worldwide in 2008
4.2.Value chain for manufacture of OLEDs for lighting and signage
4.2.Comparisons of lighting technologies
4.3.General illumination market
4.3.The space saving of OLED lights and their exceptional colour tunability
4.3.Lighting forecasts 2009-2029
4.4.Sales of inorganic LED lighting 2002-2008 in billions of units
4.4.Example of OLED Lighting
4.4.Lighting forecasts 2009-2029
4.5.Value Chain and examples of OLED lighting
4.5.Motion lighting concept
4.6.AC electroluminescent lighting
5.1.Some of the overlapping requirements for photovoltaics
5.1.The leading photovoltaic technologies compared
5.1.1.Thin film Photovoltaics
5.1.2.Comparison of technologies
5.1.3.Solar cell production by company
5.1.4.Trends by territory
5.1.5.Parameters for comparing Photovoltaic technologies
5.2.Photovoltaics Forecasts
5.2.Progress of confirmed research-scale photovoltaic device efficiencies, under AM 1.5 simulated solar illumination, for a variety of technologies
5.2.Comparison of the power conversion technologies of different types of solar cell technologies
5.2.2.Photovoltaic subsidies - should more be given?
5.2.3.The need for storage
5.2.4.Installation of photovoltaics
5.2.5.Hope for silicon photovoltaics to reach grid price parity
5.2.6.Strategies of market entry for new, potentially cheaper technologies
5.3.Construction of a traditional bulk heterojunction organic photovoltaic cell
5.3.Efficiency and commercialization dates of laminar organic, CdTe and DSSC photovoltaics
5.3.1.Importance of laminar batteries
5.3.2.Button batteries vs laminar batteries
5.3.3.Choices of laminar battery
5.3.4.Applications of laminar batteries
5.3.5.Infinite Power Solutions
5.3.6.Solicore, USA
5.3.7.Power Paper
5.3.8.Blue Spark
5.4.Printed batteries forecasts 2009-2029
5.4.Module stack for photovoltaics
5.4.Performance of various types of photovoltaic cell compared
5.4.2.Laminar batteries - missing the big opportunity?
5.5.Fuel cells
5.5.The 2250 organisations tackling printed and potentially printed devices and their materials
5.5.Photovoltaics forecasts 2009-2029
5.6.Shapes of battery for small RFID tags advantages and disadvantages
5.6.Only East Asia has many giant companies involved in non-silicon photovoltaic devices
5.7.Power PlasticTM Advantage - High Energy Yield
5.7.The spectrum of choice of technologies for laminar batteries
5.8.Examples of potential sources of flexible thin film batteries
5.8.Infinite Power Solutions batteries.
5.9.Power Paper printed battery
5.9.Some examples of marketing thrust for laminar batteries
5.10.Batteries forecasts 2009-2029
5.10.Reel to reel screen printing of Blue Spark batteries
5.11.VoltaFlex organic polymer lithium battery
5.12.Estee Lauder smart skin patch which delivers cosmetics using the iontophoretic effect
6.1.General situation and examples
6.1.The main options for organic sensors
6.1.Examples of companies developing organic sensors and other components and their main emphasis
6.2.Sensor forecasts 2009-2029
6.2.Plastic film scanner with no moving parts
6.2.Photodetector arrays
6.2.1.Printed flexible scanners
6.3.Successes and failures
6.4.Sensor Forecasts 2009-2029
7.1.Market by territory
7.1.Organisations involved in printed and potentially printed electronics across the world, by type of interest
7.1.The market for printed and potentially printed electronics by territory in $ billion
7.1.1.Number of active organisations globally in this field
7.1.2.Geographical split 2009-2029
7.1.3.Giant Corporations of the World and their progress with printed electronics
7.2.The total market opportunity by component
7.2.Primary devices being developed
7.2.Examples of giant corporations intending to make the printed and potentially printed devices with the largest market potential, showing East Asia dominant.
7.3.Examples of giant corporations, making or intending to make materials for printed and potentially printed electronics
7.3.Market by Territory 2009 - 2019
7.3.Organic versus Inorganic
7.4.Printed versus non printed electronics
7.4.Number of printed electronics products by country
7.4.Most supported technology by number of organisations identified in North America, East Asia and Europe
7.5.Market forecast by component type for 2009-2029 in US $ billions, for printed and potentially printed electronics including organic, inorganic and composites
7.5.Number of organisations active in printed electronics by country in Europe
7.5.Flexible/conformal versus rigid electronics
7.6.Market forecasts for materials 2009-2029
7.6.Display project distribution in East Asia: OLED left, electroluminescent center, electrophoretic right.
7.6.Market forecasts for 2029 $ Billions
7.7.Spend on organic versus inorganic materials 2009-2029
7.7.Number of projects by device type in North America
7.7.Impact of printed electronics on conventional markets
7.7.2.Impact on end-use markets
7.7.3.Potential markets
7.8.Printed electronics: fundraising, investors, list of companies
7.8.Market forecast by component type for 2009-2029 in US $ billions, for printed and potentially printed electronics including organic, inorganic and composites
7.8.Split of material types by component
7.8.1.Printed Electronics Commercial Fund Raising Activities
7.8.2.Printed Electronics Government Funded Activities
7.9.Market forecasts for 2029
7.9.Market value $ billions of only printed electronics 2009-2029
7.10.Market value $ billions of only flexible/conformal electronics 2009-2029
7.10.Spend on organic versus inorganic materials 2009-2019
7.11.Market value $ billions of only printed electronics 2009-2019
7.11.Materials market forecasts 2009-2029
7.12.End user markets relevant to printed and potentially printed electronics
7.12.Market value $ billions of only flexible/conformal electronics 2009-2019
7.13.Relative investments from the key areas of printed electronics development
7.13.Examples of fundraising activities in printed electronics since the beginning of 2008
7.14.Examples of government funded programs for printed electronics
7.14.Materials market forecast 2009-2019
7.15.Examples of organic and inorganic electronics and electrics potentially tackling different technologies and applications.
7.16.The potential annual global sales of each type by 2019 in US$ billions
7.17.Some of the potential markets
8.1.Statistics for materials running out
8.1.Indium price 2001-2006
8.1.Time to run out for scarce elements used in printed electronics
8.1.2.Rare Earths
8.1.3.Escape Routes
8.1.5.Quantum dots, carbon nanotubes, common compounds
8.1.6.How many years are left?
8.1.7.Investing in the metals that will be needed for photovoltaics
8.1.8.Material supply and sustainability of thin film CIGS and CdTe Photovoltaics
8.2.Low temperature processes/curing
8.2.Typical SEM images of CU flake C1 6000F. Copper flake
8.2.Water vapour and oxygen transmission rates of various materials.
8.2.1.New ink formulations
8.2.2.Breakthrough in metal ink cure from Novacentrix: room temperature on cheap substrates
8.3.Backplane transistor arrays hold up AMOLED market penetration
8.3.Thermal requirements and capabilities of different materials
8.3.Requirements of barrier materials
8.4.The NovaCentrix process
8.4.Need for better flexible, transparent, low cost barriers
8.5.Lack of standardised benchmarking
8.5.Pre and post sintering
8.6.Current options and challenges for backplane TFTs
8.6.Urgent need for creative product design
8.7.Schematic diagrams for encapsulated structures a) conventional b) laminated c) deposited in situ
8.8.Scanning electron micrograph image of a barrier film cross section6
8.9.Progress of confirmed research-scale photovoltaic device efficiencies, under AM 1.5 simulated solar illumination, for a variety of technologies
8.10.Innovative product designers/ sellers are in short supply
9.1.Semiconductor development at Evonik
9.1.Other players in the value chain
9.1.2.Asahi Kasei
9.1.3.Asahi Glass
9.1.5.DaiNippon Printing
9.1.7.Fujifilm Dimatix
9.1.8.HC Starck
9.1.9.Hewlett Packard
9.1.10.Holst Centre
9.1.13.Kovio Inc
9.1.14.Merck Chemicals
9.1.15.National Information Society Agency
9.1.18.Organic ID
9.1.20.Plastic E Print
9.1.21.Plastic Logic
9.1.25.Semiconductor Energy Laboratory
9.1.26.Seiko Epson
9.1.28.Thin Film Electronics
9.1.29.Toppan Forms
9.1.30.Toppan Printing
9.1.31.University of Tokyo
9.1.32.Waseda University
9.1.33.Other players in this value chain
9.2.Target range for mobility and processing temperature of semiconductors.
9.3.Transfer characteristics of gen3 semiconductor system
9.4.Current efficiency of a Novaled PIN OLEDTM stack on an inkjet printed, transparent conductive ITO anode.
9.5.Inks developed by InkTec
9.6.InkTec Printing methods
9.7.Ubiquitous Sensor Networks (USN)
9.8.Simple sensors used in initial trials
9.9.USN services and applications
9.10.Left is diode logic OR gate and the right is a bridge rectifier
9.11.Micrograph of an SSD array and the 110 GHz microwave measurement setup
9.12.A prototype of the Plastic Logic E-reader
9.13.A prototype of the Plastic Logic E-reader
9.14.A prototype of the Plastic Logic E-reader
9.15.Samsung OLED display
9.16.Size of ink droplet volume versus it's radius
9.17.Printed Flexible Circuits from Soligie
9.18.Capabilities of Soligie
9.19.Printed electronics from Soligie
9.20.Printing presses used for printing electronics at Soligie
9.21.An e-label from Soligie
9.22.A flexible display sample
9.23.Printed electronics samples
9.24.New electronics targets physical space
9.25.Large-area electronics
9.26.32" pressure sensor matrix
9.27.Wireless power transmission sheet
9.28.Device structure
9.29.Organic transistors
9.30.Organic transistor 3D ICs
9.31.Scanner with no moving parts
9.32.Scanning a wine bottle label
9.33.Stretchable electronics
9.34.Flexible battery that charges in one minute

Report Statistics

Pages 312
Tables 78
Figures 150
Companies Over 700
Forecasts to 2029

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