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Batteries sodium-ion 2023-2033 : technologie, acteurs, marchés et prévisions

Batterie Na-ion ; oxydes de métaux de transition en couches, composés polyanioniques et cathodes à base de PBA ; anodes non graphitiques de type intercalation, alliage et conversion ; profils des joueurs et analyse comparative des technologies ; analyse des brevets ; analyse des matériaux et des coûts


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Introduction to sodium-ion batteries
Among the existing energy storage technologies, lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) have unmatched energy density and versatility. From the time of their first commercialization, the growth in LIBs has been driven by portable devices. In recent years, however, large-scale electric vehicle and stationary applications have emerged. Because LIB raw material deposits are unevenly distributed and prone to price fluctuations, these large-scale applications have put unprecedented pressure on the LIB value chain, resulting in the need for alternative energy storage chemistries. The sodium-ion battery (SIB or Na-ion battery) chemistry is one of the most promising "beyond-lithium" energy storage technologies. Within this report, the prospects and key challenges for the commercialization of SIBs are discussed.
 
Sodium-ion batteries are an emerging battery technology, on the cusp of commercialization, with promising cost, safety, sustainability and performance benefits when compared to lithium-ion batteries. They can use widely available and inexpensive raw materials and existing lithium-ion production methods, promising rapid scalability. SIBs are an attractive prospect in meeting global demand for carbon-neutral energy storage, where lifetime operational cost, not weight or volume, is the overriding factor. Increasingly sodium-ion batteries have characteristics comparable to lithium iron phosphate (LFP) batteries, suggesting that even automotive applications are possible.
 
SIBs have the same fundamental working principle as LIBs, but rely on sodium rather than lithium as mobile cations. Unlike lithium, sodium does not electrochemically alloy with aluminium at room temperature. Thus, the copper current collector on the anode can be replaced by cheaper aluminium; it not only lowers the SIB costs, but also reduces the transportation risks, as SIBs can be transported completely discharged, at 0V. Hard carbon is typically used as the anode active material instead of graphite, as crystalline graphite has poor storage capabilities for sodium ions. Various cathode chemistries based on layered transition metal oxides, polyanionic compounds, and Prussian Blue Analogues can be used. Electrolytes and separators, as well as the positive current collectors, are similar to LIBs, except for the use of sodium salts in the electrolyte. This report compares Na-ion materials and chemistries including cell cost breakdowns to evaluate their market potential.
 
A schematic representation of a sodium-ion cell. Source: IDTechEx
 
What markets exist for sodium-ion batteries?
Although Na-ion technology mimics Li-ion with similar types of electrodes and electrolytes, Na is three times heavier than Li and has redox potential 300mV lower, which inherently reduces the energy density of Na-ion technology by at least ∼30% compared to Li-ion. This gap will prevail forever, because progress that could be made at the materials level for Na will always be mirrored with progresses on Li, since we are dealing with the same family of materials. So straightforwardly, the usage of Na-ion technology alone in applications requiring high energy density, such as battery electric cars is partly eliminated. However, in applications where energy density is not as critical for e.g. stationary energy storage, electric two- and three-wheelers, and electric microcars, Na-ion batteries can be ideal due to their power, safety, and cost characteristics. Currently, very few players have commercial products on the market, and even those with products available are supplying in limited quantities for trial projects to verify the use-case of Na-ion batteries. IDTechEx expects new announcements and partnerships to be announced as Na-ion battery technology moves from the research to commercialization stage in the medium term.
 
Promising fields of applications for sodium-ion batteries. Source: IDTechEx
 
Industrial developments
IDTechEx has identified around 15 companies developing their own Na-ion battery technology to match the expected application of its product, in an environment where multiple candidate materials are available. Faradion (UK), for example, is focusing on achieving high energy density, while Natron Energy (US) is pursuing the development of a battery with a long cycle life. Faradion was bought out by India's largest conglomerate Reliance Industries at the end of 2021 with plans to use the acquired technology at its proposed giga-factory in India. In May 2022, Natron Energy announced that the company and Clarios, a US major automotive lead-acid battery manufacturer, will begin mass production of Na-ion batteries in 2023. As for other mass production plans, Chinese companies, including CATL amongst others, announced that it will launch the commercial marketing of its first product by 2023, with all others planning to achieve commercialisation before 2025. Behind the acceleration of Chinese companies' efforts toward Na-ion battery mass production are government measures aimed at ensuring a stable supply of batteries and maintaining leadership in the battery industry. HiNa Battery, which became independent from the Institute of Physics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences in 2017, is one of the most notable Na-ion battery startups, with the largest successful deployment of a 1MWh battery system for solar storage. HiNa plan to operate one of the largest GWh class Na-ion battery production lines of 5GWh, with 1GWh capacity being officially completed in July 2022.
 
This report provides analysis and reporting of such key Na-ion players including those in the supply chain. It offers further detailed company analysis such as technology analysis, product introduction, roadmap, financial/funding, materials, cell specification, manufacturing, supply chain, partnerships, patent analysis, future business, and SWOT analysis.
 
Key takeaways from this report include:
  • Analysis and discussion of Na-ion cathodes and anode chemistries
  • Na-ion player profiles including technology benchmarking
  • Na-ion industry supply chain and manufacturing capacities
  • Key Na-ion player patent analysis
  • Na-ion battery material and cost modelling
  • Target markets and applications for Na-ion batteries
  • Na-ion battery demand (GWh) and market value (US$) forecasts
Report MetricsDetails
Historic Data2020 - 2022
CAGRGlobal demand for Na-ion batteries is forecast to grow to just under 70GWh in 2033, from 10GWh in 2025, at a CAGR of 27%.
Forecast Period2023 - 2033
Forecast UnitsGWh, US$
Regions CoveredWorldwide
Segments CoveredElectric vehicles, Stationary storage
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Table of Contents
1.EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
1.1.Why are alternative battery chemistries needed?
1.2.Introduction to sodium-ion batteries (SIBs)
1.3.Na-ion vs other chemistries
1.4.Key materials for Na-ion cell design
1.5.Na-ion battery characteristics
1.6.Appraisal of Na-ion (1)
1.7.Appraisal of Na-ion (2)
1.8.Value proposition of Na-ion batteries
1.9.Na-ion cell material costs compared to Li-ion
1.10.Key risks in the Na-ion battery market
1.11.Na-ion patents show China's dominance
1.12.China leading the race to Na-ion commercialisation
1.13.Na-ion player landscape
1.14.Overview of top 4 Na-ion players
1.15.Na-ion battery production targets are ambitious
1.16.What markets exist for Na-ion batteries?
1.17.Na-ion will not eat into Li-ion's dominating market share
1.18.Na-ion timeline - Technology and performance
1.19.Na-ion demand by application 2022-2033 (GWh)
1.20.Na-ion cell market value 2022-2033 (US$ Billion)
2.INTRODUCTION
2.1.Electrochemistry definitions 1
2.2.Electrochemistry definitions 2
2.3.Electrochemistry definitions 3
2.4.The state of Li-ion
2.5.Why are alternative battery chemistries needed?
2.6.Overcoming overreliance on scarce resources
2.7.Abundance of sodium
2.8.Mining of lithium and sodium
2.9.Introduction to sodium-ion batteries
2.10.How do Na-ion batteries work?
2.11.A note on Sodium
2.12.Na-ion vs Li-ion
2.13.Reasons to develop Na-ion
2.14.Appraisal of Na-ion (1)
2.15.Appraisal of Na-ion (2)
2.16.Value proposition of Na-ion batteries
2.17.Comparison of rechargeable battery technologies
2.18.Policies supporting Na-ion development
2.19.Key risks in the Na-ion battery market
3.CELL DESIGN AND CHARACTERISTICS
3.1.Na-based battery types
3.2.Molten sodium batteries
3.3.Na-ion battery cathode chemistries
3.4.Transition metal layered oxides
3.5.Layered oxide cathode chemistries - Cycling
3.6.Polyanionic compounds
3.7.Comparison of different polyanionic materials
3.8.Prussian blue analogues (PBA)
3.9.Comparison of cathode materials
3.10.Cathode materials used in industry
3.11.Summary of Na-ion cathode materials
3.12.Na-ion battery anode materials
3.13.Types of anode
3.14.Carbon based anodes
3.15.Comparison of carbon based anodes
3.16.Hard carbon precursors
3.17.Alloying anodes
3.18.Faradion anode development
3.19.Summary of Na-ion anode materials
3.20.Electrolytes
3.21.Comparison of electrolyte salts and solvents (1)
3.22.Comparison of electrolyte salts and solvents (2)
3.23.Thermal stability of electrolytes (1)
3.24.Thermal stability of electrolytes (2)
3.25.Electrolytes used in industry
3.26.Summary of Na-ion electrolyte formulations
3.27.Summary of Na-ion cell design
3.28.0 V storage of Na-ion batteries
3.29.Transportation of Na-ion batteries
3.30.Electrochemical challenges with Na-ion batteries
3.31.Production steps in Na-ion battery manufacturing
3.32.Implications of Na-ion manufacturing
4.PLAYERS
4.1.Player landscape and benchmarking
4.2.List of Na-ion players
4.3.Na-ion players by region
4.4.Overview of top 4 Na-ion players
4.5.Na-ion companies compared
4.6.Na-ion performance compared
4.7.Specific energy comparison
4.8.Cycle life comparison
4.9.Na-ion supply chain
4.10.Na-ion player landscape
4.11.Na-ion players with commercial products
4.12.Na-ion battery production targets
4.13.Chinese player profiles
4.13.1.HiNa Battery - Background
4.13.2.HiNa Battery patent portfolio
4.13.3.HiNa Battery - Technology
4.13.4.HiNa Battery - Applications
4.13.5.HiNa Battery - Na-ion battery powered EV
4.13.6.CATL enter Na-ion market
4.13.7.CATL hybrid battery pack
4.13.8.CATL Na-ion patent portfolio
4.13.9.CATL Prussian Blue Analogue Na-ion cathode
4.13.10.CATL Na-ion layered oxide cathode performance
4.13.11.LiFun Technology
4.13.12.Zoolnasm (Zhongna Energy)
4.13.13.Zhongna Energy Na6Fe5(SO4)8/FeSO4 cathode
4.13.14.Farasis and Svolt Energy
4.13.15.EVE Energy
4.13.16.Ronbay Technology
4.13.17.Natrium Energy
4.13.18.China Na-ion battery market landscape
4.14.UK player profiles
4.14.1.Faradion - Background
4.14.2.Faradion cell development
4.14.3.Reliance investment into Faradion
4.14.4.Faradion - technology (1)
4.14.5.Faradion - Technology (2)
4.14.6.Faradion patent portfolio
4.14.7.Faradion target markets
4.14.8.Faradion SWOT analysis
4.14.9.Nation Energie
4.14.10.AMTE Power
4.14.11.LiNa Energy
4.14.12.LiNa Energy - demonstration
4.15.RoW player profiles
4.15.1.Natron Energy - Background
4.15.2.Natron patent portfolio
4.15.3.Natron Energy - Technology
4.15.4.Na-ion using Prussian blue analogues
4.15.5.Natron Energy - Partners
4.15.6.Natron Energy SWOT analysis
4.15.7.Tiamat Energy
4.15.8.NAIMA project - Tiamat lead consortium
4.15.9.NAIMA value chain
4.15.10.NAIMA objectives
4.15.11.NAIMA outputs
4.15.12.Altris
4.15.13.Altris manufacturing capacity
4.15.14.Nippon Electric Glass
4.15.15.Indi Energy
4.15.16.Indi Energy - Technology
4.15.17.Biomass-derived hard carbon
4.15.18.Sodium-based battery players
4.15.19.NGK Insulators - Background
4.15.20.NGK Insulators - Technology
4.15.21.NGK Insulators - Deployment
4.15.22.Broadbit Batteries
4.15.23.Aqueous Na-ion
4.15.24.Geyser Batteries
5.PATENT ANALYSIS
5.1.Patent landscape
5.2.Patent landscape introduction
5.3.Na-ion patent landscape
5.4.Na-ion patent trends
5.5.Na-ion patent assignees
5.6.Non-academic Na-ion patent assignees
5.7.New entrants
5.8.Key player patents
5.9.CATL patent portfolio
5.10.CATL Prussian Blue Analogue Na-ion cathode
5.11.CATL Na-ion layered oxide cathode performance
5.12.Faradion patent overview
5.13.Faradion cathode and anode materials
5.14.Na-ion layered oxide cathode performance
5.15.Faradion anode development
5.16.Natron patent portfolio
5.17.Natron Energy patent examples
5.18.HiNa Battery Na-ion patent landscape
5.19.Brunp patent portfolio
5.20.Brunp patents
5.21.Toyota patent portfolio
5.22.Central South University patent portfolio
5.23.Central South University Na-ion anode development
5.24.Central South University Na-ion cathode development
5.25.CNRS patent portfolio
5.26.CNRS composite anodes
5.27.Zhongna Energy Na6Fe5(SO4)8/FeSO4 cathode
5.28.Overview of other industrial assignees
5.29.Remarks on Na-ion patents
5.30.Academic highlights
5.31.Academic Na-ion activity
5.32.Academic Na-ion activity
5.33.2022 academic highlights
5.34.2021 academic highlights
6.TARGET MARKETS AND APPLICATIONS
6.1.Na-ion technology acceptance
6.2.Na-ion batteries for grid applications
6.3.What markets exist for Na-ion batteries?
6.4.Target markets for Na-ion
6.5.Players and target market (1)
6.6.Players and target market (2)
6.7.Transport applications for Na-ion battery
6.8.High power, high cycle applications
6.9.Na-ion storage for EV fast charging
6.10.Summary of Na-ion applications
7.MATERIAL AND COST ANALYSIS
7.1.Comparing Na-ion materials and chemistries (material analysis and assumptions)
7.2.Theoretical gravimetric energy density
7.3.Energy density of Na-ion chemistries
7.4.Na-ion energy density vs Li-ion
7.5.Na-ion material intensity
7.6.Na-ion cell cost analysis
7.7.Na-ion cell material costs compared to Li-ion
7.8.Na-ion cell cost structure
7.9.Faradion Na-ion cell cost structure
7.10.Na-ion raw material cost contribution
7.11.Na-ion price reported by players
7.12.Faradion Na-ion price estimate
7.13.Key takeaways on Na-ion cost and energy density
8.FORECASTS
8.1.Outlook for Na-ion
8.2.Forecast methodology
8.3.Notes on the forecast
8.4.Na-ion demand by application 2022-2033 (GWh)
8.5.Na-ion demand by EV segment 2022-2033 (GWh)
8.6.Na-ion cell market value 2022-2033 (US$ Billion)
 

Report Statistics

Slides 217
Forecasts to 2033
ISBN 9781915514615
 
 
 
 

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