Application standards deal with agreements on the way or ways in which technology or systems are to be used in particular applications to ensure consistent usage in a specified manner. Many devices only require technology standards. However, open systems application standards using data carriers have to ensure that data created at a Source has to be perfectly understandable by any, even unknown, recipients. Application standards often set parameters and associated values, which constrain the associated technology standard in terms of performance or other features. The application standard may incorporate the data standard, or refer to an external data standard.