Shift to electric vehicles to drive printed electronics automotive market to $12.7 bn by 2031

Printed and Flexible Electronics for Automotive Applications 2021-2031: Technologies and Markets

Automotive printed electronics market, covering interiors, exteriors and powertrains. Includes battery heaters and sensors, interior heaters, HMI sensors, flexible displays and lighting, in-mold electronics, transparent heaters and antennas, and more...

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IDTechEx's report 'Printed and Flexible Electronics for Automotive Applications 2021-2031' explores the status and opportunities for printed/flexible electronics in all aspects of automotive design and manufacturing. Drawing on 54 company profiles, the majority based on interviews, it assesses the technological and commercial readiness of emerging printed/flexible electronics technologies across three main aspects of the vehicle. The report includes a 20-year market forecast for the automotive market, delineated by powertrain and autonomy level, and a 10-year market forecast for flexible electronics in automotive applications segmented across 26 forecast categories.
Structure of the 'Printed and Flexible Electronics for Automotive Applications 2021-2031' report
Transitions in the automotive sector
It is an exciting time for the automotive industry, with multiple technological transitions occurring simultaneously. This of course creates extensive opportunities for many new technologies, including printed/flexible electronics. For example, the ability to make electronics on thin flexible substrates enables weight to be reduced, a key consideration for electric vehicles. Furthermore, the conformality associated with flexible electronics is highly suited to emerging interior design trends with organic curves replacing flat surfaces.
The three key technological transitions we identify are:
  • Electric vehicles. The increased adoption of electric vehicles is well documented, with multiple countries announcing that sales of petrol/diesel fuelled new cars will become illegal at various points in the 2030s. This creates opportunities for printed electronics to be used in battery condition monitoring.
  • Increased levels of autonomy. Vehicles across the price range now contain sophisticated 'advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS)'. Over time the level of autonomy will increase, with full Level 5 autonomy expected in some vehicles within a decade. This creates opportunities for multiple sensor technologies and associated features such as transparent heaters and integrated antennas.
  • Differentiation shifts from powertrain to interior/cockpit. This transition is eloquently expressed in the quote from the president of a gauge cluster/cockpit manufacturer: "The cockpit is where the battleground has now shifted. It's no longer what is under the hood, but what's inside the cockpit." As such there are extensive opportunities for printed/flexible electronics to add additional functionality to the cockpit while facilitating efficient manufacturing.
Report Overview
This technical market research report from IDTechEx outlines the current status of printed/flexible electronics in all aspects of automotive design and manufacturing, along with the future opportunities created by these transitions.
The report is divided into three main sections, covering different aspects of the vehicle. Each section is then further segmented into the individual printed/flexible electronics technologies. Along with detailed technical discussion and application examples of the technologies outlined below, the report includes 10-year forecasts for each technology.
Printed/flexible electronics in electric vehicle powertrains.
Battery monitoring/heating for electric vehicles. Providing the maximum range possible for a given weight and price is a key requirement for electric vehicle manufacturers. This requires batteries to always work as efficiently as possible. However, battery capacity is strongly dependent on temperature. Furthermore, increases in temperature (and pressure) can indicate a malfunction and a possible safety concern. As such, there is an opportunity for printed arrays of temperature sensors to provide local monitoring, and for printed heaters to be integrated within the same functional film.
Thermal interface materials for electric vehicles. Although printed electronics are not well-suited to power electronics, they do require printed thermal interface materials for thermal management. Thermal greases are still the norm, but alternatives such as carbon nanotubes and phase change materials are likely to gain traction. As electric vehicles transition to ever higher charging rates, the need for thermal management becomes increasingly important.
Printed/flexible electronics in vehicle interiors.
Human machine interface (HMI) technologies. A major opportunity for printed/flexible electronics is in human machine interfaces (HMIs) for the interior. Already widely used in seat occupancy sensors, printed pressure sensors are likely to find their way into control panels to provide a wider range of inputs than purely capacitive touch sensors without the expense of mechanical switches. Furthermore, occupancy sensors are likely to evolve into multipoint sensors distributed throughout the seat fabric to monitor passenger comfort.
Printed/flexible interior heaters. The existing approach to heating car interiors by blowing hot air around is very inefficient, and highly detrimental to the range of electric vehicles. Printed/flexible electronics to incorporate heaters within touch points is far more efficient - this is approach is likely to extend beyond seats and steering wheels to encompass armrests and center consoles. Furthermore, the conformality of printed electronics enables heaters to be placed much closer to the surface, making heating more efficient and responsive. Transparent conductors take this idea a step further and can be applied directly to the surface of materials such as leather.
Emerging manufacturing methodologies for integrating electronics. In-mold electronics is a major trend in automotive manufacturing. By combining the electronics with the thermoformed plastic. It enables integrated systems such as center consoles and overhead control panels to be much lighter, simpler, and easier to manufacture. Indeed, IDTechEx forecast IME to be an approximately $1.3 bn market by 2031. Another emerging manufacturing methodology, albeit a few years further into the future than IME, is printing electronics and dielectric inks directly onto 3D surfaces. This should enable to enable wiring harnesses to be replaced, reducing weight and complexity.
Interior displays and lighting. Manufacturers are increasingly aiming to differentiate their vehicles by adding multiple displays. These go beyond the conventional center screen to include digital gauge clusters along with displays for mirrors and passenger entertainment. OLEDs are likely to be increasingly adopted, as the resolution and color gamut meet the expectations consumers transfer from their smartphones. Conformality should also enable a wider range of integration opportunities, such safety improving 'transparent' pillars. Distinctive interior lighting also offers differentiation, with LEDs mounted onto flexible substrates an emerging lightweight and conformal approach.
Printed/flexible electronics in vehicle exteriors.
Hybrid SWIR image sensors. ADAS systems and autonomous vehicles will require as much input information as possible to ensure safety. Imaging in the short-wave infra-red (SWIR) spectral region is especially promising since light scatters less at longer wavelengths, enabling objects to be identified at longer distances in fog or dust. The incumbent technology for SWIR image sensors is prohibitively expensive, so innovative technologies are required. Coating silicon read-out circuits with either organic semiconductors or quantum dots is a highly promising approach.
Integrated antennas. Vehicles become more connected every year, necessitating multiple antennas to cover multiple frequency bands. These need to be integrated into plastic body panels, opening opportunities for in-mold electronics and printing onto 3D surfaces. In the future, transparent antennas could also be installed on windows.
Exterior lighting. As the level of vehicle autonomy increases, vehicles will need to interact with pedestrians. Low-cost printed/flexible displays are ideally suited to this purpose, as low weight, durability and conformality (including in an accident) are all more important than resolution. Possible approaches include printed LEDs, and mounting LEDs on flexible substrates.
Transparent heaters for exterior lighting/sensors/windows. Cameras and LIDAR in autonomous vehicles or ADAS systems will always require a clear view of the road. This means that ensuring that the transparent cover over the sensor is free of mist/frost is essential. Furthermore, thin metal lines could obscure the view of these safety critical components. As such, developing transparent heaters that use transparent conductors such as silver nanowires or CNTs is needed. Over time these technologies are likely to fall in price, enabling them to be applied to windows as well.
Printed/flexible photovoltaics. While photovoltaics will never be able to power a car continuously over a long journey, they do enable around 30 km of distance to be added each day. At present electric vehicles with solar panels use silicon photovoltaics, but thin film photovoltaics are a promising alternative due to their lightweight and conformality.
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Table of Contents
1.1.Printed/flexible/organic electronics market
1.2.Printed/flexible electronics in automotive applications.
1.3.Transitions in the automotive industry
1.4.Advantages of roll-to-roll (R2R) manufacturing
1.5.What is flexible hybrid electronics (FHE)?
1.6.Automotive-relevant attributes of FHE
1.7.Printed/flexible electronics in vehicle powertrains.
1.8.Battery thermal management: Optimal temperature required
1.9.Integrated pressure/temperature sensors and heaters for battery cells
1.10.Technological/commercial readiness level of printed/flexible electronics in vehicle powertrains
1.11.Vehicle interiors increasingly provide differentiation
1.12.Printed/flexible electronics for vehicle interiors
1.13.Printed/flexible electronics opportunities from car interior trends
1.14.Printed/flexible electronics enables cost differentiation and/or cost reduction
1.15.Integrated stretchable pressure sensors
1.16.Innovative integration of capacitive touch screens
1.17.Hybrid piezoresistive/capacitive sensors
1.18.Metallization and materials for each 3D electronics methodology
1.19.Motivation for 3D electronics
1.20.In-mold electronics: Summary
1.21.Printed/flexible electronics in automotive displays and lighting
1.22.Technological/commercial readiness level of printed/flexible electronics in vehicle interiors
1.23.Printed/flexible electronics for vehicle exteriors
1.24.SWIR for autonomous mobility and ADAS
1.25.Transparent electronics for ADAS radar
1.26.Opportunities for printed/flexible electronics in exterior automotive lighting
1.27.Transparent heaters for exterior lighting/sensors/windows
1.28.Where are printed/flexible photovoltaics envisaged in cars?
1.29.Technological/commercial readiness level of printed/flexible electronics in vehicle exteriors
1.30.Global car market forecast by powertrain
1.31.Overall forecast: Printed/flexible electronics in automotive applications (volume)
1.32.Overall forecast for printed/flexible electronics in automotive applications (volume) (data table)
1.33.Overall forecast: Printed/flexible electronics in automotive applications (revenue)
1.34.Overall forecast for printed/flexible electronics in automotive applications (revenue) (data table)
1.35.Forecast revenue CAGR 2021-2031
2.1.1.Printed/flexible/organic electronics market
2.1.2.Description and analysis of the main technology components of printed, flexible and organic electronics
2.1.3.Market potential and profitability
2.1.4.Printed/flexible electronics in automotive applications.
2.1.5.Transitions in the automotive industry
2.1.6.Trends in automotive powertrain adoption
2.1.7.Trends in autonomous vehicle adoption
2.1.8.What are the levels of automation in cars?
2.1.9.Opportunities for printed/flexible electronics in automotive applications
2.1.10.Advantages of roll-to-roll (R2R) manufacturing
2.1.11.Flexible hybrid electronic (FHE) circuits for automotive applications
2.1.12.What is flexible hybrid electronics (FHE)?
2.1.13.What counts as FHE?
2.1.14.FHE: The best of both worlds?
2.1.15.Overcoming the flexibility/functionality compromise
2.1.16.Commonality with other electronics methodologies
2.1.17.Automotive-relevant attributes of FHE
2.1.18.PCB replacement with FHE circuits
2.2.Overall market forecasts
2.2.1.Forecasting methodology
2.2.2.Forecast: Global car market by powertrain
2.2.3.Forecast: Global autonomous car market
2.2.4.Forecast: Global autonomous car market (data table)
2.2.5.Overall forecast: Printed/flexible electronics in automotive applications (volume)
2.2.6.Overall forecast: Printed/flexible electronics in automotive applications (volume) (data table)
2.2.7.Overall forecast: Printed/flexible electronics in automotive applications (revenue)
2.2.8.Overall forecast: Printed/flexible electronics in automotive applications (revenue) (data table)
2.2.9.Forecast revenue CAGR 2021-2031
2.2.10.Forecast: Flexible hybrid electronics (FHE)
2.2.11.Forecast: Flexible hybrid electronics (data table)
2.2.12.Forecast: Printed sensors and heaters for batteries
2.2.13.Forecast: TIMs for electric vehicles
2.2.14.Forecast: TIMs for electric vehicles (data table)
2.2.15.Forecast: HMI technologies
2.2.16.Forecast: HMI technologies (data table)
2.2.17.Forecast: OLED displays
2.2.18.Forecast: OLED displays (data table)
2.2.19.Forecast: IME /FIM/Electronics on 3D surfaces
2.2.20.Forecast: IME/FIM/Electronics on 3D surfaces (data table)
2.2.21.Forecast: Printed heaters for seats and interior (data table)
2.2.22.Forecast: Exterior applications of printed/flexible electronics
3.1.1.Printed/flexible electronics in electric vehicles
3.2.Battery monitoring/heating for electric vehicles
3.2.1.Introduction to thermal management for electric vehicles
3.2.2.Battery thermal management: Optimal temperature required
3.2.3.Integrated battery temperature sensing and heating: IEE
3.2.4.Printed battery module heater: IEE
3.2.5.Silicon nanoparticle ink for temperature sensing (PST Sensors) (II)
3.2.6.Printed temperature sensors and heaters
3.2.7.InnovationLab: Integrated pressure/temperature sensors and heaters for battery cells
3.2.8.SWOT: Temperature control (sensing/heating) for battery systems
3.2.9.Temperature control (sensing/heating) for battery systems
3.3.Thermal interface materials for electric vehicle powertrains
3.3.1.Thermal management materials (TIMs) in automotive applications
3.3.2.Thermal management - pack and module overview
3.3.3.Why use TIM in power modules?
3.3.4.Automotive applications are a harsh environment
3.3.5.Thermal greases are still the norm
3.3.6.Thermal management of Electronic Control Units (ECUs)
3.3.7.Alternatives TIMs: Carbon nanotubes (CNTs)
3.3.8.Carbon nanotubes for TIMs: Stanford University
3.3.9.Thermoelectric Coolers and Generators
3.3.10.Thermoelectric coolers and generators
3.3.11.SWOT: Thermal management materials
3.3.12.Thermal management and thermal interface materials
3.4.Summary: Printed/flexible electronics in electric vehicle powertrains
3.4.1.Technological/commercial readiness level of printed/flexible electronics in vehicle powertrains
3.4.2.Forecast: Printed sensors and heaters for batteries
3.4.3.Forecast: TIMs for electric vehicles
3.4.4.Forecast: TIMs for electric vehicles (data table)
4.1.1.Vehicle interiors increasingly provide differentiation
4.1.2.Printed / flexible electronics in car interiors
4.1.3.Evolution of car interiors: 1950s - 1980s
4.1.4.Evolution of car interiors: 1990s - today
4.1.5.Evolution of car interiors: today - future
4.1.6.Printed/flexible electronics opportunities from car interior trends
4.1.7.Printed/flexible electronics enables cost differentiation and/or cost reduction
4.2.Human machine interface (HMI) technologies
4.2.1.Company profiles: HMI Sensors
4.2.2.Piezoresistive sensors
4.2.3.Printed piezoresistive sensors: An introduction
4.2.4.Automotive applications for printed piezoresistive sensors
4.2.5.Automotive seat occupancy sensors
4.2.6.What are force sensing resistors (FSR)?
4.2.7.What is piezoresistance?
4.2.8.Percolation dependent resistance
4.2.9.Thru-mode sensors
4.2.10.Shunt mode sensors
4.2.11.Force vs resistance characteristics
4.2.12.Piezoresistive inks for force sensitive resistors
4.2.13.Complete material portfolio approach is common
4.2.14.IEE: Seat occupancy sensors
4.2.15.ForcIOT: Integrated stretchable pressure sensors
4.2.16.Tangio: 3D multi-touch pressure sensors
4.2.17.Tekscan: Matrix pressure sensor architecture
4.2.18.Piezoresistive sensors in car seats
4.2.19.InnovationLab: Spatially resolved flexible pressure sensor
4.2.20.Technological development of piezoresistive sensors.
4.2.21.Business models for printed piezoresistive sensors
4.2.22.SWOT: Piezoresistive sensors
4.2.23.Capacitive sensors
4.2.24.Capacitive sensors: Working principle
4.2.25.TG0: Integrated capacitive sensing
4.2.26.Rotary dial on a capacitive touch screen
4.2.27.Conductive materials for transparent capacitive sensors
4.2.28.Quantitative benchmarking of different TCF technologies
4.2.29.Technology comparison
4.2.30.Silver nanowires: An introduction
4.2.31.Properties of silver nanowires
4.2.32.Combining AgNW and CNTs for a TCF material (Chasm)
4.2.33.Metal mesh: Photolithography followed by etching
4.2.34.Direct printed metal mesh transparent conductive films: performance
4.2.35.Direct printed metal mesh transparent conductive films: major shortcomings
4.2.36.Introduction to Carbon Nanotubes (CNT)
4.2.37.Carbon nanotube transparent conductive films: performance of commercial films on the market
4.2.38.Carbon nanotube transparent conductive films: mechanical flexibility
4.2.40.Performance of PEDOT:PSS has drastically improved
4.2.41.Use case examples of PEDOT:PSS TCF for capacitive touch sensors
4.2.42.SWOT: Printed/flexible capacitive sensors
4.2.43.Hybrid piezoresistive/capacitive sensors
4.2.44.Tangio: Hybrid FSR/capacitive sensors
4.2.45.Curved sensors with consistent zero (Tacterion)
4.2.46.Tacterion: Flexible combined force/capacitive sensing
4.2.47.Summary: Printed piezoresistive sensor applications
4.2.48.SWOT: Hybrid piezoresistive / capacitive sensors
4.2.49.Piezoelectric sensors
4.2.50.Piezoelectric sensors: An introduction
4.2.51.Printed piezoelectric sensor
4.2.52.Piezoelectric polymers
4.2.53.PVDF-based polymer options for sensing and haptic actuators
4.2.54.Piezoelectric polymers sensors: Pyzoflex
4.2.55.Meggitt: Inorganic piezoelectric inks
4.2.56.SWOT: Piezoelectric sensors
4.3.Printed/flexible interior heaters
4.3.1.Printed car seat heaters
4.3.2.Car seat heaters
4.3.3.Graphene inks are a potential substitute?
4.3.4.Transparent circuits as car interior heaters
4.3.5.Transparent circuits as car interior heaters (continued)
4.3.6.Company profiles: Printed/flexible interior heaters
4.3.7.SWOT: Printed/flexible interior heaters
4.4.Emerging manufacturing methodologies for integrating electronics
4.4.1.Metallization and materials for each 3D electronics methodology electronics manufacturing method flowchart
4.4.3.HMI: Trend towards 3D touch surfaces
4.4.4.Company profiles: Emerging manufacturing methodologies
4.4.5.Printing electronics onto 3D surfaces electronics requires special electronic design software
4.4.7.Advantages of 3D electronics vs conventional PCBs
4.4.8.Motivation for 3D electronics
4.4.9.Comparing selective metallization methods
4.4.10.Aerosol deposition onto 3D surfaces
4.4.11.Replacing wiring bundles with printed electronics
4.4.12.Comparison of metallization methods
4.4.13.SWOT: Electronics onto 3D surfaces
4.4.14.Summary: Electronics onto 3D surfaces
4.4.15.In-mold electronics (IME) and film-insert molding (FIM)
4.4.16.In-mold electronics: Summary
4.4.17.Manufacturing in-mold electronics (IME)?
4.4.18.What is the in-mold electronic process?
4.4.19.Motivation for IME in automotive applications
4.4.20.In-mold electronic application: Automotive
4.4.21.Addressable market in vehicle interiors in 2020 and 2025
4.4.22.Automotive: In-mold decoration product examples
4.4.23.Case study: Ford and T-ink
4.4.24.Automotive: Human machine interfaces
4.4.25.Stretchable conductive inks for in-mold electronics
4.4.26.In-mold conductive inks on the market
4.4.27.Printed and thermoformed overhead console
4.4.28.Covestro: Plastics for IME
4.4.29.Plastic Electronic: Film insert molding
4.4.30.PolyIC: Film insert molding
4.4.31.Molex: Capacitive touch panel with backlighting
4.4.32.SWOT: In-mold electronics (IME) and film-insert molding (FIM)
4.5.Interior displays and lighting
4.5.1.Mercedes-Benz: 3 screens mounted collectively
4.5.2.Increased adoption of large displays and lighting
4.5.3.Company profiles: Interior displays and lighting
4.5.4.OLED and flexible displays
4.5.5.OLED displays for automotive applications
4.5.6.Where are OLED displays used in automotive applications?
4.5.7.Visteon: Curved screens in automotive interiors
4.5.8.ROYOLE: Flexible OLED displays for gauge clusters
4.5.9.Passive-matrix OLEDs
4.5.10.Active matrix OLED in automotive applications
4.5.11.Transparent OLED for heads-up displays
4.5.12.Flexible LCD displays
4.5.13.SWOT: OLED and flexible displays
4.5.14.Emerging display and lighting technologies for automotive interiors
4.5.15.Printed/flexible electronics in automotive displays and lighting
4.5.16.Micro-LED in automotive displays
4.5.17.Comparisons of LEDs for displays
4.5.18.Integrating lighting and e-textiles
4.5.19.Printed LED lighting (NthDegree)
4.5.20.SWOT: Emerging display and lighting technologies
4.6.Summary: Printed/flexible electronics in vehicle interiors
4.6.1.Summary: Printed/flexible electronics in vehicle interiors
4.6.2.Technological/commercial readiness level of printed/flexible electronics in vehicle interiors
4.6.3.Forecast: HMI technologies
4.6.4.Forecasts: HMI technologies (data table)
4.6.5.Forecast: OLED displays
4.6.6.Forecasts: OLED displays (data table)
4.6.7.Forecast: IME /FIM/Electronics on 3D surfaces
4.6.8.Forecast: IME/FIM/Electronics on 3D surfaces (data table)
4.6.9.Forecast: Printed heaters for seats and interior (data table)
5.1.1.Printed/flexible electronics in vehicle exteriors
5.2.Hybrid SWIR image sensors
5.2.1.SWIR for autonomous mobility and ADAS
5.2.2.Other SWIR benefits: Better hazard detection
5.2.3.Types of printed photodetectors/image sensors
5.2.4.SWIR: Incumbent and emerging technology options
5.2.5.Existing long wavelength detection: InGaAs
5.2.6.OPD on CMOS hybrid image sensors
5.2.7.Fraunhofer FEP: SWIR OPD-on-CMOS sensors
5.2.8.Quantum dots as optical sensor materials
5.2.9.Hybrid quantum dots for SWIR imaging
5.2.10.QD-Si hybrid image sensors: Reducing thickness
5.2.11.QD-Si hybrid image sensors: Low power and high sensitivity to structured light detection for machine vision?
5.2.12.Advantage of solution processing: Ease of integration with a silicon ROIC
5.2.13.Quantum dot films: Processing challenges
5.2.14.How is the QD layer applied?
5.2.15.Emberion: QD-Graphene-Si broad range SWIR sensor
5.2.16.QD-on-CMOS integration examples (IMEC)
5.2.17.Challenges for QD-Si technology for SWIR imaging.
5.2.18.QD-on-CMOS sensors ongoing technical challenges
5.2.19.Comparing SWIR image sensors technologies
5.2.20.Technology readiness level snapshot of printed image sensors
5.2.21.SWOT: Hybrid SWIR image sensors
5.2.22.Company profiles: SWIR imaging with hybrid sensors
5.3.Integrated antenna (including for radar)
5.3.1.Transparent electronics for ADAS radar
5.3.2.Radar integrated into headlights
5.3.3.Radar integrated into headlights (continued)
5.3.4.SWOT: Integrated antennas with printed electronics
5.3.5.Company profiles: Integrated antennas
5.4.Exterior lighting
5.4.1.Opportunities for printed/flexible electronics in exterior automotive lighting
5.4.2.OLED lighting
5.4.3.Commercializing OLED lighting is more challenging than OLED displays
5.4.4.OLED taillights commercialized
5.4.5.Comparing OLED and LED lighting
5.4.6.Konica Minolta develops R2R line
5.4.7.Mini-LEDs on flexible substrates for automotive lighting.
5.4.8.Flexbright mount LEDs on flexible substrates for bus/tram destination boards.
5.4.9.Lighting for autonomous car-to-person communication
5.4.10.SWOT: Flexible/printed exterior lighting
5.4.11.Company profiles: Exterior lighting
5.4.12.Transparent heaters for exterior lighting / sensors / windows
5.5.Transparent heaters for exterior lighting/sensors/windows
5.5.1.Automotive de-foggers are an established business
5.5.2.Printing on polycarbonate car windows.
5.5.3.Printed on-glass heater: digital printing comes of age?
5.5.4.Key suppliers for rear window defoggers
5.5.5.Growing need for 3D shaped transparent heater in automotive
5.5.6.Direct heating of headlamp plastic covers
5.5.7.Laser transfer printing as a new process for vehicle glass printing
5.5.8.Metal mesh transparent conductors as replacement for printed heaters?
5.5.9.Chasm: Transparent heaters with silver nanowires/CNTs
5.5.10.Carbon nanotube transparent conductors as replacement for printed heaters?
5.5.11.SWOT: Transparent heaters for exterior lighting / sensors / windows
5.5.12.Company profiles: Transparent exterior heaters
5.6.Printed/flexible photovoltaics
5.6.1.Where are printed/flexible photovoltaics envisaged in cars?
5.6.2.Webasto: Semi-transparent solar PV roof
5.6.3.Lightyear: Long range solar electric vehicle
5.6.4.Toyota develop solar powered car
5.6.5.Hyundai introduces silicon solar panels on roofs.
5.6.6.Sono Motors develop solar powered car
5.6.7.Tandem silicon-perovskite solar cells increase efficiency
5.6.8.Challenges in the adoption of PV in automotive applications
5.6.9.Company profiles: PV in automotive applications
5.7.Summary: Printed/flexible electronics in vehicle exteriors
5.7.1.Summary: Exterior
5.7.2.Technological/commercial readiness level of printed/flexible electronics in vehicle exteriors
5.7.3.Forecast: Exterior applications of printed/flexible electronics

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