Off Grid & Energy Harvesting Report

New EH and other technology will lead to electronics and electrics lasting up to 100 years

Battery Elimination in Electronics and Electrical Engineering 2018-2028

Technology and prospects for 'perpetual' devices and equipment. Achieving a much greater market for IoT, EVs and more with huge benefits to society.


 
This new report explains why we need to do this and why even partial success promises major benefits to society and new business opportunities. For example, Internet of Things nodes cannot be deployed in hundreds of billions if their batteries have to be replaced. At least 80% of the potential for IoT will be denied us since they need to be working decades from now despite being inaccessibly embedded in concrete of bridges and buildings, on billions of trees and so on. Think of remote communities and the emerging nations having electric vehicles that are virtually maintenance free and passed between generations to give travel almost free of charge. Return to a distant planet to find your robots still at work. The report analyses new breakthroughs promising to make all this possible and more.
 
It explains how batteries have serious limitations of cost, safety, performance and life. Learn how lithium-ion batteries will dominate the market for at least ten years and probably much longer yet no lithium-ion cell is inherently safe and no lithium-ion battery management system can ensure safety in all circumstances. Tesla says it will have solar bodywork on all its electric vehicles but, as this trend from "components in a box" to structural electronics and electrics progresses, the batteries are the problem because even solid state ones swell and shrink in use. They would destroy bodywork.
 
The report uniquely examines the many ways of eliminating batteries, confounding the skeptics with many examples currently operating, from electronics to buses and the power grid. Learn how batteries are needed less and less with the advent of energy harvesting with greatly improved continuity such as Airborne Wind Energy and multi-mode. It is noted that electronics and electrics need far less energy nowadays, making battery elimination more feasible: think ultra low power ARM chips, LEDs and high voltage, high speed traction motors for example.
 
The replacement of batteries with other energy storage is covered: some of these components have much longer life, better safety and suitability for use in planned smart materials. However, the much bigger potential is complete elimination of energy storage and that is the main focus.
 
This report has over 300 pages packed with new infograms, statistics and predictions. The Executive Summary and Conclusions is self-standing and sufficient for those in a hurry. The Introduction introduces the problems and solutions, including technologies to add to energy harvesting to provide the continuity of electricity supply that leads to less or no battery, such as dynamic charging of vehicles through roads.
 
The work was researched by PhD level analysts travelling worldwide and examination of IDTechEx databases, web research, recent conferences and other sources. The emphasis is on practicality, benchmarking and opportunity rather than theory so the third chapter looks at eliminating energy storage from sensors, building controls, cellphones and robot ships, sharing recent breakthroughs and predictions. Deliberately these examples expose very different challenges and solutions.
 
Chapter 4 is entirely devoted to the important topic of Internet of Things nodes without batteries - key to mass deployment. It reveals the exciting progress of EnOcean GmbH in this respect. This contrasts with Chapter 5 revealing the very different way in which electric vehicles and mobile e-cooking progress to no battery. This chapter also encompasses how to replace 700GW of diesel gensets across the world with transportable green sources with little or no battery and how the new Energy Independent Electric Vehicles EIV with quoted "perpetual" speed fit in with all this. Chapter 6 contemplates the grid without energy storage, currently a hot topic in that industry and finally, from Chapter 7 onwards, it looks very thoroughly at energy harvesting technologies for battery replacement.
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Table of Contents
1.EXECUTIVE SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS
1.1.The need for batteries
1.2.Batteries are a huge success
1.2.1.Addressable battery market by end user segment $ billion
1.2.2.Battery volume demand in GWh by end use segment 2016-2026
1.3.Problems with batteries
1.4.Ongoing lithium-ion fires and explosions
1.4.1.Computers, cars, aircraft
1.4.2.Hoverboards
1.4.3.Next Li-ion failures and production delays due to cutting corners
1.5.Impact of maintenance (battery change)
1.6.How to improve, shrink and eliminate batteries
1.7.Drivers and facilitators of battery elimination
1.7.1.How it becomes more necessary and easier
1.7.2.Rapid improvement in alternatives and more of them
1.7.3.How to eliminate batteries in zero emission power production
1.7.4.Huge potential
1.7.5.Battery Eliminator Circuits: drones, eliminating PbA EV battery
1.8.Peak in car sales k - goodbye to most lead-acid batteries...
1.9.Roadmap to elimination of energy storage and sales resulting
1.10.Best practice of energy storage elimination today
1.10.1.University of Washington USA microwatt phone
1.10.2.Triboelectric toys USA
1.10.3.CO sensor powered by ambient radio
1.10.4.EnOcean Germany microwatt to 3W
1.10.5.Battery elimination today at kW
1.10.6.IFEVS Italy electric restaurant van
1.10.7.Cargo Trike UK
1.10.8.Nuna8 Solar racer Netherlands
1.10.9.Stella Lux Netherlands energy positive car
1.10.10.Solar Ship Canada inflatable wing Canada 10kW
1.10.11.MARS UK autonomous boat
1.11.Dynamic charging from road Korea
1.12.Battery elimination from currently developed land-based technologies
1.13.Robot ships, off-grid power, diesel genset replacement: high power off-grid without batteries
1.14.Grid, microgrid, genset without batteries one day
1.15.Energy harvesting transducer options compared for all applications
2.INTRODUCTION
2.1.What is wrong with batteries, alternatives
2.2.Many solutions at low and high power, problems in between
2.3.Battery Eliminator Circuits BEC
2.4.Other uses and BEC development
2.5.Solar and wind power reinvented: latest news
2.6.Eight19
2.7.Supercapacitor replaces battery - February 2018
2.8.Off Grid EV charging without batteries - March 2018
3.ELIMINATING ENERGY STORAGE FROM BUILDING CONTROLS, CELLPHONES
3.1.Building controls without energy storage: EnOcean Alliance
3.2.Cell phone that requires no batteries
4.INTERNET OF THINGS NODES WITHOUT ENERGY STORAGE: ENOCEAN
4.1.Easy to install
4.2.Fast Installation
4.3.Flexible Adaption
4.4.More than just the primary function
4.5.System
4.6.Protocol choice
4.7.Distance
4.8.Frequency
4.9.Protocol options
4.10.Bluetooth and Bluetooth Smart
4.11.Beacons and Sensor Nodes
4.12.Switches
4.13.Sensors
4.14.Power supply for wireless sensors and beacons
4.15.Energy Harvesting
4.16.Two way EnOcean: Dolphin Modules & White Label Products now IOT
4.17.EnOcean - Information for Intelligent Systems
4.18.Silvair partnership July 2017
4.19.Report from the IBM-EnOcean Alliance meeting
5.ELECTRIC VEHICLES, SHIPS AND E-COOKING PROGRESS TO NO BATTERY
5.1.IFEVS electric restaurant van: cooks pasta without using battery.
5.2.Nanowinn Microbus China
5.3.Vinerobot micro EV France, Germany, Italy, Spain, Australia
5.4.Sunnyclist Greece
5.5.Solar golf cars
5.6.Solar motor home
6.GRID AND OFF GRID POWER WITHOUT ENERGY STORAGE
6.1.Overview
6.1.1.Definitions
6.1.2.Structure
6.1.3.Off-grid structural types
6.1.4.Capacity factor
6.2.Off-grid leading technologies today: PV + Li-ion batteries gain share
6.3.Strategies for battery elimination on and off grid
6.3.1.Four approaches: together if possible
6.4.Promising new sources
6.4.1.New wind power
6.4.2.Airborne Wind Energy: Better LCOE, Cp, adjustable power, night power
6.4.3.Vertical Axis Wind Turbines
6.4.4.Future photovoltaics
6.4.5.Building Integrated Photovoltaics BIPV
6.4.6.Blue energy
6.5.Technology and adoption roadmap: harvesting
6.6.Mobile solar desalinator with no battery
6.7.Rock thermal storage with no battery
6.8.Wave energy without batteries
6.9.Wind + solar shared electrics: no battery?
7.BATTERY ELIMINATION IN DESALINATION: WAVE PRESSURE OR STORED OUTPUT
8.ENERGY HARVESTING TECHNOLOGIES FOR BATTERY REPLACEMENT
8.1.Definition
8.2.Features of EH
8.3.Low power vs high power off-grid
8.4.Types of EH energy source
8.5.Ford and EPA assessment of regeneration potential in a car
8.6.EH by power level
8.6.1.Needs by power level
8.6.2.Technologies by power level
8.6.3.Vibration and random movement harvesting
8.7.EH transducer options compared
8.8.Energy storage technologies in comparison
8.9.EH system architecture
8.10.Energy Harvesting Maturity
8.11.Popularity by technology 2017-2027
8.11.1.Overview
8.11.2.Typical vibration sources encountered
8.11.3.The vibration harvesting opportunity
8.12.Some energy harvesting highlights of "IDTechEx Show!" Berlin May 2017
8.13.Market drivers
8.14.History of energy harvesting
8.15.Problems that are opportunities
9.APPLICATIONS NOW AND IN FUTURE
9.1.Introduction
9.1.1.Energy harvesting is an immature industry
9.2.Where is EH used in general?
9.2.1.Examples of energy harvesting by power level
9.2.2.Hype and success: applications
9.2.3.Some EH applications by location
9.2.4.Power needs of electronic and electrical products
9.3.Regional differences
9.4.EH is sometimes introduced then abandoned
9.5.Lower power ICs and different design approach facilitate low power EH adoption
9.6.Building control, BIPV, IoT for communities, local grid
9.6.1.Introduction
9.6.2.Electrodynamically operated light switch
9.6.3.Building integrated photovoltaics BIPV
9.6.4.In communities: IoT
9.7.Uses in vehicles
9.7.1.Transitional options to EIV
9.8.Manufacturers
9.9.Toyota view in 2017 with image of the new Prius Prime solar roof
10.TECHNOLOGIES AND SYSTEMS
10.1.Overview
10.2.Comparison of options
10.2.1.Technology choice by intermittent power generated
10.2.2.Roadmap for low power EH: Bosch
10.2.3.EH transducer options compared
10.2.4.Potential efficiency
10.2.5.Hype and success - technology
10.2.6.Parameters
10.2.7.Multi-modal harvesting today
10.2.8.Integrated multi-modal: European Commission Powerweave project etc
10.2.9.Wi-Fi harvesting
11.TECHNOLOGY: ELECTRODYNAMIC
11.1.Overview
11.2.Choices of rotating electrical machine technology
11.3.Airborne Wind Energy AWE
11.3.1.TwingTec Switzerland 10 kW+, Ampyx Power
11.3.2.Google Makhani AWE 600kW trial, Enerkite
11.4.Typical powertrain components and regenerative braking
11.5.Trend to integration in vehicles
11.6.Human-powered electrodynamic harvesting
11.6.1.Knee Power
11.7.Electrodynamic vibration energy harvesting
11.7.1.Overview
11.8.Electrodynamic regenerative shock absorbers and self-powered active suspension
11.9.Flywheel KERS vs motor regen. braking
11.10.3D and 6D movement
11.11.Next generation motor generators, turbine EH in vehicles
12.TECHNOLOGY: PHOTOVOLTAICS
12.1.Overview
12.2.pn junction vs alternatives
12.3.Wafer vs thin film
12.4.Important photovoltaic parameters
12.5.Some choices beyond silicon compared
12.6.Tightly rollable, foldable, stretchable PV will come
12.7.OPV
12.8.Photovoltaic electric cooking without batteries
13.TECHNOLOGY: THERMOELECTRICS
13.1.Basis and fabrication of thermoelectric generators TEG
13.2.Choice of active materials
13.3.Benefits of Thin Film TE
13.4.TEG systems
13.5.Automotive TEG
13.6.Powering sensor transceivers on bus bars and hot pipes
13.7.Flex's Smart Thermos
13.8.High power thermoelectrics: tens of watts
13.9.High power thermoelectrics: kilowatt
14.TECHNOLOGY: PIEZOELECTRICS
14.1.Overview
14.2.Active materials
14.2.1.Overview
14.2.2.Exceptional piezo performance announced 2016
14.3.Piezo Effect - Direct
14.4.Piezo Effect - Converse
14.5.Piezo options compared
14.6.Piezo in cars - potential
14.6.1.Piezo EH powered tyre sensor
14.7.Piezo EH in helicopter
14.8.Consumer Electronics
14.9.Benefits of Thin Film
14.10.Benefits of elastomer: KAIST Korea
14.11.Vibration energy harvester (Joule Thief)
14.12.Challenges with high power piezoelectrics
15.CAPACITIVE ELECTROSTATIC
15.1.Principle
15.2.Interdigitated to elastomer
15.3.Capacitive flexible
15.3.1.Dielectric elastomer generators
15.4.Creating electricity from ocean waves: best places West Coast of North America, UK, Japan
15.5.Creating electricity from ocean waves: the dilemma
15.6.High power DEG capacitive wave power trials
15.7.MEMS Electrostatic Scavengers
15.7.1.Advanced MEMS capacitive vibration harvester in 2016
16.MAGNETOSTRICTIVE, MICROBIAL, NANTENNA
16.1.Magnetostrictive
16.2.Microbial fuel cells
16.3.Nantenna-diode
17.TRIBOELECTRIC
17.1.Definition
17.2.Triboelectric dielectric series
17.3.Triboelectric dielectric series examples showing wide choice of properties
17.4.Triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG)
17.5.Achievement
17.6.Four ways to make a TENG
17.6.1.Overview
17.6.2.TENG modes with advantages, potential uses
17.6.3.Research focus on the four modes
17.6.4.Parametric advantages and challenges of triboelectric EH
17.7.Be your own battery
17.8.Twistron from the University of Texas, Dallas
17.9.Triboelectric wave, tire and shirt power, Clemson University
18.HYDROGEN OR GRAVITY NOT BATTERIES FOR GRID BALANCING?
18.1.Chemistry such as hydrogen
18.2.Gravity reinvented

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