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Energy Harvesting and Storage for Electronic Devices 2009-2019

Updated Q4 2009

This 2009 report is no longer available, click here for details of the 2010 edition
 
 
 
 
Energy harvesting is otherwise known as power harvesting or energy scavenging. It is the use of ambient energy to power small electronic or electrical devices. That means solar cells on satellites, heat powered sensors buried in engines, vibration harvesting for helicopter electronics and the wind- up radio or lantern. However, there are also several more esoteric options.
 
Energy harvesting has reached a tipping point. This is because the necessary lower power electronics and more efficient energy gathering and storage are now sufficiently affordable, reliable and longer lived for a huge number of applications to be practicable. From wind-up laptops for Africa to the wireless light switch working from the power of your finger, these things are either available or imminently available. And photovoltaics, long used in aerospace, has come down-market, even to road furniture but it has much further to go even to disposable solar film and even solar paint. The first solar powered watches and phones have appeared. Some new photovoltaic technologies are printed reel to reel at low cost, the resulting film working off heat as well as light. For example, Sony is commercialising flexible solar cells for indoor use.
 
However, there are further mountains to climb from self powered wireless sensors monitoring forest fires, pollution spillages and even inside the human body and in the concrete of buildings. These applications will become commonplace one day. Even devices with maintenance-free life of hundreds of years can now be envisaged. Meanwhile, bionic man containing maintenance free, self-powered devices for his lifetime is an objective for the next few years.
For the first time, this unique report looks at the global situation. It particularly focuses on 200 organisations in 22 countries, the distribution being as shown below.
 
 
How do these things work? Which technologies have the most potential now and in the future? What are the advantages and disadvantages of each? Which countries have the most active programs and why? What are the leading universities, developers, manufacturers and other players up to? What alliances exist? What are the timelines for success? All these questions and more are answered in this report.
 
First prepared in late 2008/ early 2009, is the fruit of global visits, literature searches and interviews by technically qualified IDTechEx staff. IDTechEx stages the largest conferences in three continents on Printed Electronics and the only major conferences on Real Time Locating Systems/Wireless Sensor Networks and Photovoltaics beyond Conventional Silicon, plus a major RFID conference. These and its widespread technical and marketing consultancy business provides unique insight into what is happening and about to happen. IDTechEx has offices in the USA, UK, Germany, Poland and New Zealand and is setting up an office in Japan. Its staff speak many languages, travel intensively and are well placed to see the future.
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Table of Contents
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS
1.INTRODUCTION
1.1.What is energy harvesting?
1.1.Power requirements of small electronic products including Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) and the types of battery employed
1.1.Energy harvesting compared with alternatives
1.2.Ten year improvement in electronics, photovoltaics and batteries
1.2.What it is not
1.3.Energy harvesting compared with alternatives
1.4.Power requirements of different devices
1.5.Harvesting options to meet these requirements
1.6.Battery advances fail to keep up - implications
1.7.Some key enablers for the future - printed electronics, smart substrates, MEMS
1.7.1.Printed and thin film
1.7.2.Smart substrates
1.7.3.MEMS
2.APPLICATIONS AND POTENTIAL APPLICATIONS
2.1.Aerospace and military
2.1.Evolution of a few of the feasible features for e-labels and e-packaging
2.2.Possible production sequence for e-labels and e-packaging
2.2.Industrial
2.2.1.Standards - EnOcean Alliance and Buildings
2.2.2.Real Time Locating Systems
2.2.3.Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN)
2.2.4.Aircraft, engines and machinery
2.3.Consumer
2.3.Methodology for establishing the technology and product roadmap for e-labels and e-packaging
2.3.1.Mobile phones, wristwatches, radio, lamps etc
2.3.2.E-Labels, E-Packaging, E-signage, E-posters
2.4.Healthcare
2.5.Third World
2.6.Environmental
3.HARVESTING-TOLERANT ELECTRONICS, DIRECT USE OF POWER, STORAGE OPTIONS
3.1.Harvesting tolerant electronics and direct use of power
3.1.Battery assisted passive RFID label recording time-temperature profile of food, blood etc in transit
3.1.1.Progress with harvesting tolerant electronics
3.2.New battery options
3.2.Smart Dust WSN node concept with thick film battery and solar cells
3.2.1.Smart Dust
3.2.2.Lithium laminar batteries
3.2.3.Planar Energy Devices
3.2.4.Cymbet Corporation - integrated battery management
3.2.5.Transparent printed organic batteries
3.2.6.Biobatteries do their own harvesting
3.2.7.Battery that incorporates energy harvesting - FlexEl
3.2.8.Need for shape standards for laminar batteries
3.3.Alternatives to batteries
3.3.New Planar Energy Devices high capacity laminar battery
3.3.1.Supercapacitors
3.3.2.Supercabatteries
3.3.3.Mini fuel cells
3.4.World's first thin-film battery with integrated battery management
3.5.Flexible battery that charges in one minute
4.LIGHT HARVESTING FOR SMALL DEVICES
4.1.Comparison of options
4.1.NREL adjudication of efficiencies under standard conditions
4.1.Comparison of pn junction and electrophotochemical photovoltaics.
4.1.1.Important parameters
4.1.2.Principles of operation
4.1.3.Options for the future
4.1.4.Many types of photovoltaics needed for harvesting
4.2.Limits of cSi and aSi technologies
4.2.The main options for photovoltaics beyond conventional silicon compared
4.2.International Space Station
4.3.Number of organisations developing printed and potentially printed electronics worldwide
4.3.CdTe cost advantage
4.3.Limits of CdTe
4.4.GaAsGe multilayers
4.4.Efficiency of laminar organic photovoltaics and DSSC
4.4.Some candidates for the different photovoltaic requirements
4.5.Spectrolab roadmap for multilayer cells
4.5.DSSC
4.6.CIGS
4.6.DSSC design principle
4.7.HRTEM plane view BF image of germanium quantum dots in titania matrix
4.7.Organic
4.8.Nanosilicon ink
4.8.The CIGS flexible photovoltaics of Odersun AG of Germany is used for energy harvesting to mobile phones on the bag of Bagjack of Germany
4.9.CIGS construction
4.9.Nantennas
4.10.Other options
4.10.The CIGS panels from Global Solar Energy
4.10.1.Nanowire solar cells
4.11.Wide web organic photovoltaic production line of Konarka announced late 2008.
4.12.Operating principle of a popular form of organic photovoltaics
4.13.Module stack for photovoltaics
4.14.INL nantennas on film
4.15.Nanowire solar cells left by Canadian researchers and right by Konarka in the USA
5.MOVEMENT HARVESTING
5.1.Vibration harvesting
5.1.Power paving
5.2.Microscope image shows the fibers that are part of the microfiber nanogenerator. The top one is coated with gold
5.2.Movement harvesting options
5.2.1.Piezoelectric - conventional, ZnO and polymer
5.2.2.Electrostatic
5.2.3.Magnetostrictive
5.2.4.Energy harvesting electronics
5.3.Electroactive polymers
5.3.Schematic shows how pairs of fibers would generate electrical current.
5.4.Piezo eel
5.4.MEMS
5.5.Electrodynamic
5.5.Midé energy harvesting electronics
5.5.2.Harvesting from the human heart
5.5.3.Bridge monitoring
5.5.4.Wind up foetal heart rate monitor
5.6.Artificial Muscle business plan
5.7.MEMS by a dust mite that is less than one millimeter across
5.8.Examples of electrodynamic harvesting
5.9.Heart harvester
6.HEAT HARVESTING
6.1.Thermoelectrics
6.1.The thermoelectric materials with highest figure of merit
6.1.1.Thermoelectric construction
6.1.2.Advantages of thermoelectrics
6.1.3.Automotive Thermoelectric Generation (ATEG)
6.1.4.Heat pumps
6.2.Operating principle of the Seiko Thermic wristwatch
6.3.The thermoelectric device in the Seiko Thermic watch with 104 elements each measuring 80X80X600 micrometers
7.OTHER HARVESTING OPTIONS
7.1.Electromagnetic field harnessing
7.2.Microbial and other fuel cells
7.3.Multiple energy harvesting
8.PROFILES OF 200 PARTICIPANTS IN 22 COUNTRIES
8.1.Active Business Company GmbH
8.1.Profiled organisations by continent
8.2.Profiled organisations by country
8.2.AdaptivEnergy
8.3.AdHoc Electronics
8.3.Number in sample by intended sector of end use
8.4.Number of cases by type of harvesting
8.4.Advanced Cerametrics
8.5.Agency for Defense Development
8.5.AdaptivEnergy's Joule-Thief energy-harvesting module
8.6.Transparent photovoltaic film
8.6.AIST Tsukuba
8.7.Alabama A.&M. University
8.7.Advertisement for Citizen Eco-Drive
8.8.CNSA moon orbiting satellite with solar cells
8.8.Alps Electric
8.9.Alvi Technologies
8.9.Self-powered Wireless Sensor Technology from EnOcean
8.10.Solar powered wireless sensor node
8.10.Ambient Research
8.11.AmbioSystems LLC
8.11.Solar powered ESA satellites
8.12.Electrical lanterns, torches etc charged by hand cranking.
8.12.Applied Digital Solutions
8.13.Argonne National Laboratory
8.13.Freeplay wind up radio in Africa
8.14.Solar sail
8.14.Arizona State University
8.15.Australian National University - Department of Engineering
8.15.Light in Africa
8.16.Hi-Tech Wealth's S116 clamshell solar phone
8.16.BAE Systems
8.17.Biberach University of Applied Sciences
8.17.Nantennas
8.18.Bulk nantennas
8.18.bk-electronic GmbH
8.19.BootUp GmbH
8.19.Human sensor networks
8.20.ISRO moon satellite
8.20.BSC Computer GmbH
8.21.California Institute of Technology
8.21.Sensor monitoring rock net using energy of net movement and solar cells
8.22.JAXA moon project
8.22.California Institute of Technology/Jet Propulsion Laboratory
8.23.California State University - Northridge
8.23."Ibuki" GOSAT greenhouse gas monitoring satellite
8.24.KCF Harvesting Sensor Demonstration Pack
8.24.Carnegie Mellon University
8.25.CEA (Atomic Energy Commission of France)
8.25.Flux density of a microgenerator
8.26.3D drawing of the Pedal Light
8.26.Chinese University of Hong Kong
8.27.Chungbuk National University
8.27.WSN deployment
8.28.Helicopter vibration harvester
8.28.Citizen Holding Co Ltd
8.29.China National Space Administration
8.29.Bell model 412 helicopter
8.30.Solar-powered wireless G-Link seismic sensor on the Corinth Bridge in Greece.
8.30.Clarkson University
8.31.Cymtox Ltd
8.31.Multiple solar-powered nodes monitor strain and vibration at key locations on the Goldstar Bridge over the Thames River in New London, Conn
8.32.MicroStrain Wireless sensor and data acquisition system. Source: MicroStrain Inc
8.32.DigiTower Cologne
8.33.Distech Controls
8.33.Volture vibration harvester
8.34.Another version of Volture
8.34.Drexel University
8.35.East Japan Railway Company
8.35.International Space Station
8.36.Solar panels for the Hubble telescope
8.36.EchoFlex Solutions
8.37.EDF R&D
8.37.Schematic representations of a PN-couple used as TEC (left) based on the Peltier effect or TEG (right) based on the Seebeck effect.
8.38.Nextreme thermoelectric generator
8.38.Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute (ETRI)
8.39.Eltako GmbH
8.39.eTEC Module and Die
8.40.Morph concept
8.40.Ember Corporation
8.41.Encrea srl
8.41.Flexible & Changing Design
8.42.Concept device based on reduce, reuse recycle envisages many forms of energy harvesting
8.42.Energie Agentur
8.43.Engenuity Systems
8.43.An optical image of an electronic device in a complex deformation mode
8.44.NTT DOCOMO concept phone with energy harvesting
8.44.EnOcean GmbH
8.45.European Space Agency
8.45.Heart energy harvesting
8.46.Perpetuum vibration harvester
8.46.Exergen
8.47.Fast Trak Ltd
8.47.PowerFilm literature
8.48.PulseSwitch Systems makes piezoelectric wireless switches that do not need a battery
8.48.Fatih University
8.49.Ferro Solutions, Inc.
8.49.Seiko Thermic wristwatch
8.50.Knee-Mounted Device Generates Electricity While You Walk
8.50.Fraunhofer Institut Integrierte Schaltungen
8.51.Freeplay Foundation
8.51.Tissot Autoquartz
8.52.Heart harvester developed at Southampton University Hospital
8.52.G24 Innovations
8.53.Ganssle Group
8.53.Syngenta sensor
8.54.Transmitter left and implanted receiver right for inductively powered implantable dropped foot stimulator for stroke victims
8.54.Georgia Institute of Technology
8.55.GreenPeak Technologies
8.55.Picture of PicoBeacon, the first fully self-contained wireless transmitter powered solely by solar energy
8.56.Surveillance bat
8.56.Harvard University
8.57.High Merit Thermoelectrics
8.57.Sensor head on COM-BAT
8.58.A solar bag that is powerful enough to charge a laptop
8.58.Hi-Tech Wealth
8.59.Holst Centre
8.60.Honeywell
8.61.Idaho National Laboratory
8.62.IMEC
8.63.Imperial College
8.64.India Space Research Organisation
8.65.Ingenieurbüro Zink GmbH
8.66.INGLAS Innovative Glassysteme GmbH & Co. KG
8.67.INSYS Electronics
8.68.IntAct
8.69.Intel
8.70.ITRI (Industrial Technology Research Institute)
8.71.Jager Direkt GmbH & Co
8.72.Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency
8.73.Kanazawa University
8.74.KCF Technologies Inc
8.75.KIB Projekt GmbH
8.76.Kinetron BV
8.77.Kobe University
8.78.Konarka
8.79.Kookmin University,
8.80.Korea Electronics Company
8.81.Korea Institute of Science and Technology
8.82.Korea University
8.83.KVL Comp Ltd.
8.84.Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory
8.85.Lebônê Solutions
8.86.LessWire, LLC
8.87.Leviton
8.88.LonMark International
8.89.Masco
8.90.Massachusetts Institute of Technology
8.91.MEMSCAP SA
8.92.Michigan Technological University
8.93.Microdul AG
8.94.Micropelt GmbH
8.95.MicroStrain Inc.,
8.96.Midé Technology Corporation
8.97.MINIWIZ Sustainable Energy Dev. Ltd
8.98.Mitsubishi Corporation
8.99.MK Electric (a Honeywell Business)
8.100.Moritani and Co Ltd
8.101.Nanosonic Inc
8.102.NASA
8.103.National Physical Laboratory
8.104.National Semiconductor
8.105.National Taiwan University,
8.106.National Tsing Hua University
8.107.Network Rail Infrastructure Ltd
8.108.Newcastle University
8.109.Nextreme
8.110.Nokia Cambridge UK Research Centre
8.111.North Carolina State University
8.112.Northrop Grumman
8.113.Northeastern University
8.114.Northwestern University
8.115.Nova Mems
8.116.NTT DOCOMO
8.117.Oak Ridge National Laboratory
8.118.Ohio State University
8.119.Omnio
8.120.Omron Corporation
8.121.Orkit Building Intelligence
8.122.Osram
8.123.Osram Silvania
8.124.Pacific Northwest National Laboratory
8.125.PEHA
8.126.Pennsylvania State University
8.127.Perpetuum Ltd
8.128.PowerFilm, Inc.
8.129.PROBARE Thomas Rieder e.K.
8.130.PulseSwitch Systems
8.131.Purdue University
8.132.PYRECAP/HYCOSYS
8.133.Regulvar
8.134.Rockwell Automation
8.135.Rutherford Appleton Laboratory,
8.136.Sagentia
8.137.Sandia National Laboratory,
8.138.Satellite Services Ltd
8.139.SAT System- und Anlagentechnik Herbert GmbH
8.140.Sauter
8.141.Schulte Elektrotechnik GmbH & Co. KG
8.142.Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna
8.143.Seiko
8.144.SELEX Galileo
8.145.SensorDynamics AG
8.146.Sentilla Corporation
8.147.Servodan A/S
8.148.Shanghai Jiao Tong University
8.149.Siemens Building Technologies GmbH & Co
8.150.Simon Fraser University
8.151.Smart Material Corp.
8.152.SMH
8.153.Solid State Research inc
8.154.Sony
8.155.Southampton University Hospital
8.156.Spectrolab Inc
8.157.State University of New Jersey
8.158.Steinbeis Transferzentrum für Embedded Design und Networking
8.159.steute Schaltgeräte GmbH & Co. KG
8.160.Swiss Federal Institute of Technology
8.161.Syngenta Sensors UIC
8.162.Tambient
8.163.Technical University of Ilmenau,
8.164.Technograph Microcircuits Ltd
8.165.Texas Instruments
8.166.ThermoKon Sensortechnik
8.167.Thermolife Energy Corporation
8.168.The Technology Partnership
8.169.TIMA Laboratory
8.170.Tokyo Institute of Technology
8.171.TRW Conekt
8.172.Tyndall National Institute
8.173.Unitronic AG Zentrale
8.174.University of Berlin
8.175.University of Bristol
8.176.University of California Berkeley
8.177.University of California Los Angeles
8.178.University of Edinburgh
8.179.University of Florida
8.180.University of Freiburg - IMTEK
8.181.University of Idaho
8.182.University of Michigan
8.183.University of Neuchatel
8.184.University of Oxford
8.185.University of Pittsburgh
8.186.University of Sheffield
8.187.University of Southampton
8.188.University of Tokyo
8.189.Uppsala University
8.190.US Army Research Laboratory
8.191.Vicos
8.192.Virginia Tech
8.193.Voltaic Systems Inc
8.194.WAGO Kontakttechnik GmbH & Co. KG
8.195.Washington State University
8.196.Wieland Electric GmbH
8.197.Wireless Industrial Technologies
8.198.Yale University,
8.199.Yonsei University,
8.200.ZMD AG
9.MARKET FORECASTS
9.1.Forecasts 2009- 2019 for energy harvesting markets
9.1.Energy harvesting for small devices, renewable energy replacing power stations and what comes between.
9.1.Some high volume addressable global markets for energy harvesting for small devices
9.1.1.Addressable markets and price sensitivity
9.1.2.IDTechEx energy harvesting forecasts 2009-2019, 2029
9.1.3.Timeline for widespread deployment of energy harvesting
9.1.4.Example of a supplier's adoption roadmap
9.1.5.Which technologies win?
9.2.Wireless sensor networks 2009-2019
9.2.Ambient power available for volume markets
9.2.Global market number million
9.3.Global market unit value dollars
9.3.Addressable market for high priced energy harvesting
9.3.IDTechEx forecast for 2029
9.4.Bicycle dynamo market
9.4.Electronic products selling in billions yearly and their pricing
9.4.Global market total value millions of dollars
9.5.Consumer market number million
9.5.Global market for energy harvesting
9.6.Consumer market for energy harvesting
9.6.Consumer market unit value dollars
9.7.Consumer market total value millions of dollars
9.7.Industrial, healthcare and other non- consumer markets for energy harvesting
9.8.Wristwatches
9.8.Industrial, healthcare and other non-consumer markets number million
9.9.Industrial, healthcare and other non-consumer markets unit value dollars
9.9.Bicycle dynamo
9.10.Laptops and e-books
9.10.Industrial, healthcare and other non-consumer markets total value millions of dollars
9.11.Consumer market number by sector
9.11.Mobile phones
9.12.Other portable consumer electronics~
9.12.Consumer market total value by sector
9.13.Consumer market value by technology 2019
9.13.Wireless sensor mesh networks
9.14.Other Industrial^
9.14.Other market value by technology 2019
9.15.Total market value by technology 2019
9.15.Military and aerospace+ excluding WSN
9.16.Healthcare#
9.16.IDTechEx estimate of the value share of technologies in the global energy harvesting market in 2019
9.17.Meter reading nodes number million 2009-2019
9.17.Other+
9.18.Consumer vs other market value by technology 2019
9.18.Meter reading nodes unit value dollars 2009-2019
9.19.Meter reading nodes total value dollars 2009-2019
9.19.Consumer market value in $ million by application and technology 2019
9.20.Other market in $ million by application and technology in 2019
9.20.Other nodes number million 2009-2019
9.21.Other nodes unit value dollars 2009-2019
9.21.IDTechEx forecast of market % value share of total photovoltaic market by technology excluding conventional crystalline silicon
9.22.Timeline for widespread deployment of energy harvesting
9.22.Other nodes total value dollars 2009-2019
9.23.Total node value billion dollars 2009-2019
9.23.Division of value sales between the technologies in 2019
9.24.Percentage value share of the global market for energy harvesting across large areas such as vehicles and railway stations (eg regenerative braking, shock absorbers, exhaust heat) in 2019
9.24.WSN systems and software excluding nodes billion dollars 2009-2019
9.25.Total WSN market million dollars 2009-2019
9.25.IDTechEx Wireless Sensor Networks WSN Forecast 2009-2019 with Real Time Locating Systems RTLS for comparison
9.26.WSN and ZigBee node numbers million 2009, 2019, 2029 and market drivers
9.26.WSN and ZigBee node numbers million 2009, 2019, 2029
9.27.Average number of nodes per system 2009, 2019, 2029
9.27.Average number of nodes per system 2009, 2019, 2029
9.28.Number of systems
9.28.Number of systems 2009, 2019, 2029
9.29.WSN node price dollars 2009, 2019, 2029
9.29.WSN node price dollars 2009, 2019, 2029 and cost reduction factors
9.30.WSN node total value $ million 2009, 2019, 2029
9.30.WSN node total value $ million 2009, 2019, 2029
9.31.WSN systems and software excluding nodes $ million 2009, 2019, 2029
9.31.WSN systems and software excluding nodes $ million 2009, 2019, 2029
9.32.Total WSN market value $ million 2009, 2019, 2029
9.32.Total WSN market value $ million 2009, 2019, 2029
9.33.Global bicycle and car production millions
APPENDIX 1: IDTECHEX PUBLICATIONS AND CONSULTANCY
APPENDIX 2: WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS
APPENDIX 3: PERMANENT POWER FOR WIRELESS SENSORS - WHITE PAPER FROM CYMBET
TABLES
FIGURES

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