Energy Storage Report

Lithium-ion Batteries for Electric Buses 2016-2026

Technologies (LFP, NMC, LMO, LFMP, NCA, Supercapacitors, Lithium Capacitors, Post Lithium and Flywheels), Market Trends, Forecasts and Key Players

Demand for large electric bus lithium-ion batteries is expected to grow to nearly $30bn by 2026
 
Table of Contents
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
1.WHY ELECTRIC VEHICLES?
1.1.Human sources of carbon dioxide (CO2)
1.2.Carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuel combustion
1.3.Measures to reduce transport CO2 emissions
1.4.Targets for transport vehicle CO2 emissions
1.5.Drivers for the adoption of Electric Vehicles
1.6.Why are electric buses more exciting?
1.7.Electric buses: future urban mobility
1.8.Carbon dioxide emissions in transportation
1.9.Transport of people 2010-2025
1.10.Definitions and Terminologies
1.11.Basic Terms of Battery Performance and Characterisation
2.TYPES OF ELECTRIC BUSES AND BATTERIES
2.1.Types of pure electric bus
2.2.Trends in e-bus Technology - Case example
2.3.Types of battery
2.4.Different applications of batteries
2.5.Addressable battery market by end user segment in $ billion
2.6.Why Lithium Ion batteries?
2.7.Qualitative comparison of current major automotive battery technology groups
2.8.Comparison of specific energy and energy density of various battery systems
2.9.Advantages of Li-ion Batteries
2.10.Disadvantages of Li-ion Batteries
2.11.Current challenges facing automotive Li-ion batteries
2.12.Battery requirements for electric buses
2.13.Battery cell construction
2.14.Basic operation of a Li-ion cell
2.15.The main components of a battery cell
2.16.Lithium-ion battery components, functions, and main materials
2.17.Potential and capacity of different cathode materials
2.18.Potential and capacity of different anode materials
2.19.Lithium-ion battery cell, module and pack
2.20.Types of cell construction
3.EXAMPLES OF LITHIUM ION VARIANTS
3.1.Lithium variants
3.2.Lithium Cobalt Oxide (LiCoO2)
3.3.Lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4)
3.4.Lithium Nickel manganese cobalt (LiNiMnCoO2)
3.5.Lithium Manganese Oxide Spinel (LiMn2O4)
3.6.Lithium Nickel Oxide (LiNiO2) and variant
3.7.Comparison of main lithium variant
3.8.Thermal stability of different cathodes (1)
3.9.Thermal stability of different cathodes (2)
3.10.Cost of cathode metals
3.11.Anodes for Li-ion batteries
3.12.Lithium ion batteries by cathode type
3.13.Lithium ion batteries by anode type
3.14.Key parameters for automotive Li-ion variants
3.15.Some of the main Li-ion battery manufacturers
3.16.Cost analysis for automotive Li-ion cell
3.17.Cost analysis for automotive Li-ion batteries
3.18.Lithium ion battery price forecast
3.19.Mapping: Top electric bus manufacturers and Li-ion battery pack suppliers
3.20.Examples of top electric buses, battery type and performance
3.21.Li-ion battery manufacturers by location
3.22.Electric bus manufacturers by location
4.COMPANY PROFILES: KEY ELECTRIC BUS MANUFACTURERS
4.1.Company Profile: Yutong
4.2.Company Profile: BYD
4.3.Company Profile: Ankai
4.4.Company Profile: King Long
4.5.Company Profile: CSR Times Electric Vehicle Co., Ltd.
4.6.Company Profile: Dongfeng Motor Corporation
4.7.Company Profile: Sunwin Bus Corporation
4.8.Company Profile: Zhongtong
4.9.Company Profile: Hengtong
4.10.Company Profile: Proterra
4.11.Company Profile: Solaris
4.12.Company Profile: Hybricon Bus System
5.COMPANY PROFILES: KEY LI-ION BATTERY MANUFACTURERS
5.1.Tianjin Lishen Battery Co., Ltd.
5.2.Battery Company: BYD
5.3.BYD Production Capability
5.4.Applications of BYD LFP battery
5.5.BYD LFP used in electric vehicles
5.6.Specification of BYD LFP Battery
5.7.Battery Company: A123 Systems, LLC.
5.8.A123 battery specification
5.9.Altairnano
5.10.LG Chem, Ltd
5.11.Automotive Energy Supply Corporation (AESC)
5.12.AESC battery specification
5.13.Johnson Controls, Inc.
5.14.XALT Energy
5.15.GS Yuasa Corporation
5.16.Hitachi Vehicle Energy, Ltd.
5.17.Zhejiang Tianneng Energy Technology Co., Ltd
5.18.SK Innovation Co., Ltd
5.19.Specification of SK Innovation module, Pack and BMS
5.20.Electrovaya Inc.
5.21.Saft
5.22.Saft's battery system for commercial vehicles
5.23.Battery company: Toshiba
5.24.Features of Toshiba's SCIB
5.25.Production plant for Toshiba's SCIB
5.26.Toshiba R&D activities
6.BATTERY DYNAMICS IN ELECTRIC BUSES
6.1.Battery capacity vs Gross vehicle weight
6.2.Battery capacity vs Passenger-range
6.3.Passenger capacity vs e-bus weight
6.4.Li-ion battery sales volume based on capacity
6.5.Li-ion battery sales, MWh for electric bus, 2015
6.6.Li-ion battery, MWh, used in electric buses, 2015
6.7.Battery market value based on e-bus manufacturers, 2015
6.8.Electric bus manufacturers: sales volume 2015
6.9.Market share: electric bus manufacturers, 2015
6.10.Market share: Li-ion battery manufacturers for e-buses
7.MARKET FORECASTS 2016-2026
7.1.Sales volume forecast for large electric buses
7.2.Electric bus market value, 2016-2026
7.3.Global Li-ion battery market value for e-bus, 2016-2026
7.4.Battery market of Li-ion variant by % sales volume (1)
7.5.Assumptions for the "business-as-usual" forecast
7.6.Battery market of anode chemistry by % sales volume
7.7.China intervention in the e-bus battery market
7.8.Battery market of Li-ion variant by % sales volume (2)
7.9.Assumptions for the "Chinese intervention" forecast
7.10.Electric bus and Li-ion battery average price forecast
7.11.Battery volume demand in GWh by end use segment 2016-2026
7.12.Assumptions on the forecast
8.MILD HYBRID 48V VEHICLES
8.1.48V Mild Hybrid Vehicles
8.2.Why 48V "mild hybrid" architecture for conventional internal combustion engine vehicle?
8.3.Continental view of evolution of electrified powertrains 48V mild hybrid vehicles are the missing transitional technology in the evolution of land vehicles in particular, mostly on-road
8.4.The key components of these system options are mostly different
8.5.The technological heart of a 48V mild hybrid system
8.6.IDTechEx technology timeline 2016-2026 - 48V and competitive market and system developments
8.7.IDTechEx technology timeline 2016-2026 - batteries, rotating machines and electrified components
8.8.Jaguar LandRover/Delta 2015 Roadmap
8.9.Types of conventional and electric vehicle - two 48V opportunities
8.10.Batteries for 48V mild hybrid: overview
8.11.48V Battery choices
8.12.Lithium-ion 48V mild hybrid batteries are currently favoured
8.13.Lithium-ion battery for 14V mild hybrids - LGChem
8.14.Bosch lithium-ion 48V mild hybrid battery
8.15.After lithium-ion? Lithium-sulfur and sodium-ion are worth watching but not yet optimal for most 48V or pure EV batteries
9.BUS ENERGY STORAGE BEYOND BATTERIES
9.1.Performance Comparisons 1
9.2.Vehicles where Li-ion battery has been replaced by supercapacitors
9.3.Energy storage devices and their characteristics
9.4.Operational principles of different systems
9.5.Fuel cells as range extenders
9.6.Fuel cells for traction
9.7.Problems with fuel cells
9.8.Roadmaps have not been met
9.9.Performance Comparisons 2
9.10.Supercapacitors are often used across Li-ion batteries
9.11.Car or bus bodywork becomes a supercapacitor !
9.12.Supercapacitors to Li-ion batteries - a spectrum of functional tailoring
9.13.Flywheels - What are they? Who likes them?
9.14.Flybrid KERS used by Wrightbus UK on hybrid buses
9.15.Flywheel KERS mechanical
9.16.Flywheel scope for mechanical versions
10.CONCLUSIONS AND OUTLOOK
11.ANALYSIS OF OVER 140 LITHIUM-BASED RECHARGEABLE BATTERY MANUFACTURERS