Off Grid & Energy Harvesting Report

Off grid electric vehicle charging stations will be a nearly $7 billion business in 2028

Off Grid Electric Vehicle Charging: Zero Emission 2018-2038


 
Elon Musk puts firecrackers under conventional thinking, like Brunel, Edison and other great innovators before him. One little appreciated and less reported aspect of the Musk onslaught is off grid. The decline in off grid electricity production as a percentage of all electricity production is being reversed and part of this is electric vehicle charging stations going off grid and many vehicles becoming their own charging stations from sun, wind etc. For instance, Elon Musk has said that all Tesla charging stations will go off grid using his solar panels, even including the newly announced global network of megachargers, probably punching a megawatt, that will power his giant Tesla Semi trucks worldwide. He also intends that all his vehicles have solar bodywork, Hanergy and others being ahead of him in launching solar cars. The static zero emission charging stations and the Energy Independent Electric Vehicles EIEV will need to make electricity from much more than photovoltaics but new forms of that will be key as well.
 
Analyst IDTechEx has long predicted and tracked all and its new report, "Off Grid Electric Vehicle Charging: Zero Emission 2018-2038" gives the full picture with a twenty year forward vision of the markets and technologies. This report is intended for utility companies, technology, vehicle and charging station developers, manufacturers and operators, town planners and other interested parties. The emphasis is analytical not evangelical. Consequently, although we appraise the many new forms of photovoltaics from that three times as efficient and flexible and/or transparent PV for windows of buildings that double as charging stations, we also look at complementary technologies coming along. For example, a solar road by the charging station can also capture movement using piezoelectrics or electrodynamics and vertical wind turbines down the centre of a road can harness wind from traffic. These are all development programs not just dreams but we throw in some dreams as well because this is a subject where dreams today become practicality tomorrow.
 
The report "Off Grid Electric Vehicle Charging: Zero Emission 2018-2038" was researched by the globetrotting PhD level analysts at IDTechEx who keep it up to date. It has an Executive Summary and Conclusions with forecasts, technology roadmaps and insights sufficient for those in a hurry, the many new infograms making it a fascinating, information-packed read. The zero emission off grid static charger market is forecasted for 2018-2038 split three ways and the EIEV market is also forecasted plus EVs themselves in 46 categories to 2028. Forecasts and technology roadmaps to 2050 put it in context with all off grid electricity production.
 
The Introduction explains the emerging world of off grid, EV charging needs and power standards and the technology options. Chapter 3 reveals Off Grid Charging Stations in Action with a deliberately varied coverage from Tesla megachargers to PowerCube transportable extending solar and the new UK wind/solar evCentres for many vehicles at a time. Urban Wind Energy is covered in Chapter 4, with an assessment of the usefulness of the new Airborne Wind Energy Systems on sale 2018. Urban photovoltaic progress and strategy follows with Chapter 5 giving Building Integrated Photovoltaics in Action as charging and buildings increasingly integrate off grid. Electricity Generating Roads, Paths, Fences and Lamp Posts doubling as chargers is the subject of Chapter 6, with relevant Blue Energy covered in Chapter 7.
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Table of Contents
1.EXECUTIVE SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS
1.1.Purpose of this report
1.2.Key conclusions
1.2.1.Next ten years
1.2.2.Strong reasons lead to off grid
1.2.3.Large batteries then multimode harvesting
1.2.4.EIEVs
1.2.5.20 year roadmap
1.2.6.Advanced power electronics becomes important
1.3.Market forecasts
1.3.1.Zero emission off-grid charging stations and EIEVs market numbers (thousand) and station unit and market value $ million 2018-2038
1.3.2.Countervailing forces
1.3.3.Where are the plug in vehicles?
1.3.4.Beware wildly over-optimistic forecasts of charging stations
1.3.5.Plug in vehicle and overall charger markets
1.3.6.IDTechEx forecast of EV global sales (thousand) 2014-2028 with cars to 2035
1.3.7.Off-grid solar forecast
1.3.8.Installed capacity 2018-2050 kTWh/yr by grid, fringe of grid, off grid stationary, vehicle
1.4.Urban zero emission electricity generation technology and adoption roadmap 2018-2050: harvesting
1.5.Urban zero emission electricity generation technology and adoption roadmap 2018-2050: storage
1.6.The rail alternative
2.INTRODUCTION
2.1.The electric vehicle business
2.2.The electric vehicle charging station business
2.3.Off-grid structural types involving charging
2.4.Making zero emission electricity in a city for charging
2.5.Making zero emission electricity in rural areas for charging
2.6.Off grid leading technologies
2.7.Microgrids, single mode and minigrids with multi-mode harvesting
2.8.Solar roads, paths and barriers and dynamic charging
2.9.V-Tent concept
2.10.Continuity as important as cost: energy storage vs energy harvesting for continuity
2.11.Market for Wind + solar + small battery
2.12.Standards and power required
2.12.1.2AC vs DC
2.12.2.Power levels for Electric Vehicle Service Equipment EVSE
2.13.Installed global capacity 2028 and 2040 kTWh/yr by grid, fringe of grid, off grid stationary, vehicle.
2.14.More reasons to worry about national grids now
2.15.IRENA view
2.16.Bridging technologies: solar assisted diesel gensets
2.17.Off Grid EV charging without batteries
3.OFF GRID CHARGING STATIONS IN ACTION
3.1.Options
3.2.Solar charging in Croatia
3.3.Ecos PowerCube
3.4.SmartGreenCharge Highways France
3.5.eVcentres UK wind + solar
3.6.First solar charging station in Texas?
3.7.Netherlands e-move
3.8.Netherlands: Power Research Electronics
3.9.Tesla Semi: off grid charging vital for payback
4.URBAN WIND ENERGY
4.1.Height and good siting are paramount
4.2.Small Wind Turbines
4.2.1.Off grid electricity from wind
4.2.2.Ground turbine wind power does not downsize well: physics and poorer wind
4.2.3.Turbine choices
4.2.4.Vertical Axis Wind Turbines VAWT have a place
4.2.5.Electrical autonomy using wind alone: Inerjy 70kW energy independent boat being built with H-VAWT
4.2.6.Energy Observer microgrid - VAWT wind and sun
4.3.Options for tapping excellent 200+m wind: particularly strong at night when PV is off
4.4.Airborne Wind Energy options: trend cloth kite>fixed wing>drone
4.4.1.Mainly a European thing...
4.4.2.AWE dream and reality
4.4.3.Some of the risks and misleading claims identified
4.4.4.Primary conclusions: AWE technologies
5.URBAN PHOTOVOLTAIC PROGRESS AND STRATEGY
5.1.Benefits sought
5.2.Thin concrete solar; ETH Zurich
5.3.Best Research-Cell Efficiencies
5.3.1.Photovoltaics becomes cheaper than large onshore wind in 2020
5.3.2.Photovoltaics experience curve 2018
5.4.Basic configurations
5.5.Many competing technologies in PV
5.6.Latest technologies: production readiness
5.6.1.Conformability helps on buildings: SunMan
5.7.Inorganic PV: dominant now, promising future
5.7.1.Si, CdTe, perovskite, GaAs-Ge, in BIPV
5.7.2.Here comes GaAs thin film PV: Hanergy EIV cars have lessons for BIPV
5.7.3.Quantum dot technologies: Quantum dot vs perovskite
5.7.4.Solterra
5.7.5.Magnolia Solar Corporation
5.7.6.Quantum dot TLSC: Los Alamos
5.7.7.QD Solar
5.8.Transparent and translucent PV
5.8.1.Opvius
5.8.2.Polysolar
5.8.3.SolarWindow Technologies
5.9.Transparent Luminescent and Other Solar Concentrators
5.9.1.Michigan State University
5.9.2.University of Exeter's Solar Squared Solar Cells
5.9.3.Universities of Minnesota and Milano Bicocca
5.9.4.Washington Universities Luminescent Solar Concentrator (LSC) Technology Panels
5.9.5.Light guide solar optic: Morgan Solar Canada
6.BUILDING INTEGRATED PHOTOVOLTAICS IN ACTION
6.1.Overview
6.2.Car parks and electric vehicle charging shelters
6.2.1.Saudi Aramco
6.2.2.Envision Solar Malta portable solar chargers
6.3.PV windows for buildings: Prism Solar, DSM, Topray, Sunshine Solar
6.4.Smartflex solar facades Via Solis
6.5.Pythagoras Solar
6.6.Car Jeans football ground
7.ELECTRICITY GENERATING ROADS, PATHS, FENCES, LAMP POSTS
7.1.Solar roads and paths
7.1.1.TNO Solaroad
7.2.Heavy duty in prospect
7.2.1.Bouygues
7.2.2.Solar Roadways: paths then roads
7.3.Electricity generating roads, paths: PV, piezo or ED?
7.3.1.Google and Pavegen: electrodynamic ED paths
7.3.2.Lancaster University UK
7.3.3.University of California, Merced: Piezo roads
7.3.4.Electricity from heat of roads, parking lots etc.
7.3.5.Chinese photovoltaic pavement experiment
7.4.Highway barriers: Eindhoven University of Technology
8.URBAN BLUE ENERGY
8.1.Overview
8.2.Dexawave, Noel Gaci, Euromed Malta wave power
8.3.Marine Power Systems wave power
8.4.Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology: Highly flexible storm proof turbines
8.5.REAC Energy ocean current
9.DYNAMIC EV CHARGING
9.1.Overview
9.2.Qualcomm USA
9.3.ElectRoad Israel
9.4.University of Washington USA
9.5.Auckland University New Zealand

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